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The ability to manage emotions is an important social-cognitive domain impaired in schizophrenia and linked to functional outcome. The goal of our study was to examine the impact of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) on the ability to manage emotions and brain functional connectivity in early-course schizophrenia.
Participants were randomly assigned to CET (n = 55) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control group (n = 45). The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans and measures of emotion management performances were collected at baseline, 9, and 18 months follow-up. The final sample consisted of 37 CET and 25 EST participants, including 19 CET and 12 EST participants with imaging data. Linear mixed-effects models investigated the impact of treatment on emotion management and functional connectivity from the amygdala to ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC).
The CET group showed significant improvement over time in emotion management compared to EST. Neither functional connectivity changes nor main group differences were observed following treatment. However, a significant between-group interaction showed that improved emotion management ability was associated with increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the left dlPFC in the CET group exclusively.
Our results replicate the previous work demonstrating that CET is effective at improving some aspects of social cognition in schizophrenia. We found evidence that improvement in emotion management may be associated with a change in amygdala-dlPFC connectivity. This fronto-limbic circuit may provide a mechanistic link between the biology of emotion management processes that can be enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia.
Since 2009, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) has become an accepted measure for screening children for acute malnutrition and determining eligibility for services to manage acute malnutrition. Use of MUAC has increased the reach and enhanced the quality of community-based management of acute malnutrition services. Increasingly, MUAC is also used to assess nutritional status and eligibility for nutrition support among adolescents and adults, including pregnant and lactating women and HIV and TB clients. However, globally recognised cut-offs have not been established to classify malnutrition among adults using MUAC. Therefore, different countries and programmes use different MUAC cut-offs to determine eligibility for programme services. Patient monitoring guidelines provided by WHO for country adaptation to support the integrated management of adult illness do not include MUAC, in part because guidance does not exist about what MUAC cut-off should trigger further action.
Depression, anxiety, and apathy are the most commonly reported neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Understanding their prevalence in rarer dementias such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA), posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), young-onset AD (YOAD), and inherited dementias has implications for both clinical practice and research. In this study, we aimed to examine the current state of knowledge of the prevalence of these three NPS in less prevalent dementias.
We conducted a systematic review based on searches of EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed up to September 2019.
47 articles meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Depression, anxiety, and apathy were commonly reported across the phenotypes studied but their prevalence showed large variation between studies. Apathy showed the highest reported frequency in FTD (50–100% across studies), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (73–100%), and YOAD (44–100%). Anxiety was frequently reported in FTD (0–100%) and bvFTD (19–63%). Depression showed the highest prevalence in FTD (7–69%) and YOAD (11–55%). Among the three variants of PPA, sv-PPA is the one most investigated (seven articles). Three or fewer articles were identified examining NPS in the remaining PPA variants, PCA, familial AD, and familial FTD. Inconsistency in the tools used to measure symptoms and small sample sizes were common methodological limitations.
Future studies should consider the inclusion of larger sample sizes (e.g. through multicenter collaborations) and the use of harmonized protocols that include the combination of caregiver and patient-derived measures and symptom-specific questionnaires. More research is needed on the phenotype-specific barriers and facilitators for people living with dementia to successfully engage in self-reports of NPS.
All the inheritable material possessed by an organism, the genome, is stored as DNA, the study of which has made an enormous impact upon archaeological science. The proteome is the suite of proteins produced by the genome at any one time. The field of proteomics is the study of this proteome, and uses mass spectrometry to identify proteins by their amino acid sequence.
Exposure to maltreatment during childhood (CM) can have deleterious effects throughout the life span of an individual. A parent's history of child maltreatment can also impact his or her own parenting behavior. Theoretically, parents who experienced maltreatment as children may have fewer resources to cope with the challenges of childrearing and may adopt more problematic parenting behaviors. However, empirical studies examining the association between CM and later parenting behavior have yielded mixed results. The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of studies that have examined the association between exposure to CM and the subsequent parenting outcomes of mothers of 0- to 6-year-old children. A secondary aim is to examine the potential impact of both conceptual and methodological moderators. A total of 32 studies (27 samples, 41 effect sizes, 17,932 participants) were retained for analysis. Results revealed that there is a small but statistically significant association between maternal exposure to CM and parenting behavior (r = –.13, p < .05). Moderator analyses revealed that effect sizes were larger when parenting measures involved relationship-based or negative, potentially abusive behaviors, when samples had a greater number of boys compared to girls, and when studies were older versus more recent. Results are discussed as they relate to the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment and abuse.
The primary focus of this paper is to offer guidance on the analysis of time streams of effects that a project may have so that they can be discounted appropriately. This requires a framework that identifies the common parameters that need to be assessed, whether conducting cost-effectiveness or benefit-cost analysis. The quantification and conversion of the time streams of different effects into their equivalent health, health care cost or consumption effects avoids embedding multiple arguments in discounting policies. This helps to identify where parameters are likely to differ in particular contexts, what type of evidence would be relevant, what is currently known and how this evidence might be strengthened. The current evidence available to support the assessment of the key parameters is discussed and possible estimates and default assumptions are suggested. Reporting the results in an extensive way is recommended. This makes the assessments required explicit so the impact of alternative assumptions can be explored and analysis updated as better estimates evolve. Some projects will have effects across different countries where some or all of these parameters will differ. Therefore, the net present value of a project will be the sum of the country specific net present values rather than the sum of effects across countries discounted at some common rate.
Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric parasite that infects approximately 50 million people worldwide. Although E. histolytica is a zoonotic parasite that has the potential to infect nonhuman primates, such transmission is poorly understood. Consequently, this study examined whether E. histolytica is present among humans, chimpanzees and baboons living in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem (GGE), Tanzania. The primary aims were to determine patterns of E. histolytica infection in a system with human-nonhuman primate overlap and to test associations between infection status and potential risk factors of disease. Entamoeba spp. occurred in 60.3% of human, 65.6% of chimpanzee and 88.6% of baboon samples. Entamoeba histolytica occurred in 12.1% of human, 34.1% of chimpanzee and 10.9% of baboon samples. Human E. histolytica infection was associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. This was the first study to confirm the presence of E. histolytica in the GGE. The high sample prevalence of E. histolytica in three sympatric primates suggests that zoonotic transmission is possible and stresses the need for further phylogenetic studies. Interventions targeting better sanitation and hygiene practices for humans living in the GGE can help prevent E. histolytica infection in humans, while also protecting the endangered chimpanzees and other primates in this region.
Objectives: The extended face network contains clusters of neurons that perform distinct functions on facial stimuli. Regions in the posterior ventral visual stream appear to perform basic perceptual functions on faces, while more anterior regions, such as the ventral anterior temporal lobe and amygdala, function to link mnemonic and affective information to faces. Anterior and posterior regions are interconnected by a long-range white matter tracts; however, it is not known if variation in connectivity of these pathways explains cognitive performance. Methods: Here, we used diffusion imaging and deterministic tractography in a cohort of 28 neurologically normal adults ages 18–28 to examine microstructural properties of visual fiber pathways and their relationship to certain mnemonic and affective functions involved in face processing. We investigated how inter-individual variability in two tracts, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), related to performance on tests of facial emotion recognition and face memory. Results: Results revealed that microstructure of both tracts predicted variability in behavioral performance indexed by both tasks, suggesting that the ILF and IFOF play a role in facilitating our ability to discriminate emotional expressions in faces, as well as to remember unique faces. Variation in a control tract, the uncinate fasciculus, did not predict performance on these tasks. Conclusions: These results corroborate and extend the findings of previous neuropsychology studies investigating the effects of damage to the ILF and IFOF, and demonstrate that differences in face processing abilities are related to white matter microstructure, even in healthy individuals. (JINS, 2016, 22, 180–190)
This study tests a model of young adult romantic quality as a moderator of the effects of early caregiving on anxious–depressed symptoms over a 9-year period in adulthood. Participants (n = 93) were a subsample from a longitudinal study of risk and adaptation. Quality of early caregiving was measured using observational data collected at five points in the first 4 years of life. Young adult romantic relationship quality was assessed from interviews with participants at age 23. Self-report anxious–depressed symptoms were measured at ages 23, 26, and 32. The results indicated that romantic quality moderated early caregiving to predict symptom levels across this period, with evidence for inoculation, amplification, and compensation effects. A discriminant analysis examining young adult work competence as a moderator provided further evidence for the distinctiveness of romantic relationships in changing the association between early caregiving and adult internalizing symptoms.
The literature on the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with an intellectual disability is scarce, despite a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders than in the general adult population. We carried out a review of articles published before March 2010. All age ranges, severity of disability and diagnoses were included.
We found 72 case reports, a retrospective chart review study and other reviews, but no controlled studies. Most patients (79%) showed a positive outcome following ECT. Complications were seen only in 13% and there were no reports of cognitive decline. Many patients relapsed following ECT (32%) and the majority were maintained with medication at follow-up (71%).
Electroconvulsive therapy is a valuable treatment for this patient group and should be considered earlier as opposed to as a last resort. Obstacles to its use include diagnostic difficulties, ethical and legal issues, a lack of objective measurements and uncertainty about its safety in this population.
The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values (δ13C, δ15N) of collagen and the carbon isotope value of structural carbonate in bioapatite were measured in the bones and teeth of Early Classic to Historic period Maya buried at Chau Hiix, Belize. Diet at Chau Hiix comprised a mixture of resources but contained an unusual amount of protein from high trophic levels. There were no differences between the diets of males and females, and there were no consistent changes in diet from birth to age 12. However, children consumed more maize than adults during all time periods. Similarities in general diet and temporal changes at Chau Hiix, Lamanai, and Altun Ha suggest their participation in a regional socioeconomic system. The diets of the highest-status Early Classic individuals at Chau Hiix, Lamanai, and Altun Ha were different from one another and from those of other individuals buried at their respective sites. We suggest that elites created or attempted to create hierarchies of food consumption within sites during the Classic period and that a heterarchy existed among elites from different sites. During the Postclassic period the major protein component of the Chau Hiix diet shifted from terrestrial animal and/or freshwater resources to reef resources, which suggests increased associations with coastal sites. Temporal changes in diet at Chau Hiix closely paralleled changes at Lamanai, but diets at the two sites were distinct during all time periods.
Ag/ZnO back reflectors (BR) on specular stainless steel substrates are optimized for hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium alloy (a-SiGe:H) and nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells. The BRs are deposited using a sputtering method. The texture of the Ag and ZnO layers is controlled by deposition parameters as well as chemical etching with diluted HCl. The surface morphology is investigated by atomic force microscopy. The scattered light intensity from a He-Ne laser, which illuminates the sample surface perpendicularly, is measured at different angles. Finally, a-SiGe:H and nc-Si:H solar cells are deposited on the BR substrates prepared under various conditions. For a-SiGe:H bottom cells, the improved BR with large micro-features leads to an enhanced open-circuit voltage. For the nc-Si:H solar cells, large micro-features on the improved BR eliminate interference fringes otherwise observed in the quantum efficiency measurement and result in high short circuit current density. The result is consistent with an enhanced scattered light intensity. Hence, the cell performance was improved. We also deposited a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/nc-Si:H triple-junction cells on the optimized BR and achieved a high initial active-area efficiency of 14.6%.
a-Si:H films and their n-i-p solar cells were prepared using plasma-enhanced CVD. The samples were prepared with no-, low-, standard, and high-H dilution. Raman and photoluminescence (PL) were used to characterize the i-layer. The main results are (a) Raman shows typical a-Si:H mode except for a c-Si peak in the 450 nm-thick film with high-H dilution, and (b) PL shows two regimes. (I) Below the onset of microcrystallinity characterized by x-ray diffraction, a blue-shift of the 1.4 eV PL peak energy and a decrease of the band width occur. (II) Above the onset of microcrystallinity, the PL efficiency decreases by a factor of 4-5, and the PL peak energy is red-shifted toward 1.2 eV as the μc-Si volume fraction is increased. In addition, the solar cell open circuit voltage shows first an increase and then a decrease, correlating with the PL peak energy position. We conclude that the PL spectroscopy is a sensitive tool for characterizing the gradual amorphous-to-microcrystalline structural transition in thin film solar cells.
We characterized the electronic states and microstructure of high-growth-rate a-Si:H films by employing photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopies. The growth rate was from 50 to 115 Å/s compared to the standard rate of less than 10 Å/s. For the high-growth-rate a-Si:H films, we observed typical a-Si:H features in Raman but new features in PL. The new PL features are: a) the PL peak energy is as low as ∼1.15 eV compared to the standard ∼1.4 eV at 80 K; and b) the total intensity is more than one order of magnitude higher then the standard. We suggest that the nano-scale microstructure may be responsible for the anomalous PL features.
Photoluminescence from porous silicon can be quenched reversibly by a variety of molecular species. Quenching pathways for chemically incorporated surface species, physisorbed species (that undergo no net chemical transformation), and for electron donating reagents have all been identified. For systems involving charge transfer quenching, the concentration dependence typically follows a Stern-Volmer type of relationship, with the more easily oxidized molecules producing the largest Stern-Volmer slopes (most efficient quenching). The slope of the Stern-Volmer plot is dependent upon the particular wavelength that the Stern-Volmer data are obtained from. Data interpretation is complicated by the fact that porous Si shows a wavelength dependent emission lifetime, although when this is taken into account the data can be qualitatively described within the context of a driving-force dependent quenching model. A simple model for understanding the various photoluminescence quenching phenomena observed with porous Si is presented, involving an ensemble of emissive states with energy dependent lifetimes and Stern-Volmer quenching behavior. The model adequately accounts for both red and blue spectral shifts that have been observed upon photoluminescence quenching.
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