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This study examined whether the interaction between parenting and inhibitory control predicts hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in 195 children. Observation data of positive parenting were collected at 4 years, and mother reports of coercive parenting at 5 years, inhibitory control at 6 years, and hyperactivity-impulsivity/inattention at 7 years were obtained. The common and unique variance of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms were examined as outcomes using a bifactor model. Results indicated that positive parenting practices predicted lower levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity/inattention behaviors at age 7 only when children's inhibitory control was high. These results support the vantage sensitivity model, which posits that some individuals show an increased sensitivity to positive experiences exclusively, and support the appropriateness of a targeted prevention approach in early childhood.
The aim of this study was to determine what clinically important events occur in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients transported for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) via a primary care paramedic (PCP) crew, and what proportion of such events could only be treated by advanced care paramedic (ACP) protocols.
We conducted a health record review of STEMI transports by PCP-only crews and those transferred from PCP to ACP crews (ACP-intercept) from 2011 to 2015. A piloted data collection form was used to extract clinically important events, interventions during transport, and mortality.
We identified 214 STEMI bypass cases (118 PCP-only and 96 ACP-intercept). Characteristics were mean age 61.4 years; 44.4% inferior infarcts; mean response time 6 minutes, 19 seconds; total paramedic contact time 29 minutes, 40 seconds; and, in cases of ACP-intercept, 7 minutes, 46 seconds of PCP-only contact time. A clinically important event occurred in 127 (59.3%) of cases: SBP < 90 mm Hg (26.2%), HR < 60 (30.4%), HR > 100 (20.6%), arrhythmias 7.5%, altered mental status 6.5%, airway intervention 2.3%. Two patients (0.9%) arrested, both survived. Of the events identified, 42.5% could be addressed differently by ACP protocols. The majority related to fluid boluses for hypotension (34.6%). In the ACP-intercept group, ACPs acted on 51.6% of events. There were six (2.8%) in-hospital deaths.
Although clinically important events are common in STEMI bypass patients, a smaller proportion of events would be addressed differently by ACP compared with PCP protocols. The majority of clinically important events were transient and of limited clinical significance. PCP-only crews can safely transport STEMI patients directly to primary PCI.
Delirium is very frequent in older patients presenting to the emergency department (ED), but is often undetected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the French version of the 4 A’s Test (4AT-F) for the detection of delirium and cognitive impairment in older patients.
The study was conducted in four Canadian ED. Participants (n= 320) were independent or semi-independent patients (able to perform ≥5 activities of daily living) aged 65 and older and had an 8-hour exposure to the ED environment. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m), the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) as well as the 4AT-F were administered to patients at the initial interview. The CAM and 4AT-F were then administered twice a day during the patients’ ED or hospital stay. The 4AT-F’s sensitivity and specificity were compared to those of the CAM (for delirium), and to that of the TICS (for cognitive impairment).
Our results suggest that the 4AT-F has a sensitivity of 84% (95% CI: [76, 93]) and a specificity of 74% (95% CI: [70, 78]) for delirium, as well as a sensitivity of 49% (95% CI: [34, 64]) and a specificity of 87% (95% CI: [82, 92]) for cognitive impairment.
The 4AT-F is a fast and reliable screening tool for delirium and cognitive impairment in ED. Due to its quick administration time, it allows a systematic screening of patients at risk of delirium, without significantly increasing the workload of the ED staff.
The Quebec Emergency Department Management Guide (QEDMG) is a unique document with 78 recommendations designed to improve the organization of emergency departments (EDs) in the province of Quebec. However, no study has examined how this guide is perceived or used by rural health care management.
We invited all directors of professional services (DPS), directors of nursing services (DNS), head nurses (HN), and emergency department directors (EDD) working in Quebec’s rural hospitals to complete an online survey (144 questions). Simple frequency analyses (percentage [%] and 95% confidence interval) were conducted to establish general familiarity and use of the QEDMG, as well as perceived usefulness and implementation of its recommendations.
Seventy-three percent (19/26) of Quebec’s rural EDs participated in the study. A total of 82% (62/76) of the targeted stakeholders participated. Sixty-one percent of respondents reported being “moderately or a lot” familiar with the QEDMG, whereas 77% reported “almost never or sometimes” refer to this guide. Physician management (DPS, EDD) were more likely than nursing management (DNS and especially HN) to report “not at all” or “little” familiarity on use of the guide. Finally, 98% of the QEDMG recommendations were considered useful.
Although the QEDMG is considered a useful guide for rural EDs, it is not optimally known or used in rural EDs, especially by physician management. Stakeholders should consider these findings before implementing the revised versions of the QEDMG.
We describe the use of implementation science at the unit level and organizational level to guide an intervention to reduce central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in a high-volume, regional, burn intensive care unit (BICU).
A single center observational quasi-experimental study.
A regional BICU in Maryland serving 300–400 burn patients annually.
In 2011, an organizational-level and unit-level intervention was implemented to reduce the rates of CLABSI in a high-risk patient population in the BICU. At the organization level, leaders declared a goal of zero infections, created an infrastructure to support improvement efforts by creating a coordinating team, and engaged bedside staff. Performance data were transparently shared. At the unit level, the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP)/ Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) model was used. A series of interventions were implemented: development of new blood culture procurement criteria, implementation of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine dressings, use of alcohol impregnated caps, routine performance of root-cause analysis with executive engagement, and routine central venous catheter changes.
The use of an implementation science framework to guide multiple interventions resulted in the reduction of CLABSI rates from 15.5 per 1,000 central-line days to zero with a sustained rate of zero CLABSIs over 3 years (rate difference, 15.5; 95% confidence interval, 8.54–22.48).
CLABSIs in high-risk units may be preventable with the a use a structured organizational and unit-level paradigm.
Prototyping is interwoven with nearly all product, service, and systems development efforts. A prototype is a pre-production representation of some aspect of a concept or final design. Prototyping often predetermines a large portion of resource deployment in development and influences design project success. This review surveys literature sources in engineering, management, design science, and architecture. The study is focused around design prototyping for early stage design. Insights are synthesized from critical review of the literature: key objectives of prototyping, critical review of major techniques, relationships between techniques, and a strategy matrix to connect objectives to techniques. The review is supported with exemplar prototypes provided from industrial design efforts. Techniques are roughly categorized into those that improve the outcomes of prototyping directly, and those that enable prototyping through lowering of cost and time. Compact descriptions of each technique provide a foundation to compare the potential benefits and drawbacks of each. The review concludes with a summary of key observations, highlighted opportunities in the research, and a vision of the future of prototyping. This review aims to provide a resource for designers as well as set a trajectory for continuing innovation in the scientific research of design prototyping.
Anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries is associated with exercise-induced ischaemia, leading some physicians to restrict exercise in patients with this condition. We sought to determine whether exercise restriction was associated with increasing body mass index over time. From 1998 to 2015, 440 patients ⩽30 years old were enrolled into an inception cohort. Exercise-restriction status was documented in 143 patients. Using linear mixed model repeated-measures regression, factors associated with increasing body mass index z-score over time, including exercise restriction and surgical intervention as time-varying covariates, were investigated. The 143 patients attended 558 clinic visits for which exercise-restriction status was recorded. The mean number of clinic visits per patient was 4, and the median duration of follow-up was 1.7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 0.5–4.4). The median age at first clinic visit was 10.3 years (IQR 7.1–13.9), and 71% (101/143) were males. All patients were alive at their most recent follow-up. At the first clinic visit, 54% (78/143) were exercise restricted, and restriction status changed in 34% (48/143) during follow-up. The median baseline body mass index z-score was 0.2 (IQR 0.3–0.9). In repeated-measures analysis, neither time-related exercise restriction nor its interaction with time was associated with increasing body mass index z-score. Surgical intervention and its interaction with time were associated with decreasing body mass index z-score. Although exercise restriction was not associated with increasing body mass index over time, surgical intervention was associated with decreasing body mass index z-score over time in patients with anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.
A range of endemic and protected vertebrate species from Madagascar are threatened by the demand for bushmeat. We report on the number of discarded carapaces from illegally killed Critically Endangered radiated tortoises Astrochelys radiata in an urban centre in south-west Madagascar. Through covert monitoring of public rubbish dumps we observed 1,913 carapaces during July 2010–January 2014. There was notable spatial and temporal variation, with some evidence of peaks in carapace dumping during May–June and October–December. A single rubbish dump near the artisanal fishery landing beaches accounted for 93% of the observed carapaces.
In the last decade, the myth of the pristine tropical forest has been seriously challenged. In central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic forests, but very little information is available about human activities further inland. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the temporal and spatial patterns of human activities in an archaeologically unexplored area of 110,000 km2 located in the northern Congo Basin and currently covered by dense forest. Fieldwork involving archaeology as well as archaeobotany was undertaken in 36 sites located in southeastern Cameroon and in the northern Republic of Congo. Evidence of past human activities through either artifacts or charred botanical remains was observed in all excavated test pits across the study area. The set of 43 radiocarbon dates extending from 15,000 BP to the present time showed a bimodal distribution in the Late Holocene, which was interpreted as two phases of human expansion with an intermediate phase of depopulation. The 2300–1300 BP phase is correlated with the migrations of supposed farming populations from northwestern Cameroon. Between 1300 and 670 BP, less material could be dated. This is in agreement with the population collapse already reported for central Africa. Following this, the 670–20 BP phase corresponds to a new period of human expansion known as the Late Iron Age. These results bring new and extensive evidence of human activities in the northern Congo Basin and support the established chronology for human history in central Africa.