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A varactor-based fully reconfigurable microstrip bandpass-to-bandpass-with-embedded-stopband filter is presented in this paper. This filter offers wide center frequency and bandwidth tuning flexibility under both bandpass mode and bandpass-with-embedded-stopband mode. The entire tuning ability is based on multiple mode resonator theory and external quality factor tuning structure for bandpass mode and the introduction of transmission zeros (TZs) for bandpass-with-embedded-stopband mode. Under the bandpass mode, the center frequency tuning range is 0.96–1.45 GHz and the bandwidth can be tuned from 0.09 to 1.41 GHz with a fixed center frequency at 1.22 GHz. Under bandpass-with-embedded-stopband mode, the center frequency and bandwidth can be tuned from 0.94 to 1.61 GHz and 0.2–0.33 GHz, respectively. Good agreements are shown between simulated and measured results.
This paper proposes a new radar cross section (RCS) reduced microstrip antenna incorporating 475 square slots on the patch. The proposed antenna achieves wideband RCS reduction with radiation performance sustained. The modified and reference antenna are simulated and analyzed in radiating and scattering mode, respectively. Prototypes of two antennas are fabricated and measured. Compared with the reference antenna, the simulated result shows the modified antenna RCS reduced in the frequency range 1.1–2.6 GHz, which contains the in-band and out-of-band frequency band simultaneously. And the maximum RCS reduction is 7.6dB at the frequency of 1.19GHz. Besides, the modified antenna can achieve the antenna RCS reduction in the case of oblique incidence. The prototypes of two antennas are fabricated and measured, and the accuracy of the simulation is proved by the measured result. Due to its advantages of simplicity, wideband RCS reduced, broad-angle RCS reduced, the method in this paper is suitable for wideband antenna RCS reduction in space-limited environment.
To understand better the microbial functional populations which are involved in methanogenesis and denitrification in paddy soils with rice straw (RS) and/or nitrogen fertiliser (potassium nitrate, N) application, the dynamics of methanogens and the denitrifying community were monitored simultaneously during the incubation period. The results show that the community structure of methanogens remained relatively stable among treatments based on 16S rDNA analysis, but fluctuated based on 16S rRNA. The Methanocellaceae and Methanosarcinaceae dominated all treatments at 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA level, respectively. RS+N increased the relative abundance of Methanosaetaceae at the 16S rRNA level, while there was an increasing trend in that Methanomicrobiaceae following RS addition at the 16S rDNA level. RS and/or N did not significantly change the diversity of methanogens targeting both 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA. RS and RS+N increased copy numbers of methanogens targeting both 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA analyses. The community structure and abundance of nirS and nosZ-containing denitrifiers, and the diversity of nirS-containing denitrifiers was significantly altered only by the N treatment. These results indicate that the community structure, diversity and abundance of methanogens respond differently to RS addition at the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA levels.
This paper proposes a microstrip antenna with reduced in-band and out-of-band radar cross-section (RCS) by subtracting the area of weak scattered current on the ground plane. Fourteen square slots were subtracted from the ground plane, reducing in-band and out-of-band RCS while maintaining radiation performance. Modified and reference antenna surface current distributions were simulated and analyzed in radiating and scattering modes. Two antenna prototypes were fabricated and measured to verify the simulation. The proposed antenna RCS was reduced compared with the reference antenna in the frequency range 1–4.4 GHz, including in-band and out-of-band frequency bands. Maximum in-band and out-of-band RCS reduction was 16.3 dBsm at the working frequency, and 19.3 dBsm at 3.4 GHz, respectively
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
In this study, a new microstrip patch antenna with wideband radar cross-section (RCS) reduction is presented. The RCS of the proposed antenna was reduced by subtracting the current-direction slots of the patch, with the radiation performance sustained not only for the current-direction subtraction, but also for the no modification in the ground plane. Modified and reference antenna were fabricated and measured. The simulation and measurement results showed that the modified antenna reduced the in-band and out-band RCS simultaneously with no detriment to the radiation performance. In the frequency band from 3.9 to 8.1 GHz, the RCS of the modified antenna was reduced in the whole band compared with the RCS of the reference antenna. The maximum RCS reduction was 7 dB at a frequency of 6.7 GHz.
In this paper, a metasurface-based aperture-coupled circularly polarized (CP) antenna with wideband and high radiation gain is proposed and analyzed. The proposed antenna is comprised of coplanar waveguide coupling with 4 × 4 corner truncated square patches, which show compact size and low profile. The mechanism of the CP antenna is analyzed theoretically based on the mode analysis and equivalent circuit analysis. The parameters of feeding structure and truncated corner are studied and optimized to achieve wide impedance bandwidth (BW) and axial ratio (AR) BW. Finally, an overall size of 38.8 mm × 38.8 mm × 3.5 mm (0.71λ0 × 0.71λ0 × 0.064λ0 at 5.5 GHz) CP antenna is proposed and fabricated. The simulated results demonstrate that over 41.7% impedance BW (S11 < −10 dB) of 4.55–6.95 GHz and 3 dB AR BW of 5.05–6.15 GHz (fractional BW is about 19.6%) are achieved. In addition, the antenna yielded a broadside CP radiation with a high gain average about 7.5 dBic. Experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated ones.
A wideband and high-efficiency polarization conversion metasurface (PCM) is proposed and applied to reduce radar cross section (RCS). The proposed PCM unit is composed of two oblique asymmetry triangle split rings, which generate multiple plasmon resonances. Simulated and measured results demonstrate that it achieves polarization conversion over 90% from 9.24 to 17.64 GHz. Besides square checkerboard, the proposed PCM units and mirror units are arranged in triangle checkerboard. The mechanisms of both checkerboard PCMs are analyzed based on standard array theory, including the relationship between RCS reduction value and polarization conversion ratio value. The derived formulas provide a guideline to design checkerboard structure based on PCM. Simulated results demonstrate that both checkerboard PCMs achieve over 62% relative bandwidth of 10 dB RCS reduction under normal incidence with respect to the equal-sized metallic plate, which also means that the triangle one could be an alternative solution to reduce RCS. To verify the analyzed and simulated results, the fabricated sample and measured results of both checkerboard PCMs are presented. Good agreements are achieved between measurements, simulations and numerical analysis.
In this paper, a high gain broadband low profile microstrip antenna with the dual-layered substrate and four parasitic metal elements is presented. The proposed microstrip antenna is mainly composed of four parts: four circular parasitic metal patches with dual arced breaches, a rectangular metal patch sandwiched between substrates, a square ground plane, and two-square substrates. The circular parasitic elements are the main radiation structure and determine the characteristics of the proposed antenna are closely related to the parasitic elements. The proposed antenna has been fabricated for experimental measurement. The reflection coefficient, radiation pattern, radiation efficiency, and gain have been studied in detail. The simulated and measured impedance bandwidth is 27.0% (3.30–4.33 GHz), the maximum realized peak gain reaches up to 6.52 dBi at the frequency of 3.65 GHz. The radiation pattern has a single peak which is perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The proposed antenna is suitable to be applied in the 5G mobile or WiMAX wireless communication. Dual antenna with a pair of parasitic elements has been investigated numerically to explain the principle of the proposed antenna.
Variations in annual maximum and accumulated snow depths, snow-cover duration, precipitation and air temperature have been analyzed using daily snow depth, monthly air temperature and monthly precipitation data from 1960 to 1999 from six meteorological stations in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers in China. Annual maximum snow depth, snow-cover duration and precipitation increased by ~0.23, ~0.06 and ~0.05% a–1, respectively, during the study period, while annual accumulated snow depth increased by ~2.4% a–1. Annual mean air temperature increased by ~0.6°C over the study period. An unusually heavy snow cover in 1985 coincided with historically low air temperatures. Data from Tuotuohe and Qingshuihe meteorological stations are used to examine inter-station variability. The annual maximum and accumulated snow depths increased by ~0.35 and ~10.6% a–1 at Tuotuohe, and by ~0.42 and ~2.3%a–1 at Qingshuihe. However, from the late 1980s until 1999 the climate in the study region has become warmer and drier. The precipitation decrease in the 1990s (and not the rapid rise in measured temperature) is thought to be the primary cause of the decrease in snow depth in those years.
A non-precious metal catalytic system of Fe-doped Ta2O5 is developed by pulsed laser deposition toward efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The optimal Fe concentration is determined to be 5 at.% for optimized OER activity via a series of electrochemical characterizations. The 5 at.% Fe-doped Ta2O5 nanolayer possesses a low onset overpotential of 0.22 V, an overpotential of 0.38 V at 10 mA/cm2 and a Tafel slope of 54 mV/dec. Comprehensive first-principles calculations attribute the enhanced OER activity to the substitutional FeTa dopants, which generate a new active OER site on surface and simultaneously accelerate electron transfer over oxygens.
In this paper, a coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed dual-band uniplanar tri-polarization reconfigurable antenna based on the PIN diode switch is proposed. The proposed antenna can be reconfigured between the linear polarization (LP) and the circular polarization (CP) mode, including both the right-handed circular polarization and left-handed circular polarization simultaneously within the dual operating bands. The central frequencies of the bands are 2.63 and 4.42 GHz, respectively, and the overlapped operating bandwidth is 17.8 and 3.40%. The proposed reconfigurable antenna is a closed-slot antenna fed by the CPW transmission line and the reconfigurable mechanism is to regulate the T-shaped driven stub through switching the PIN diodes on and off. The scattering parameters, axial ratio, radiation pattern, gain, and the radiation efficiency of the proposed antenna are all investigated in the following. The optimized antenna has been fabricated to experimental test, the simulated and the measured results agree well with each other. The lower frequency band of the proposed antenna covers the 2.40 GHz WLAN specification and the upper band can be used for the 5 G communication (4.40–4.50 GHz); therefore it is suitable to be applied in the mobile wireless communication.
In this study, a dual-layered polarization and frequency reconfigurable microstrip antenna is proposed based on sequential mechanical axial rotation of the circular metal radiator. The antenna can be reconfigured among three different polarized modes, including the linear polarization (LP), left-handed circular polarization and right-handed circular polarization in the band from 4.68 to 4.80 GHz (2.53%). The resonance frequency of the proposed antenna with the same LP mode could also be tuned in the range from 4.70 to 5.03 GHz by mechanical rotation of the breach-truncated circular metal radiator as well as the circular substrate. Furthermore, the polarization characteristic and frequency can be reconfigured, respectively, as the circular radiator is taken an axial rotation with an angle of 360°. The presented antenna in the four different states has been numerically simulated and fabricated for the experimental measurement, the investigated characteristics includes the port reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, gain, and the radiation efficiency. The simulated and test results agreed well with each other. This antenna enriches the novel mechanical reconfigurable method except for the popular electrical approach.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) has recently caused multiple outbreaks. This study examined polymorphisms in CD46 to determine their involvement in HAdV-55 infection.
A total of 214 study subjects infected with HAdV-55 were included in our study. The study subjects were divided into those with silent infections (n=91), minor infections (n=85), and severe infections (n=38). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CD46 were examined.
Compared with the AA genotype, the TT genotype at rs2724385 (CD46, A/T) was associated with a protective effect against disease occurrence, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.20 (0.04-0.97) (P=0.038). There were no significant differences between the patients with minor and severe infection and those who had silent HAdV-55 infection in the other CD46 SNPs. We next compared the polymorphisms of these genes according to disease severity in HAdV-55-infected patients with clinical symptoms. The results showed that there were no significant differences between minor infections and severe infections.
Our results suggested that the CD46 SNP at rs2724385 is associated with the occurrence of disease in HAdV-55-infected patients. A much larger number of samples is required to understand the role of CD46 polymorphisms in the occurrence and progression of infection by HAdV-55. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:427–430)
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
To retrospectively analyze the rescue and treatment of pediatric patients by the Chinese Red Cross medical team during the Nepal earthquake relief.
The medical team set up a field hospital; the pediatric clinic consisted of 1 pediatrician and several nurses. Children younger than 18 years old were placed in the pediatric clinic for injury examination and treatment.
During the 7-day period of medical assistance (the second to third week after the earthquake), a total of 108 pediatric patients were diagnosed and treated, accounting for 2.8% of the total patients. The earthquake-related injuries mainly required surgical dressing and debridement. No severe limb fractures or traumatic brain injuries were found. Infection of the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin were the most common ailments, accounting for 42.3%, 18.5%, and 16.7%, respectively, of the total treated patients.
Two to 3 weeks after the earthquake, the admitted pediatric patients mainly displayed respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. When developing a rescue plan and arranging medical resources, we should consider the necessity of treating non–disaster-related conditions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4)
On April 25, 2015, a massive 8.1-magnitude earthquake struck Nepal at 2:11 pm (Beijing time). The 68-member-strong China International Search & Rescue Team (CISAR) left for Nepal at 6 am, April 26, to help with relief work. The CISAR was the first foreign team to rescue a survivor who was trapped beneath the rubble in the Gongabu area after the earthquake. On May 8, the team fulfilled the search-and-rescue mission and returned to Beijing. During the 2 weeks of rescue work, the team treated more than 3700 victims and cleared approximately 430 buildings. In this rescue mission, 10 experienced medical officers (including nine doctors and a nurse) from the General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force (PAP) comprised the medical team of CISAR. In this report, we focus on the medical rescues by CISAR and discuss the characteristics of the medical rescue in Nepal. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:536–538)
Glacier change has been recognized as an important climate variable due to its sensitive response to climate change. Although there are a large number of glaciers distributed over the southeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, the region is poorly represented in glacier databases due to seasonal snow cover and frequent cloud cover. Here, we present an improved glacier inventory for this region by combining Landsat observations acquired over 2011–13 (Landsat 8/OLI and Landsat TM/ETM+), coherence images from Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar images and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM. We present a semi-automated scheme for integrating observations from multi-temporal Landsat scenes to mitigate cloud obscuration. Further, the clean-ice observations, together with coherence information, slope constraints, vegetation cover and water classification information extracted from the Landsat scenes, are integrated to determine the debris-covered glacier area. After manual editing, we derive a new glacier inventory containing 6892 glaciers >0.02 km2, covering a total area of 6566 ± 197 km2. This new glacier inventory indicates gross overestimation in glacier area (over 30%) in previously published glacier inventories, and reveals various spatial characteristics of glaciers in the region. Our inventory can be used as a baseline dataset for future studies including glacier change assessment.
To determine dynamic changes in clinical characteristics by examining an outbreak of adenovirus infection that occurred from December 20, 2012, to February 25, 2013, in Tianjin, China.
Active surveillance for febrile respiratory illnesses was conducted, and medical records of patients were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used for pathogen identification and viral genome study, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean values of normally distributed continuous variables. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used if continuous variables were not normally distributed. Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare categorical variables.
The outbreak was sourced from the index case diagnosed as the common cold on December 20, 2012; a total of 856 cases were reported in the following 66 days. The pathogen was identified as human adenovirus (HAdV) 55. The symptoms manifested differently in severe and mild cases. Routine blood examinations, liver function indexes, and heart function indexes showed different dynamic patterns over time in hospitalized patients.
Clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations may reveal unique patterns over the course of HAdV-55 infection. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:464–469)