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True Colours is an automated symptom monitoring programme used by National Health Service psychiatric services. This study explored whether patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression (TRD) found this a useful addition to their treatment regimes. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 patients with TRD, who had engaged in True Colours monitoring as part of the Lithium versus Quetiapine in Depression study. A thematic analysis was used to assess participant experiences of the system.
Six main themes emerged from the data, the most notable indicating that mood monitoring increased patients' insight into their disorder, but that subsequent behaviour change was absent.
Patients with TRD can benefit from mood monitoring via True Colours, making it a worthwhile addition to treatment. Further development of such systems and additional support may be required for patients with TRD to experience further benefits as reported by other patient groups.
To profile adults who eat less than the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables per day.
Australia-wide population telephone survey on a random sample of the Australian population, with results analysed by univariate and multivariate models.
One thousand one hundred and eight interviews, respondents’ (49·3 % males) mean age was 45·12 (sd 17·63) years.
Overall 54·8 % and 10·7 % were eating the recommended number of servings of fruit and vegetables. Variables included in the multivariate model indicating low fruit consumption included gender, age, employment, education and those who were less likely to consider the safety and quality of food as important. In regard to low vegetable consumption, people who were more likely to do the food shopping only ‘some of the time’ and have a high level of trust in groups of people such as immediate family, neighbours, doctors and different levels of government were included in the final model. They were also less likely to neither consider the safety and quality of food as important nor trust organisations/institutions such as the press, television and politicians. In the final model depicting both low fruit and low vegetable servings, sex, age and a low level of importance with regard to safety and quality of food were included.
To increase fruit and vegetable consumption, research into a broad range of determinants associated with behaviours should be coupled with a deeper understanding of the process associated with changing behaviours. While levels of trust are related to behaviour change, knowledge and attitudes about aspects associated with safety and quality of food are also of importance.
Chinese privet is a major invasive shrub within riparian zones throughout the southeastern United States. We removed privet shrubs from four riparian forests in October 2005 with a Gyrotrac® mulching machine or by hand-felling with chainsaws and machetes to determine how well these treatments controlled privet and how they affected plant community recovery. One year after shrub removal a foliar application of 2% glyphosate was applied to privet remaining in the herbaceous layer. Three “desired-future-condition” plots were also measured to assess how well treatments shifted plant communities toward a desirable outcome. Both methods completely removed privet from the shrub layer without reducing nonprivet shrub cover and diversity below levels on the untreated control plots. Nonprivet plant cover on the mulched plots was > 60% by 2007, similar to the desired-future-condition plots and higher than the hand-felling plots. Both treatments resulted in higher nonprivet plant cover than the untreated controls. Ordination showed that after 2 yr privet removal plots were tightly grouped, suggesting that the two removal techniques resulted in the same plant communities, which were distinctly different from both the untreated controls and the desired-future-condition. Both treatments created open streamside forests usable for recreation and other human activities. However, much longer periods of time or active management of the understory plant communities, or both, will be required to change the forests to typical mature forest plant communities.
Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) emitting near-infrared (NIR) light have many potential applications, yet the efficiency of these devices remains very low, typically ˜0.1% or less. Here we report efficiency NIR OLEDs based on two fluorescent donor-acceptor-donor oligomers and a phosphorescent Pt-containing organometallic complex. External quantum efficiencies in the range of 0.5–3.8% with emission peak ranging from 700 to 890 nm have been achieved.
We report on both conventional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of fully processed HfO2 based dielectric films on silicon and on electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) measurements of fully processed HfO2 based MOSFETs. The magnetic resonance measurements indicate the presence of oxygen vacancy and oxygen interstitial defects within the HfO2 and oxygen deficient silicons in the interfacial layer. The EDMR results also indicate the generation of at least two defects when HfO2 based transistors are subjected to significant negative bias at modest temperature. Our results indicate generation of multiple interface/near interface defects, likely involving coupling with nearby hafnium atoms.
Atomic Layer Deposition is used to deposit HfO2 and TiO2 films on GaAs (100) native oxides and etched surfaces. For the deposition of HfO2 films two different but similar ALD chemistries are used: i) tetrakis dimethyl amido hafnium (TDMAHf) and H2O at 275°C and ii) tetrakis ethylmethyl amido hafnium (TEMAHf) and H2O at 250°C. TiO2 films are deposited from tetrakis dimethyl amido titanium (TDMATi) and H2O at 200°C. Rutherford Back Scattering shows linear film growth for all processes. The film/substrate interface is examined using x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and confirms the presence of an “interfacial cleaning” mechanism.
Environmental population genetics of fungi
John W. Taylor, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley,
Elizabeth Turner, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley,
Anne Pringle, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley,
Jeremy Dettman, Department of Botany, University of Toronto,
Hanna Johannesson, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University
When it comes to fungal species and speciation, it is hard to find anything to say that has not already been said in several excellent recent reviews. The most comprehensive source of information is Burnett's recent book (Burnett, 2003), which expands upon the themes from his British Mycological Society Presidential Address (Burnett, 1983). In addition to reviewing mycological species concepts and speciation, he describes enough about basic mycology and the methodology of evolutionary studies to make chapters on defining fungal individuals and populations, or on the processes of evolution in fungi, useful for mycologists interested in evolution and for evolutionary biologists interested in fungi. Burnett's review of the early literature in fungal speciation is particularly helpful in the present age, when it seems as if literature that is not online is forgotten. A second source of information is Brasier (1997), who explored three of what he considered to be the four main elements contributing to fungal speciation: original interbreeding populations, natural selection on populations and reproductive isolation between populations. He left a discussion of mating systems to others. Brasier's discussion of natural selection is particularly good, and his figure comparing the narrow range of growth rates of dikaryotic hyphae taken from Schizophyllum commune fruiting bodies to the much broader range of growth rates for dikaryons synthesized from their haploid progeny is as clear a demonstration of the effects of selection as one could want.
The University of British Columbia (UBC) Twin Project is a registry of approximately 1500 pairs of reared-together twins recruited from Vancouver, British Columbia and surrounding municipalities. The focus of the project is to examine personality and its disorders from a behavioral genetic perspective. The primary measures include self-report measures of variables from the major models of personality and personality disorders. Subsamples of the study have also been surveyed on a wide range of psychiatric conditions and symptoms, including, for example, substance use, mood, anxiety, coping, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizotypy, and several measures of the environment and experience. Also surveyed are general health and basic psychological processes including cognitive ability. This broad assessment has enabled us to examine not only the structure of personality, but also its potential role in psychopathology and other psychological processes. A feature of the project is that the measures selected reflect current thinking in the field as opposed to traditional psychiatric diagnostic criteria. The UBC Twin Project has been used in a number of collaborative projects on personality and psychopathology with other worldwide twin registries. At the present time, no DNA has been collected; however the facility to collect these data is available. Collaborative projects on this and future questionnaire studies are welcome.
Field studies were conducted at Lewiston–Woodville and Rocky Mount, NC in 2001 and 2002 to evaluate weed control and peanut response to POST treatments of diclosulam at various rates and application timings. Diclosulam controlled common ragweed and entireleaf morningglory when applied within 35 d after planting (DAP). Common ragweed 61 cm tall was controlled ≥92% with 4 to 13 g ai/ha diclosulam and larger common ragweed (107 to 137 cm tall) were controlled ≥97% with 27 g/ha diclosulam. Common lambsquarters was controlled 62% or less with all diclosulam POST treatments following metolachlor applied PRE, which provided 48% control. Peanut injury was less than 15% with all diclosulam POST treatments and was transitory. In separate studies, POST diclosulam treatments did not affect peanut yield in a weed-free environment. Peanut yield in weedy environments was reduced as the diclosulam application timing was delayed because of early season weed interference. A linear relationship was observed between yield and application timing with yield decreasing as application timing was delayed. This yield response documents the importance of early season weed management for maximizing peanut yield potential. Virginia peanut varieties were not affected by different POST rates of diclosulam; however, early season peanut injury showed a linear and quadratic relationship with diclosulam rate and was less than 14% at rates as high as 71 g/ha, and was not apparent by late season.
H I 21cm-line self-absorption (HISA) reveals the shape and distribution of cold atomic clouds in the Galactic disk. Many of these clouds lack corresponding CO emission, despite being colder than purely atomic gas in equilibrium models. HISA requires background line emission at the same velocity, hence mechanisms that can produce such backgrounds. Weak, small-scale, and widespread absorption is likely to arise from turbulent eddies, while strong, large-scale absorption appears organized in cloud complexes along spiral arm shocks. In the latter, the gas may be evolving from an atomic to a molecular state prior to star formation, which would account for the incomplete HISA-CO agreement.
Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron were applied to control kudzu on four loblolly pine forest regeneration sites during July 1997. Spot treatments were applied to recovering kudzu in June 1998 and June 1999. Soil leachate was monitored for these five herbicides from July 1997 to December 2000. All herbicides were detected in shallow (51–58 cm deep) and deep lysimeters (84–109 cm deep). Clopyralid was not persistent and limited leaching occurred, with residue levels of 0.4 to 2.8 μg L−1 in 12 of 102 deep lysimeter samples. Picloram was mobile and persisted at 0.6 to 2.5 μg L−1 in shallow and deep lysimeters for at least 10 mo after the initial application. Triclopyr residues were not persistent in shallow lysimeters and remained < 6 μg L−1 during the study. Metsulfuron persisted at < 0.1 μg L−1 for 182 to 353 d in shallow lysimeters and at < 0.07 μg L−1 for 182 to 300 d in the deep lysimeters in various plots. Tebuthiuron peaks in the deep lysimeters ranged from 69 to 734 μg L−1 34 to 77 d after the first spot treatment. In the soil that was essentially a fill area, tebuthiuron residues remained > 400 μg L−1 (402–1,660 μg L−1) in the shallow lysimeter samples and > 180 μg L−1 (181–734 μg L−1) in the deep lysimeters throughout a 354-d period that followed the first spot application. When used as part of a forest regeneration program, the relative potentials of the herbicides to move into shallow groundwater were: tebuthiuron > picloram > metsulfuron > clopyralid > triclopyr.
A 28-year-old woman presented with a one day history of high fever and partial seizures with secondary generalization. This was preceded by a three week history of headache, ataxia, and fatigue. An initial computed tomogram head scan showed a low density mass lesion in the right frontal operculum without enhancement. On the next day, a repeat scan showed a new frontopolar, expansile, low density cortical lesion (Figure 1A) suggestive of encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid showed a pleocytosis of 311 mononuclear white blood cell count per μL and an elevated protein of 1.57 g/L. She received intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. She remained febrile and became mute. A magnetic resonance (MR) scan under general anesthesia on her fourth hospital day showed frontal and perisylvian lesions with restricted diffusion (Figure 1B - D and Figure 2). A right frontal brain biopsy showed meningoencephalitis and immunohistochemical staining was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen (Figure 3). Subsequently, HSV-1 DNA was demonstrated in both cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue with polymerase chain amplification. She improved after a course of intravenous therapy with acyclovir with residual frontal lobe signs, including marked executive dysfunction, and her speech became normal.