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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To evaluate the ability of various techniques to track changes in body fluid volumes before and after a rapid infusion of saline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight healthy participants (5M; 3F) completed baseline measurements of 1) total body water using ethanol dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 2) blood volume, plasma volume and red blood cell (RBC) volume using carbon monoxide rebreathe technique and I-131 albumin dilution. Subsequently, 30mL saline/kg body weight was administered intravenously over 20 minutes after which BIA and ethanol dilution were repeated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: On average, 2.29±0.35 L saline was infused with an average increase in net fluid input-output (I/O) of 1.56±0.29 L. BIA underestimated measured I/O by −3.4±7.9%, while ethanol dilution did not demonstrate a measurable change in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe differed from I-131 albumin dilution measurements of blood, plasma and RBC volumes by +0.6±2.8%, −5.4±3.6%, and +11.0±4.7%, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: BIA is capable of tracking modest changes in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe appears to be a viable alternative for the I-131 albumin dilution technique to determine blood volume. Together, these two techniques may be useful in monitoring fluid status in patients with impaired fluid regulation.
Objectives: Apathy is a debilitating symptom of Huntington’s disease (HD) and manifests before motor diagnosis, making it an excellent therapeutic target in the preclinical phase of Huntington’s disease (prHD). HD is a neurological genetic disorder characterized by cognitive and motor impairment, and psychiatric abnormalities. Apathy is not well characterized within the prHD. In previous literature, damage to the caudate and putamen has been correlated with increased apathy in other neurodegenerative and movement disorders. The objective of this study was to determine whether apathy severity in individuals with prHD is related to striatum volumes and cognitive control. We hypothesized that, within prHD individuals, striatum volumes and cognitive control scores would be related to apathy. Methods: We constructed linear mixed models to analyze striatum volumes and cognitive control, a composite measure that includes tasks assessing with apathy scores from 797 prHD participants. The outcome variable for each model was apathy, and the independent variables for the four separate models were caudate volume, putamen volume, cognitive control score, and motor symptom score. We also included depression as a covariate to ensure that our results were not solely related to mood. Results: Caudate and putamen volumes, as well as measures of cognitive control, were significantly related to apathy scores even after controlling for depression. Conclusions: The behavioral apathy expressed by these individuals was related to regions of the brain commonly associated with isolated apathy, and not a direct result of mood symptoms. (JINS, 2019, 25, 462–469)
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To respond to the need for a simple tool to answer individual researchers questions: Exactly what training do I need to complete for my study and my role? Where can we go to find a comprehensive record of my research training? METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Identify the factors that determine what training is required for each role (i.e., PI, coordinator, biostatistician) at the University, their role on the research study, type of funding, population being studied and responsibilities/duties on the research team. Develop an inventory of training required according to federal and local regulations and guidelines. Identify other related factors that ensure ongoing compliance for research professionals (i.e., medical licenses, CVs, immunizations, and credentials). Collaborate with programming professionals to explore and confirm the feasibility of such a Web site. Incorporate formal usability and pilot testing as part of the programming design process. Develop User Guide and Marketing and Launch plan for users and supervisors. Implement phased launch of the site with Google analytics, and evaluate the experience of phase I users. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Three months user data and evaluation results demonstrated: 149 users created Training Roadmaps on the site. Users were from 67 different department codes, with the Department of Psychiatry the primary user. 20 users responded to a survey three months after launch. Research coordinators were the primary focus for phase I and represented almost half of the users. Survey respondents rated the site ease of use and clarity of the site as its greatest benefit. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In September 2017, CTSI launched a new web-based training tool exclusively for University of Minnesota clinical research professionals who work with human participants, and their supervisors. The Human Research Training Web site is a free, easy-to-use tool to help identify and maintain the appropriate training, certification, credentials, and immunizations needed to perform University of Minnesota research with human participants. The Web site offers the University’s first systematic way to identify which research training is necessary for each research professional, and a system to track and maintain training compliance. Training records and information from the University of Minnesota’s central databases are securely integrated into this tool. Our Web site tool enhances research compliance. Any given study team member’s training requirements vary based on several criteria such as: role at the University, role on the research study, type of funding, population being studied and responsibilities/duties on the research study. The research training Web site generates required and optional training based on individuals’ responses to these questions. This Web site also links to the training, which decreases error in taking the wrong training. Furthermore, it provides completion data for research training and is a repository for vital study information such as: medical licenses, CVs, and credentials. Supervisors are able to view training and credentials. They are alerted when one of their employee’s licenses or certificates are about to expire. Uses-to-date and evaluation feedback have informed the need for a second phase of Web site enhancements. This site will reside in both the CTSI Web site and the HRPP Web site. A link will be sent to all new University research employees upon hiring. The Human Research Training Web site will likely have applicability to other universities in addition to the University of Minnesota.
This article examines historic gendered negotiations over identity, descent, and access to land along Uganda’s southern littorals by thinking about belonging with an exceptionally diverse assemblage of small fish. Based on accounts from contemporary littoral residents, the comparative historic ethnographic record, and fisheries scientists, the article describes the reproductive practices of enkejje as they may have been visible from Uganda’s southern littorals and situates the practices of raising socially recognized children within broader historical developments of clanship and public healing. Attending to these small fish in moments and in places where groups are under construction reorients analyses of descent politics beyond an often implicit focus on male interests towards the work of grandmothers, aunts, and mothers in debating the qualities of the most foundational units of the body politic – male and female children constituted relationally as persons through their status as legitimate family members.
Literature on ethnicity in Africa meets literature on multispecies ethnography to their mutual benefit. Multispecies ethnography considers people together with other-than-human beings, insisting the figure of the human is an interspecific one. We explore the ways in which multispecies ethnography needs history as part of a story about power and politics. But, the burden of the essay argues that historians of ethnicity need multispecies ethnographers’ embrace of a broader canvas of life, in motion at many scales. Historians of ethnicity need a greater awareness of change and continuity in the presence of other-than-human life forms, over time. Those same historians also might adopt the readiness of multispecies ethnographers to recognize other than the descent metaphor at the heart of thinking and making groups.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To increase knowledge and application of clinical research coordinator competencies among Research Professionals at the University of Minnesota. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The UMN’s CTSI developed and piloted a Foundations for Research Professionals training program comprised of: a baseline assessment, 7 online modules, 4 in-person training sessions, video and reading assignments and a post assessment, which totaled 30–35 hours of training and covered the following topics: preparing for a study, study management, participant recruitment and engagement, assessing capacity to consent and the informed consent process. This course also provides valuable resources and connections to online references and materials. The competencies for this program were based on work of the Joint Task Force for Clinical Trial Competency. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 30 clinical research professionals completed the pilot program and averaged an increase of 6.5% from baseline assessment to post assessment. Participants were asked to rate their confidence on a variety of role-based competencies at the time of preassessments and postassessments. Trends show an increase in confidence for all competency areas after completion of the training program. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Developing a workforce of competent research professionals is integral to improve the efficiency, quality, and ethics of research. The Foundations for Research Professionals training program increased knowledge of clinical research coordinator competencies. We will assess impact on application of the competencies 6 months after completion of the program. Our next steps include offering the training program as a 2-week session on an ongoing basis for new coordinators at the University of Minnesota.
We present color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) based on HST F555W (“V”) and F814W (“I”) observations of three old LMC clusters: NGC 2210, NGC 1786, and Reticulum. The fiducial derived from the CMD of NGC 2257, another LMC cluster, provided a good fit to the data for the new clusters. Because NGC 2257 has a similar metallicity ([Fe/H]∼ −1.8) to NGC 2210, NGC 1786, and Reticulum, the agreement between the CMDs of all four clusters indicates that they have the same age. This preliminary analysis suggests that any age differences are smaller than 2 Gyr. These new results mean that there are now 11 old LMC clusters with similar ages. An initial epoch of star cluster formation therefore happened in a short period over a large volume of space, a volume much larger than is now covered by the present-day optical LMC.
Objectives: The present study examined differences in neurocognitive outcomes among non-Hispanic Black and White stroke survivors using the NIH Toolbox-Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB), and investigated the roles of healthcare variables in explaining racial differences in neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke. Methods: One-hundred seventy adults (91 Black; 79 White), who participated in a multisite study were included (age: M=56.4; SD=12.6; education: M=13.7; SD=2.5; 50% male; years post-stroke: 1–18; stroke type: 72% ischemic, 28% hemorrhagic). Neurocognitive function was assessed with the NIHTB-CB, using demographically corrected norms. Participants completed measures of socio-demographic characteristics, health literacy, and healthcare use and access. Stroke severity was assessed with the Modified Rankin Scale. Results: An independent samples t test indicated Blacks showed more neurocognitive impairment (NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite T-score: M=37.63; SD=11.67) than Whites (Fluid T-score: M=42.59, SD=11.54; p=.006). This difference remained significant after adjusting for reading level (NIHTB-CB Oral Reading), and when stratified by stroke severity. Blacks also scored lower on health literacy, reported differences in insurance type, and reported decreased confidence in the doctors treating them. Multivariable models adjusting for reading level and injury severity showed that health literacy and insurance type were statistically significant predictors of the Fluid cognitive composite (p<.001 and p=.02, respectively) and significantly mediated racial differences on neurocognitive impairment. Conclusions: We replicated prior work showing that Blacks are at increased risk for poorer neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke than Whites. Health literacy and insurance type might be important modifiable factors influencing these differences. (JINS, 2017, 23, 640–652)
The xenon plasma focused ion beam instrument (PFIB), holds significant promise in expanding the applications of focused ion beams in new technology thrust areas. In this paper, we have explored the operational characteristics of a Tescan FERA3 XMH PFIB instrument with the aim of meeting current and future challenges in the semiconductor industry. A two part approach, with the first part aimed at optimizing the ion column and the second optimizing specimen preparation, has been undertaken. Detailed studies characterizing the ion column, optimizing for high-current/high mill rate activities, have been described to support a better understanding of the PFIB. In addition, a novel single-crystal sacrificial mask method has been developed and implemented for use in the PFIB. Using this combined approach, we have achieved high-quality images with minimal artifacts, while retaining the shorter throughput times of the PFIB. Although the work presented in this paper has been performed on a specific instrument, the authors hope that these studies will provide general insight to direct further improvement of PFIB design and applications.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies’ (CBHA; United Kingdom), now “Start Network’s,” Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx).
All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators’ assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member.
This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of this tool in future humanitarian training exercises and potentially in real time, in the field. This could impact the efficiency and effectiveness of humanitarian operations.
EvansAB, HulmeJM, NugusP, CranmerHH, CoutuM, JohnsonK. An Electronic Competency-Based Evaluation Tool for Assessing Humanitarian Competencies in a Simulated Exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):253–260.
We used deep HST imaging of three LMC clusters, NGC 2257, NGC 1466 and Hodge 11, to determine their ages relative to Milky Way clusters. They all have similar ages to within ± 1 Gyr. For NGC 2257 and NGC 1466, we measured the blue straggler specific frequencies and find them to be similar to those of Galactic clusters.
Obtaining intravenous (IV) access in patients in hemorrhagic shock is often difficult and prolonged. Failed IV attempts delay life-saving treatment. Intraosseous (IO) access may often be obtained faster than IV access. Albumin (5%) is an option for prehospital volume expansion because of the absence of interference with coagulation and platelet function.
There are limited data comparing the performance of IO and IV administered 5% albumin. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of tibial IO (TIO) and IV administration of 500 mL of 5% albumin on infusion time and hemodynamic measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock.
Sixteen male swine were divided into two groups: TIO and IV. All subjects were anesthetized and a Class III hemorrhage was achieved by exsanguination of 31% of estimated blood volume (EBV) from a femoral artery catheter. Following exsanguination, 500 mL of 5% albumin was administered under pressurized infusion (300 mmHg) by the TIO or IV route and infusion time was recorded. Hemodynamic measurements of HR, MAP, CO, and SV were collected before and after exsanguination and every 20 seconds for 180 seconds during 5% albumin infusion.
An independent t-test determined that IV 5% albumin infusion was significantly faster compared to IO (P=.01). Mean infusion time for TIO was seven minutes 35 seconds (SD=two minutes 44 seconds) compared to four minutes 32 seconds (SD=one minute 08 seconds) in the IV group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was performed on hemodynamic data collected during the 5% albumin infusion. Analyses indicated there were no significant differences between the TIO and IV groups relative to MAP, CO, HR, or SV (P>.05).
While significantly longer to infuse 5% albumin by the TIO route, the longer TIO infusion time may be negated as IO devices can be placed more quickly compared to repeated IV attempts. The lack of significant difference between the TIO and IV routes relative to hemodynamic measures indicate the TIO route is a viable route for the infusion of 5% albumin in a swine model of Class III hemorrhage.
MuirSL, SheppardLB, Maika-WilsonA, BurgertJM, Garcia-BlancoJ, JohnsonAD, CoynerJL. A Comparison of the Effects of Intraosseous and Intravenous 5% Albumin on Infusion Time and Hemodynamic Measures in a Swine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock. Prehosp Disaster Med.2016;31(4):436–442.
In the late 1970s scholars of Europe and its colonies began probing the relationship between medicine and empire. In the decades since, following the cue of Steven Feierman, John Janzen, Megan Vaughan and Randall Packard, the literature has demonstrated that colonial medicine constructed an African ‘other’ and greatly contributed to harmful practices that did not improve the overall health and welfare of the local populations European administrations claimed to be civilising. Through the 1990s, scholarship concentrated primarily on local agency and socio-economic and political factors that furthered our understanding of how medicine and health care operated in a colonial context. These foundational studies have enabled the most recent wave of research in the history of medicine to turn its attention to questions of public health, especially as it relates to the politics of development, nationalism, and decolonisation. Historians, including Sunil Amrith and Clifford Rosenberg, have emphasised the significant role medicine has played in projecting state power in European colonies and have shown how international organisations became prominent agents in shaping national and global health policies. However, their important work has left unanswered questions about the intellectual networks that formed the elite scientific and medical minds of the day and the legacies of health policies under colonial rule.
The megafauna and associated behavioral traces of two deep-sea benthic environments, the central Arctic and Antarctic, with a surface primary productivity differential of 104 were compared to assess the role of food availability in foraging strategy and community structure. Bottom photographs, analyzed for megafauna and trace density and diversity at comparable depths in the Arctic Canada Basin and the Antarctic Bellingshausen Basin, indicated that trace frequency was inversely proportional to organism density but that trace diversity directly reflected organism diversity. Those traces identified in the fossil record to represent efficient foraging strategies, i.e., the Nereites facies, were conspicuously absent at all depths in the Arctic and present at all depths in the Antarctic, in contradiction of the paradigm of increasing behavioral complexity and sediment exploitation as food availability decreases. Presence or absence of surface-grazing organisms seems to exert a greater influence on trace diversity than depth or nutrient supply. Trace density, however, may reflect episodic sedimentation events which intermittently influence the deep-sea trophic regime.
Whether genetic factors influence the associations of fatty acids with the risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is largely unknown. To investigate possible gene–fatty acid interactions on SCA risk, we used a case-only approach and measured fatty acids in erythrocyte samples from 1869 SCA cases in a population-based repository with genetic data. We selected 191 SNP in ENCODE-identified regulatory regions of fifty-five candidate genes in fatty acid metabolic pathways. Using linear regression and additive genetic models, we investigated the association of the selected SNP with erythrocyte levels of fatty acids, including DHA, EPA and trans-fatty acids among the SCA cases. The assumption of no association in non-cases was supported by analysis of publicly available datasets containing over 8000 samples. None of the SNP–fatty acid associations tested among the cases reached statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. One SNP, rs4654990 near PLA2G2A, with an allele frequency of 0·33, was nominally associated with lower levels of DHA and EPA and higher levels of trans-fatty acids. The strongest association was with DHA levels (exponentiated coefficient for one unit (1 % of total fatty acids), 0·90, 95 % CI 0·85, 0·97; P = 0·003), indicating that for subjects with a coded allele, the OR of SCA associated with one unit higher DHA is about 90 % what it is for subjects with one fewer coded allele. These findings suggest that the associations of circulating n-3 and trans-fatty acids with SCA risk may be more pronounced in carriers of the rs4654990 G allele.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether age-related differences in white matter microstructure are associated with altered task-related connectivity during episodic recognition. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging from 282 cognitively healthy middle-to-late aged adults enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention, we investigated whether fractional anisotropy (FA) within white matter regions known to decline with age was associated with task-related connectivity within the recognition network. Results: There was a positive relationship between fornix FA and memory performance, both of which negatively correlated with age. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that higher fornix FA was associated with increased task-related connectivity amongst the hippocampus, caudate, precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, better task performance was associated with increased task-related connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, cuneus, and hippocampus. Conclusions: The findings indicate that age has a negative effect on white matter microstructure, which in turn has a negative impact on memory performance. However, fornix microstructure did not significantly mediate the effect of age on performance. Of interest, dynamic functional connectivity was associated with better memory performance. The results of the psychophysiological interaction analysis further revealed that alterations in fornix microstructure explain–at least in part–connectivity among cortical regions in the recognition memory network. Our results may further elucidate the relationship between structural connectivity, neural function, and cognition. (JINS, 2016, 22, 191–204)