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Transmission of varicella occurs frequently in schools and households. We investigated the characteristics of varicella cases derived from within-household transmission and the modes of varicella transmission between school and household settings in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2018. Within-household transmission occurred in 278 households, of which 134 transmission events were between children. Sixty-one household varicella transmission events may be attributed to isolation procedures for infected students during school outbreaks, and 7.6% of school outbreaks were caused by schoolchildren cases derived from within-household transmission. The frequency of ‘school-household-school’ transmission adds an additional layer of complexity to the control of school varicella outbreaks. Administration of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure is considered to be an effective measure to control varicella spread within households and schools.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
In this paper, a novel NiFe-LDH@ZnO composite was prepared by using a facile two-step process upon nickel foam (NF) substrate. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the samples were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS. Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B dye was tested with the samples NiFe-LDH@ZnO@NF, ZnO@NF and NiFe-LDH under the same conditions. The experimental results revealed that the NiFe-LDH@ZnO@NF composite exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance, i.e., 1.4 and 2.5 times higher than that of pure ZnO and NiFe-LDH, respectively. The reason was that the NiFe-LDH@ZnO@NF composite provided a possibility to effectively inhibit the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and therefore enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency. This composite is expected to have potential applications in wastewater treatment field.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), an effective antidepressive treatment, is frequently accompanied by cognitive impairment (predominantly memory), usually transient and self-limited. The hippocampus is a key region involved in memory and emotion processing, and in particular, the anterior-posterior hippocampal subregions has been shown to be associated with emotion and memory. However, less is known about the relationship between hippocampal-subregion alterations following ECT and antidepressant effects or cognitive impairments.
Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) based on the seeds of hippocampal subregions were investigated in 45 pre- and post-ECT depressed patients. Structural connectivity between hippocampal subregions and corresponding functionally abnormal regions was also conducted using probabilistic tractography. Antidepressant effects and cognitive impairments were measured by the Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT), respectively. Their relationships with hippocampal-subregions alterations were examined.
After ECT, patients showed increased RSFC in the hippocampal emotional subregion (HIPe) with the left middle occipital gyrus (LMOG) and right medial temporal gyrus (RMTG). Decreased HDRS was associated with increased HIPe-RMTG RSFC (r = −0.316, p = 0.035) significantly and increased HIPe-LMOG RSFC at trend level (r = −0.283, p = 0.060). In contrast, the hippocampal cognitive subregion showed decreased RSFC with the bilateral angular gyrus, and was correlated with decreased CVFT (r = 0.418, p = 0.015 for left; r = 0.356, p = 0.042 for right). No significant changes were found in structural connectivity.
The hippocampal-subregions functional alterations may be specially associated with the antidepressant and cognitive effects of ECT.
Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults.
We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC).
Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013.
After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (P<0·01). In men, however, ED with foods only was positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI and %BF (P<0·05), but not with WC (P=0·07); we also found null associations between ED with foods and all beverages and body composition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (P<0·01).
The present study supports the positive association between ED and body composition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.
In this paper, a coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed dual-band uniplanar tri-polarization reconfigurable antenna based on the PIN diode switch is proposed. The proposed antenna can be reconfigured between the linear polarization (LP) and the circular polarization (CP) mode, including both the right-handed circular polarization and left-handed circular polarization simultaneously within the dual operating bands. The central frequencies of the bands are 2.63 and 4.42 GHz, respectively, and the overlapped operating bandwidth is 17.8 and 3.40%. The proposed reconfigurable antenna is a closed-slot antenna fed by the CPW transmission line and the reconfigurable mechanism is to regulate the T-shaped driven stub through switching the PIN diodes on and off. The scattering parameters, axial ratio, radiation pattern, gain, and the radiation efficiency of the proposed antenna are all investigated in the following. The optimized antenna has been fabricated to experimental test, the simulated and the measured results agree well with each other. The lower frequency band of the proposed antenna covers the 2.40 GHz WLAN specification and the upper band can be used for the 5 G communication (4.40–4.50 GHz); therefore it is suitable to be applied in the mobile wireless communication.
In this study, a dual-layered polarization and frequency reconfigurable microstrip antenna is proposed based on sequential mechanical axial rotation of the circular metal radiator. The antenna can be reconfigured among three different polarized modes, including the linear polarization (LP), left-handed circular polarization and right-handed circular polarization in the band from 4.68 to 4.80 GHz (2.53%). The resonance frequency of the proposed antenna with the same LP mode could also be tuned in the range from 4.70 to 5.03 GHz by mechanical rotation of the breach-truncated circular metal radiator as well as the circular substrate. Furthermore, the polarization characteristic and frequency can be reconfigured, respectively, as the circular radiator is taken an axial rotation with an angle of 360°. The presented antenna in the four different states has been numerically simulated and fabricated for the experimental measurement, the investigated characteristics includes the port reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, gain, and the radiation efficiency. The simulated and test results agreed well with each other. This antenna enriches the novel mechanical reconfigurable method except for the popular electrical approach.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
To investigate the effect of dl-3n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the protection of cerebral tissue and possible mechanism on ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and to find out whether NBP therapy can extend the reperfusion window in an experimental stroke model in rats.
Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation, ischaemia-reperfusion and ischaemia-reperfusion with NBP groups. Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced using the modified intraluminal thread method and maintained for 2, 3 or 4 h. The ischaemia-reperfusion group received reperfusion immediately after ischaemia-reperfusion. The NBP group received intraperitoneal injection of NBP immediately after ischaemia, followed by reperfusion. The sham operation group received only injection of physiological saline. The cerebral infarction volume and neurological deficit were analysed, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in brain tissues was visualised by immunohistochemistry.
NBP treatment caused a significant decrease in both infarction volume and neurological deficit compared with the ischaemia-reperfusion group at corresponding time points in each (p < 0.05). In the NBP group, the infarction volume and neurological deficit did not change with different ischaemia times. The expression of VEGF was significantly decreased in the ischaemia-reperfusion group compared with the sham group (p < 0.01), while this change was partly prevented in the NBP group (p < 0.01). The expression of VEGF in brain tissue in both the NBP and ischaemia-reperfusion groups gradually decreased when the ischaemic period was prolonged.
NBP treatment has a protective effect against cerebral ischaemia; this possible mechanism maybe related to the VEGF expression and may extend the reperfusion window for subsequent salvage of cerebral ischaemia by reperfusion.
Deformation behaviors of two TRIP-type multiphase steels with different carbon contents were studied by in situ neutron diffraction measurement during tensile deformation at RT. The tensile test was conducted in a step-load controlling manner during the elastic region, and in a continuous manner with a constant crosshead speed by an initial strain rate of 1.8×10-5 s-1 during the plastic region. Austenite grains were observed to bear higher phase stresses than ferrite grains in both steels. Austenite peak intensities started to decrease at the onsets of plastic deformation in both steels, showing the occurrence of stress induced martensitic transformations. Martensite peaks were carefully analyzed to estimate phase strains, and as the results martensite grains were found to bear largest phase stresses during plastic deformation.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is known to protect boar sperm during freezing–thawing, but little information is known about the effects of LDL extracted from different avian egg yolks on post-thaw boar semen quality. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the effects of LDL at various concentrations and different species on boar sperm quality after freezing–thawing. LDL extracted from the yolk of hen egg, duck egg, quail egg, pigeon egg or ostrich egg was added to the extender at the concentrations of 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.1 g/ml, respectively, and their effects on frozen–thawed boar sperm quality were assessed. According to all measured parameters, the results showed that sperm motility, acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity were 43.20%, 52.57% and 48.13%, respectively, after being frozen–thawed with 0.09 g/ml LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk. All these quality parameters were higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results confirmed that LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk had the best cryoprotective effects on frozen–thawed boar sperm among all of the groups supplemented with LDL from five kinds of avian egg in extender. The optimum concentration of LDL extracted from pigeon egg in boar semen freezing extender was 0.09 g/ml.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
Excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode continuum by drift wave turbulence is studied using the wave kinetic approach. For a model profile of weak non-uniform ion temperature, the forms of growth rate and radial structure of geodesic acoustic modes are obtained analytically. The growth rate is analyzed for several conditions for present-day tokamaks and compared with that for uniform ion temperature, as well as that given by the coherent mode approach for non-uniform ion temperature.
A well-optimized design of an ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna is very important for steady-state plasma heating with high radio frequency (RF) power of several tens of megawatts. However, a sharp decrease in the coupling RF power because of impedance mismatch of ICRH system is an issue that must be resolved for present-day fusion reactors and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. This paper has theoretically analyzed the ICRH antenna's impedance matching for ELMy plasmas on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) by the transmission line theory. The results indicate that judicious choice of the optimal feeder location is found useful for adjustable capacitors' tolerance to the variations of the antenna input impedance during edge-localized mode (ELM) discharge, which is expected to be good for the design of ICRH antenna system and for real-time feedback control during ELM discharge on EAST.
Introduction. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) cause significant economic damage to Prunus species in China. One of the most economical and environmentally sustainable methods to reduce the impact of root-knot nematodes is the use of resistant rootstock cultivars. Our aim was to examine resistance to M. incognita and its mechanisms. Materials and methods. Four rootstocks were assessed: Tsukuba-4 (P. persica), Tsukuba-5 (P. persica), Nanking cherry (P. tomentosa) and wild peach (P. persica). The susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivar ‘Baiguoqiangfeng’ was used as a positive control. Results. Nematodes did not penetrate roots of Tsukuba-4 and Tsukuba-5, which were considered to be immune varieties. Nanking cherry was highly resistant to M. incognita, whereas wild peach was susceptible. Conclusion. The differences in resistance among the rootstocks were not attributed to differences in effects of root diffusates, but were related to the different structural organizations of the root tips. The epidermal structure of Tsukuba-4 and Tsukuba-5 completely prevented the penetration of second-stage juveniles of M. incognita (J2). In Nanking cherry, penetration of J2 juveniles was reduced, and the development of nematodes from the J2 to female stage was delayed.
In order to evaluate the environmental status within a mariculture pond, temporal variations of physico-chemical factors, protist community structure and interactions between biota and environmental conditions were investigated during a complete cycle in semi-enclosed shrimp-farming waters near Qingdao, north China. Results revealed that: (1) a total of 54 protist taxa with ten dominant species was present, comprising 4 chlorophyceans, 2 chrysophyceans, 5 cryptophyceans, 10 dinoflagellates, 3 euglenophyceans, 10 diatoms, 18 ciliates and 2 sarcodines; (2) a single peak of protist abundance occurred in October, mainly due to the chlorophyceans, diatoms and chrysophyceans, while the bimodal peaks of biomass in July and October were mainly due to the ciliates, dinoflagellates and diatoms; (3) the succession of protist communities significantly correlated with the changes of nutrients, salinity and temperature, especially phosphate, either alone or in combination with NO3; (4) species diversity and evenness indices were found to be relatively independent of physico-chemical factors, whereas species richness and the ratio of biomass to abundance were strongly correlated with water temperature and abundances of bacteria. It was concluded that planktonic protists are potentially useful bioindicators of water quality in a semi-enclosed mariculture system.
A method is introduced to determine the depth distribution of the residual stresses in (Ti,Al)N films. The films were gradually stripped by chemical corrosion, an optical system was designed to test the curvature change of the specimens, and the depth distribution of the residual stresses was calculated. The results show that the residual stresses increase gradually from the interface of film/substrate and reach a maximum value at the middle region, then decrease until the surface.
The morphology and infraciliature of a new marine ciliate, Tachysoma multinucleata sp. nov., collected from the Jawol Island near Incheon, Korea, were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. The new species is characterized by: size in vivo about 65×25 μm, body oval to ellipsoid. Three frontal, one buccal, four frontoventral, three ventral and two pretransverse cirri. Fifteen to 22 left and 13–21 right marginal cirri and about 21–27 adoral membranelles. Cortical granules fine and yellowish, arranged around cirri and dorsal cilia. Usually 12–26 macronuclear nodules. Three dorsal kineties. Marine habitat.