Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Probing the high-redshift universe with SPICA: Toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond

  • E. Egami (a1), S. Gallerani (a2), R. Schneider (a3), A. Pallottini (a2) (a4) (a5) (a6), L. Vallini (a7), E. Sobacchi (a2), A. Ferrara (a2), S. Bianchi (a8), M. Bocchio (a8), S. Marassi (a9), L. Armus (a10), L. Spinoglio (a11), A. W. Blain (a12), M. Bradford (a13), D. L. Clements (a14), H. Dannerbauer (a15) (a16), J. A. Fernández-Ontiveros (a11) (a15) (a16), E. González-Alfonso (a17), M. J. Griffin (a18), C. Gruppioni (a19), H. Kaneda (a20), K. Kohno (a21), S. C. Madden (a22), H. Matsuhara (a23), F. Najarro (a24), T. Nakagawa (a23), S. Oliver (a25), K. Omukai (a26), T. Onaka (a27), C. Pearson (a28), I. Perez-Fournon (a15) (a16), P. G. Pérez-González (a24) (a29), D. Schaerer (a30), D. Scott (a31), S. Serjeant (a32), J. D. Smith (a33), F. F. S. van der Tak (a34) (a35), T. Wada (a23) and H. Yajima (a36)...

Abstract

With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: E. Egami, Email: eegami@as.arizona.edu

References

Hide All
Abel, T., Bryan, G. L., & Norman, M. L. 2002, Science, 295, 93
Agarwal, B., Johnson, J. L., Zackrisson, E., Labbe, I., van den Bosch, F. C., Natarajan, P., & Khochfar, S. 2016, MNRAS, 460, 4003
Agarwal, B., Johnson, J. L., Khochfar, S., Pellegrini, E., Rydberg, C.-E., Klessen, R. S., & Oesch, P. 2017, MNRAS, 469, 231
Álvarez-Márquez, J., et al. 2016, A&A, 587, A122
Appleton, P. N., et al. 2006, ApJ, 639, L51
Appleton, P. N., et al. 2013, ApJ, 777, 66
Appleton, P. N., et al. 2017, ApJ, 836, 76
Aravena, M., et al. 2016, MNRAS, 457, 4406
Armus, L., et al. 2006, ApJ, 640, 204
Armus, L., et al. 2007, ApJ, 656, 148
Asboth, V., et al. 2016, MNRAS, 462, 1989
Bagley, M. B., et al. 2017, ApJ, 837, 11
Barkana, R. 2016, PhR, 645, 1
Barkat, Z., Rakavy, G., & Sack, N. 1967, PhRvL, 18, 379
Behroozi, P. S., & Silk, J. 2015, ApJ, 799, 32
Béthermin, M., et al. 2017, A&A, 607, A89
Bianchi, S., & Schneider, R. 2007, MNRAS, 378, 973
Blain, A. W., Smail, I., Ivison, R. J., Kneib, J.-P., & Frayer, D. T. 2002, PhR, 369, 111
Bocchio, M., Marassi, S., Schneider, R., Bianchi, S., Limongi, M., & Chieffi, A. 2016, A&A, 587, A157
Bouwens, R. J., et al. 2012, ApJ, 754, 83
Bowler, R. A. A., McLure, R. J., Dunlop, J. S., McLeod, D. J., Stanway, E. R., Eldridge, J. J., & Jarvis, M. J. 2017, MNRAS, 469, 448
Bowler, R. A. A., Bourne, N., Dunlop, J. S., McLure, R. J., &McLeod, D. J. 2018, MNRAS, 481, 1631
Bromm, V. 2013, RPPh, 76, 112901
Bromm, V., & Loeb, A. 2003, Nature, 425, 812
Bromm, V., & Yoshida, N. 2011, ARA&A, 49, 373
Bromm, V., Coppi, P. S., & Larson, R. B. 2002, ApJ, 564, 23
Bromm, V., Yoshida, N., & Hernquist, L. 2003, ApJ, 596, L135
Cañameras, R., et al. 2015, A&A, 581, A105
Capak, P. L., et al. 2011, Nature, 470, 233
Capak, P. L., et al. 2015, Nature, 522, 455
Casey, C. M., Narayanan, D., & Cooray, A. 2014, PhR, 541, 45
Cen, R., & Haiman, Z. 2000, ApJ, 542, L75
Cherchneff, I., & Dwek, E. 2010, ApJ, 713, 1
Ciardi, B., & Ferrara, A. 2001, MNRAS, 324, 648
Ciardi, B., & Ferrara, A. 2005, SSRv, 116, 625
Cluver, M. E., et al. 2010, ApJ, 710, 248
Combes, F., et al. 2012, A&A, 538, L4
Consiglio, S. M., Turner, J. L., Beck, S., & Meier, D. S. 2016, ApJ, 833, L6
Cooray, A., et al. 2014, ApJ, 790, 40
Coppin, K. E. K., et al. 2015, MNRAS, 446, 1293
Cormier, D., et al. 2012, A&A, 548, A20
Cormier, D., et al. 2015, A&A, 578, A53
De Bennassuti, M., Schneider, R., Valiante, R., & Salvadori, S. 2014, MNRAS, 445, 3039
De Bennassuti, M., Salvadori, S., Schneider, R., Valiante, R., &Omukai, K. 2017, MNRAS, 465, 926
De Looze, I., Barlow, M. J., Swinyard, B. M., Rho, J., Gomez, H. L., Matsuura, M., & Wesson, R. 2017, MNRAS, 465, 3309
Dey, A., et al. 2008, ApJ, 677, 943
Dijkstra, M., Gronke, M., & Sobral, D. 2016, ApJ, 823, 74
Dowell, C. D., et al. 2014, ApJ, 780, 75
Dunlop, J. S., McLure, R. J., Robertson, B. E., Ellis, R. S., Stark, D. P., Cirasuolo, M., & de Ravel, L. 2012, MNRAS, 420, 901
Dunlop, J. S., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 466, 861
Dunne, L., et al. 2009, MNRAS, 394, 1307
Egami, E., Neugebauer, G., Soifer, B. T., Matthews, K., Becklin, E. E., & Ressler, M. E. 2006a, AJ, 131, 1253
Egami, E., Rieke, G. H., Fadda, D., & Hines, D. C. 2006b, ApJ, 652, L21
Egami, E., et al. 2010 , A&A, 518, L12
Eisenhardt, P. R. M., et al. 2012, ApJ, 755, 173
Erb, D. K., Pettini, M., Shapley, A. E., Steidel, C. C., Law, D. R., & Reddy, N. A. 2010, ApJ, 719, 1168
Fan, X., et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 2833
Ferland, G. J., et al. 2013, RMXAA, 49, 137
Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A., Spinoglio, L., Pereira-Santaella, M., Malkan, M. A., Andreani, P., & Dasyra, K. M. 2016, ApJS, 226, 19
Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A., et al. 2017, PASA, 34, e053
Ferrara, A. 1998, ApJ, 499, L17
Finkelstein, S. L., et al. 2012, ApJ, 756, 164
Gall, C., et al. 2014, Nature, 511, 326
Gallerani, S., et al. 2010, A&A, 523, A85
Genzel, R., & Cesarsky, C. J. 2000, ARA&A, 38, 761
Genzel, R., et al. 1998, ApJ, 498, 579
Gong, Y., Cooray, A., & Santos, M. G. 2013, ApJ, 768, 130
González-Alfonso, E., et al. 2017, PASA, 34, e054
Greif, T. H. 2015, Comput Astrophys. Cosmol., 2, 3
Gruppioni, C., et al. 2017, PASA, 34, e055
Guillard, P., Boulanger, F., Pineau Des Forêts, G., & Appleton, P. N. 2009, A&A, 502, 515
Gullberg, B., et al. 2015, MNRAS, 449, 2883
Haiman, Z. 2002, ApJ, 576, L1
Haiman, Z., Thoul, A. A., & Loeb, A. 1996, ApJ, 464, 523
Hao, L., et al. 2005, ApJ, 625, L75
Harrington, K. C., et al. 2016, MNRAS, 458, 4383
Hashimoto, T., et al. 2018a, preprint arXiv:1806.00486
Hashimoto, T., et al. 2018b, Nature, 557, 392
Heger, A., &Woosley, S. E. 2002, ApJ, 567, 532
Higdon, S. J. U., Armus, L., Higdon, J. L., Soifer, B. T., & Spoon, H.W.W. 2006, ApJ, 648, 323
Hirano, S., Hosokawa, T., Yoshida, N., Omukai, K., & Yorke, H. W. 2015, MNRAS, 448, 568
Hirasawa, T. 1969, Prog. Theor. Phys., 42, 523
Ho, L. C., & Keto, E. 2007, ApJ, 658, 314
Hughes, D. H., et al. 1998, Nature, 394, 241
Hunt, L., Bianchi, S., & Maiolino, R. 2005, A&A, 434, 849
Jiang, L., et al. 2010, Nature, 464, 380
Jiang, L., et al. 2013, ApJ, 772, 99
Jiang, L., et al. 2016, ApJ, 816, 16
Jimenez, R., & Haiman, Z. 2006, Nature, 440, 501
Johnson, J. L. 2010, MNRAS, 404, 1425
Johnson, J. L., Greif, T. H., & Bromm, V. 2008, MNRAS, 388, 26
Johnson, J. L., Dalla Vecchia, C., & Khochfar, S. 2013, MNRAS, 428, 1857
Kaneda, H., et al. 2017, PASA, 34, e059
Kehrig, C., Vílchez, J. M., Pérez-Montero, E., Iglesias-Páramo, J., Brinchmann, J., Kunth, D., Durret, F., & Bayo, F. M. 2015, ApJ, 801, L28
Kepley, A. A., Leroy, A. K., Johnson, K. E., Sandstrom, K., & Chen, C.-H. R. 2016, ApJ, 828, 50
Knudsen, K. K., Watson, D., Frayer, D., Christensen, L., Gallazzi, A., Michałowski, M. J., Richard, J., & Zavala, J. 2017, MNRAS, 466, 138
Koopmans, L., et al. 2015, in Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array (AASKA14), (Trieste: PoS), p. 1
Koprowski, M. P., et al. 2016, ApJ, 828, L21
Laporte, N., et al. 2017, ApJ, 837, L21
Lebouteiller, V., Barry, D. J., Spoon, H. W. W., Bernard-Salas, J., Sloan, G. C., Houck, J. R., &Weedman, D. W. 2011, ApJS, 196, 8
Leipski, C., et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 154
Lutz, D., Sturm, E., Genzel, R., Spoon, H.W.W., Moorwood, A. F. M., Netzer, H., & Sternberg, A. 2003, A&A, 409, 867
Lyu, J., Rieke, G. H., & Alberts, S. 2016, ApJ, 816, 85
Ma, J., et al. 2015, ApJ, 812, 88
Ma, J., et al. 2016, ApJ, 832, 114
Madau, P., & Dickinson, M. 2014, ARA&A, 52, 415
Madden, S. C., Galliano, F., Jones, A. P., & Sauvage, M. 2006, A&A, 446, 877
Magdis, G. E., et al. 2017, A&A, 603, A93
Mainali, R., Kollmeier, J. A., Stark, D. P., Simcoe, R. A., Walth, G., Newman, A. B., & Miller, D. R. 2017, ApJ, 836, L14
Maiolino, R., Schneider, R., Oliva, E., Bianchi, S., Ferrara, A., Mannucci, F., Pedani, M., & Roca Sogorb, M. 2004, Nature, 431, 533
Mancini, M., Schneider, R., Graziani, L., Valiante, R., Dayal, P., Maio, U., Ciardi, B., & Hunt, L. K. 2015, MNRAS, 451, L70
Mancini, M., Schneider, R., Graziani, L., Valiante, R., Dayal, P., Maio, U., & Ciardi, B. 2016, MNRAS, 462, 3130
Marassi, S., Chiaki, G., Schneider, R., Limongi, M., Omukai, K., Nozawa, T., Chieffi, A., & Yoshida, N. 2014, ApJ, 794, 100
Marassi, S., Schneider, R., Limongi, M., Chieffi, A., Bocchio, M., & Bianchi, S. 2015, MNRAS, 454, 4250
Marchetti, L., Serjeant, S., & Vaccari, M. 2017, MNRAS, 470, 5007
Marrone, D. P., et al. 2018, Nature, 553, 51
Marsden, D., et al. 2014, MNRAS, 439, 1556
Matsuda, T., Satō, H., & Takeda, H. 1969, Prog. Theor. Phys., 42, 219
Matsuura, M., et al. 2009, MNRAS, 396, 918
Matsuura, M., et al. 2015, ApJ, 800, 50
Matthee, J., et al. 2017, ApJ, 851, 145
Mizusawa, H., Omukai, K., & Nishi, R. 2005, PASJ, 57, 951
Mocanu, L. M., et al. 2013, ApJ, 779, 61
Nayyeri, H., et al. 2016, ApJ, 823, 17
Negrello, M., et al. 2010, Science, 330, 800
Negrello, M., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 465, 3558
Nguyen, H. T., et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L5
Nozawa, T., Kozasa, T., Umeda, H., Maeda, K., & Nomoto, K. 2003, ApJ, 598, 785
Nozawa, T., Kozasa, T., Habe, A., Dwek, E., Umeda, H., Tominaga, N., Maeda, K., & Nomoto, K. 2007, ApJ, 666, 955
Ogle, P., Boulanger, F., Guillard, P., Evans, D. A., Antonucci, R., Appleton, P. N., Nesvadba, N., & Leipski, C. 2010, ApJ, 724, 1193
Ogle, P., Davies, J. E., Appleton, P. N., Bertincourt, B., Seymour, N., & Helou, G. 2012, ApJ, 751, 13
Oh, S. P., & Haiman, Z. 2002, ApJ, 569, 558
Omukai, K., & Kitayama, T. 2003, ApJ, 599, 738
Omukai, K., & Nishi, R. 1999, ApJ, 518, 64
Omukai, K., & Palla, F. 2003, ApJ, 589, 677
Oteo, I., et al. 2013, A&A, 554, L3
Ouchi, M., et al. 2018, PASJ, 70, S13
Pacucci, F., Pallottini, A., Ferrara, A., & Gallerani, S. 2017, MNRAS, 468, L77
Pallottini, A., Ferrara, A., Gallerani, S., Salvadori, S., & D’Odorico, V. 2014, MNRAS, 440, 2498
Pallottini, A., Gallerani, S., Ferrara, A., Yue, B., Vallini, L., Maiolino, R., & Feruglio, C. 2015a, MNRAS, 453, 1898
Pallottini, A., et al. 2015b, MNRAS, 453, 2465
Pallottini, A., Ferrara, A., Gallerani, S., Vallini, L., Maiolino, R., & Salvadori, S. 2017a, MNRAS, 465, 2540
Pallottini, A., Ferrara, A., Bovino, S., Vallini, L., Gallerani, S., Maiolino, R., & Salvadori, S. 2017b, MNRAS, 471, 4128
Pavesi, R., et al. 2018, ApJ, 861, 43
Peebles, P. J. E., & Dicke, R. H. 1968, ApJ, 154, 891
Penzias, A. A., &Wilson, R. W. 1965, ApJ, 142, 419
Planck Collaboration, et al. 2016, A&A, 594, A13
Pope, A., et al. 2008, ApJ, 675, 1171
Press, W. H., & Schechter, P. 1974, ApJ, 187, 425
Rawle, T. D., et al. 2014, ApJ, 783, 59
Rawle, T. D., et al. 2016, MNRAS, 459, 1626
Rémy-Ruyer, A., et al. 2015, A&A, 582, A121
Ricotti, M., Gnedin, N. Y., & Shull, J. M. 2008, ApJ, 685, 21
Riechers, D. A., et al. 2010, ApJ, 720, L131
Riechers, D. A., et al. 2013, Nature, 496, 329
Riechers, D. A., et al. 2014, ApJ, 786, 31
Riechers, D. A., et al. 2017, ApJ, 850, 1
Rieke, G. H., Alonso-Herrero, A., Weiner, B. J., Pérez-González, P. G., Blaylock, M., Donley, J. L., & Marcillac, D. 2009, ApJ, 692, 556
Rigby, J. R., et al. 2008, ApJ, 675, 262
Rigopoulou, D., Kunze, D., Lutz, D., Genzel, R., & Moorwood, A. F. M. 2002, A&A, 389, 374
Roelfsema, P. R., et al. 2018, PASA, 35, e030
Rujopakarn, W., Rieke, G. H., Weiner, B. J., Pérez-González, P., Rex, M., Walth, G. L., & Kartaltepe, J. S. 2013, ApJ, 767, 73
Sanders, D. B., & Mirabel, I. F. 1996, ARA&A, 34, 749
Santoro, F., & Shull, J. M. 2006, ApJ, 643, 26
Sarangi, A., & Cherchneff, I. 2015, A&A, 575, A95
Sargent, W. L.W., & Searle, L. 1970, ApJ, 162, L155
Saslaw, W. C., & Zipoy, D. 1967, Nature, 216, 976
Scannapieco, E., Schneider, R., & Ferrara, A. 2003, ApJ, 589, 35
Schneider, R., Ferrara, A., & Salvaterra, R. 2004, MNRAS, 351, 1379
Schneider, R., Salvaterra, R., Ferrara, A., & Ciardi, B. 2006a, MNRAS, 369, 825
Schneider, R., Omukai, K., Inoue, A. K., & Ferrara, A. 2006b, MNRAS, 369, 1437
Schneider, R., Omukai, K., Bianchi, S., & Valiante, R. 2012a, MNRAS, 419, 1566
Schneider, R., Omukai, K., Limongi, M., Ferrara, A., Salvaterra, R., Chieffi, A., & Bianchi, S. 2012b, MNRAS, 423, L60
Schneider, R., Bianchi, S., Valiante, R., Risaliti, G., & Salvadori, S. 2015, A&A, 579, A60
Shi, Y., et al. 2006, ApJ, 653, 127
Shi, Y., et al. 2007, ApJ, 669, 841
Shi, Y., Rieke, G. H., Ogle, P., Jiang, L., & Diamond-Stanic, A. M. 2009, ApJ, 703, 1107
Shi, Y., Rieke, G. H., Ogle, P. M., Su, K. Y. L., & Balog, Z. 2014, ApJS, 214, 23
Shibuya, T., et al. 2018, PASJ, 70, S15
Siana, B., Teplitz, H. I., Chary, R.-R., Colbert, J., & Frayer, D. T. 2008, ApJ, 689, 59
Siana, B., et al. 2009, ApJ, 698, 1273
Siebenmorgen, R., Haas, M., Krügel, E., & Schulz, B. 2005, A&A, 436, L5
Smith, J. D. T., et al. 2007, ApJ, 656, 770
Smith, A., Bromm, V., & Loeb, A. 2016, MNRAS, 460, 3143
Smolčić, V., et al. 2015, A&A, 576, A127
Sobacchi, E., & Mesinger, A. 2014, MNRAS, 440, 1662
Sobral, D., Matthee, J., Darvish, B., Schaerer, D., Mobasher, B., Röttgering, H. J. A., Santos, S., & Hemmati, S. 2015, ApJ, 808, 139
Sobral, D., et al. 2017, preprint arXiv:1710.08422
Soifer, B. T., Helou, G., & Werner, M. 2008, ARA&A, 46, 201
Spergel, D., et al. 2015, preprint arXiv:1503.03757
Spilker, J. S., et al. 2016, ApJ, 826, 112
Spinoglio, L., et al. 2017, PASA, 34, e057
Stacy, A., Bromm, V., & Lee, A. T. 2016, MNRAS, 462, 1307
Stark, D. P., et al. 2014, MNRAS, 445, 3200
Stark, D. P., et al. 2015a, MNRAS, 450, 1846
Stark, D. P., et al. 2015b, MNRAS, 454, 1393
Stark, D. P., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 464, 469
Stiavelli, M., & Trenti, M. 2010, ApJ, 716, L190
Strandet, M. L., et al. 2016, ApJ, 822, 80
Strandet, M. L., et al. 2017, ApJ, 842, L15
Sulentic, J. W., Rosado, M., Dultzin-Hacyan, D., Verdes-Montenegro, L., Trinchieri, G., Xu, C., & Pietsch, W. 2001, AJ, 122, 2993
Swinbank, A. M., et al. 2010, Nature, 464, 733
Takeda, H., Satō, H., & Matsuda, T. 1969, Prog. Theor. Phys., 41, 840
Tamura, Y., et al. 2018, preprint arXiv:1806.04132
Tegmark, M., Silk, J., Rees, M. J., Blanchard, A., Abel, T., & Palla, F. 1997, ApJ, 474, 1
Temim, T., Dwek, E., Arendt, R. G., Borkowski, K. J., Reynolds, S. P., Slane, P., Gelfand, J. D., & Raymond, J. C. 2017, ApJ, 836, 129
Thornley, M. D., Schreiber, N. M. F., Lutz, D., Genzel, R., Spoon, H. W. W., Kunze, D., & Sternberg, A. 2000, ApJ, 539, 641
Thoul, A. A., &Weinberg, D. H. 1995, ApJ, 442, 480
Todini, P., & Ferrara, A. 2001, MNRAS, 325, 726
Togi, A., & Smith, J. D. T. 2016, ApJ, 830, 18
Tornatore, L., Ferrara, A., & Schneider, R. 2007, MNRAS, 382, 945
Trenti, M., & Stiavelli, M. 2009, ApJ, 694, 879
Tsai, C.-W., et al. 2015, ApJ, 805, 90
Ueda, Y., et al. 2018, ApJ, 853, 24
Valiante, R., Schneider, R., Bianchi, S., & Andersen, A. C. 2009, MNRAS, 397, 1661
Valiante, R., Schneider, R., Salvadori, S., & Bianchi, S. 2011, MNRAS, 416, 1916
Valiante, R., Schneider, R., Salvadori, S., & Gallerani, S. 2014, MNRAS, 444, 2442
Vallini, L., Dayal, P., & Ferrara, A. 2012, MNRAS, 421, 3266
Vallini, L., Gallerani, S., Ferrara, A., & Baek, S. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 1567
Vallini, L., Gallerani, S., Ferrara, A., Pallottini, A., & Yue, B. 2015, ApJ, 813, 36
Vallini, L., Ferrara, A., Pallottini, A., & Gallerani, S. 2017, MNRAS, 467, 1300
Vallini, L., Pallottini, A., Ferrara, A., Gallerani, S., Sobacchi, E., & Behrens, C. 2018, MNRAS, 473, 271
Van der Tak, F. F. S., et al. 2018, PASA, 35, e002
Vieira, J. D., et al. 2013, Nature, 495, 344
Visbal, E., Bryan, G. L., & Haiman, Z. 2017, MNRAS, 469, 1456
Walter, F., et al. 2012, Nature, 486, 233
Wang, T., et al. 2016, ApJ, 816, 84
Wang, L., et al. 2017, preprint arXiv:1710.07005
Watson, D., et al. 2011, ApJ, 741, 58
Weiß, A., et al. 2013, ApJ, 767, 88
Whalen, D. J., et al. 2013a, ApJ, 777, 110
Whalen, D. J., et al. 2013b, ApJ, 778, 17
Wolfire, M. G., Hollenbach, D., & McKee, C. F. 2010, ApJ, 716, 1191
Wu, Y., Charmandaris, V., Hao, L., Brandl, B. R., Bernard-Salas, J., Spoon, H. W. W., & Houck, J. R. 2006, ApJ, 639, 157
Wu, J., et al. 2012, ApJ, 756, 96
Xie, Y., Li, A., & Hao, L. 2017, ApJS, 228, 6
Xu, H., Norman, M. L., O’shea, B.W., &Wise, J. H. 2016, ApJ, 823, 140
Yajima, H., & Khochfar, S. 2017, MNRAS, 467, L51
Yajima, H., Shlosman, I., Romano-Díaz, E., & Nagamine, K. 2015, MNRAS, 451, 418
Yoshida, N., Abel, T., Hernquist, L., & Sugiyama, N. 2003, ApJ, 592, 645
Yoshida, N., Hosokawa, T., & Omukai, K. 2012, Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys., 2012, 01A305
Younger, J. D., et al. 2007, ApJ, 671, 1531
Zackrisson, E., Rydberg, C.-E., Schaerer, D., Östlin, G., & Tuli, M. 2011, ApJ, 740, 13
Zackrisson, E., González, J., Eriksson, S., Asadi, S., Safranek-Shrader, C., Trenti, M., & Inoue, A. K. 2015, MNRAS, 449, 3057
Zavala, J. A., et al. 2018, NatAs, 2, 56
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
  • ISSN: 1323-3580
  • EISSN: 1448-6083
  • URL: /core/journals/publications-of-the-astronomical-society-of-australia
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed