To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Novel approaches to improving disaster response have begun to include the use of big data and information and communication technology (ICT). However, there remains a dearth of literature on the use of these technologies in disasters. We have conducted an integrative literature review on the role of ICT and big data in disasters. Included in the review were 113 studies that met our predetermined inclusion criteria. Most studies used qualitative methods (39.8%, n=45) over mixed methods (31%, n=35) or quantitative methods (29.2%, n=33). Nearly 80% (n=88) covered only the response phase of disasters and only 15% (n=17) of the studies addressed disasters in low- and middle-income countries. The 4 most frequently mentioned tools were geographic information systems, social media, patient information, and disaster modeling. We suggest testing ICT and big data tools more widely, especially outside of high-income countries, as well as in nonresponse phases of disasters (eg, disaster recovery), to increase an understanding of the utility of ICT and big data in disasters. Future studies should also include descriptions of the intended users of the tools, as well as implementation challenges, to assist other disaster response professionals in adapting or creating similar tools. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:353–367)
Irregular interplanetary dust particles may acquire a considerable spin rate due to two non-statistical dynamical mechanisms induced by solar radiation. These arise from variations in surface albedo as discussed by Radzievskii (1954) and from irregularities in surface geometry as discussed by Paddack (1969). We report on an experiment which will lead to an evaluation in space of the effectiveness of these two spin mechanisms. We utilize the technique of optical levitation in an argon laser beam to provide a stable trap for particles (10-60 microns in diameter). The spin rate and direction of the spin axis are measured in a straightforward manner. The objective is to design an optical trap for dielectric particles in vacuum which can be used to study these rotation mechanisms in the gravity-free environment of a Spacelab experiment.
Background: One of the primary differences between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for anxiety is the approach to managing negative thoughts. CBT focuses on challenging the accuracy of dysfunctional thoughts through cognitive restructuring exercises, whereas ACT attempts to foster acceptance of such thoughts through cognitive defusion exercises. Previous research suggests that both techniques reduce the distress associated with negative thoughts, though questions remain regarding the benefit of these techniques above and beyond exposure to feared stimuli. Aims: In the present study, we conducted a brief experimental intervention to examine the utility of cognitive defusion + in-vivo exposure, cognitive restructuring + in-vivo exposure, and in-vivo exposure alone in reducing the impact of negative thoughts in patients with social anxiety disorder. Method: All participants completed a brief public speaking exposure and those in the cognitive conditions received training in the assigned cognitive technique. Participants returned a week later to complete a second exposure task and self-report measures. Results: All three conditions resulted in similar decreases in discomfort related to negative thoughts. ANOVA models failed to find an interaction between change in accuracy or importance and assignment to condition in predicting decreased distress of negative thoughts. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that changes in perceived importance and accuracy of negative thoughts may not be the mechanisms by which cognitive defusion and cognitive restructuring affect distress in the short-term.
Earlier studies in animals have suggested an essential role for Si in connective tissues, but such works have not been replicated per se. Nonetheless, a study conducted in 2000 has reported that Si may be essential during pregnancy for the growing fetus, since serum Si concentrations in infants were approximately 300 % higher than those in older children and adults and serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were approximately 300 % lower than those in age-matched non-pregnant controls. To reproduce these potentially important findings, in the present study, serum Si concentrations were measured in fourteen pregnant women (15–24 weeks of gestation) and compared with those of seventeen non-pregnant, non-lactating female controls. Serum Si concentrations were also measured in fourteen full-term mothers at the time of delivery and in the umbilical cord (UC) vein and artery where possible. Fasting serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were not significantly different from those of the female controls and showed little change with advancing gestation (r 0·2). Mean serum Si concentrations in the UC vein samples were 52 % higher, while those in the UC artery samples were 235 % higher than those in the maternal forearm vein samples, although data were widely spread and differences were not significant. Mean maternal forearm vein Si concentrations at delivery were 50 % lower than those of pregnant women and female controls, but, again, these were not significant. Overall, we note that there are significant analytical challenges in comparing baseline Si levels between different groups; notwithstanding, our findings cannot confirm a reduction in fasting serum Si levels during pregnancy, but, equally, we cannot rule out higher serum Si levels in newborns than in their mothers, and further work is required.
Over the past few years, ion implanters specifically developed for the high throughput required by the silicon photovoltaic industry, have become commercially available. Recent research and development has focused on the formation of doped surface regions, particularly the formation of selective emitters. In this study we explore two effects of ion implantation into a thermal silicon dioxide passivating/antireflection dielectric. We show evidence that the electronic and optical performance of the layer can be improved via the incorporation of charges created within the dielectric film and the creation of a graded refractive index, minimizing the surface recombination and reflection losses respectively.
Krill consumption by natural predators represents a critical link between surveys and models of standing krill biomass and the design of a sustainable krill fishery for the Scotia Sea. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a significant component of diet for penguins breeding in this region and, consequently, uncertainties regarding penguin population abundances contribute to uncertainties in krill predation estimates. We use a comprehensive database of Antarctic penguin abundances to identify 14 breeding colonies that contribute most significantly to uncertainty regarding the total number of pygoscelid penguins breeding in this region. We find that a high quality survey of Zavodovski Island alone would decrease uncertainty in total population by 24.8%, whereas high quality surveys of all 14 “high-influence” locations would decrease uncertainty by almost 72%. Updated population estimates at these sites should be considered top priority for future fieldwork in the region. Our results are based on a robust quantitative method for assessing data priorities in estimating krill consumption that is easily extended to other groups of krill predators.
Sitka spruce comprises the largest single forest type in Britain and provides a vast habitat for wildlife. However, many improvements are still possible. No species of bird or mammal occurs equally throughout a conifer rotation, their distribution being affected by both the temporal and spatial dynamics of plantations. We suggest a number of practical improvements, including the modifications to felling-coup size and the incorporation of other tree and shrub species, to increase the diversity and abundance of wildlife in Sitka spruce forests without seriously affecting the forest enterprise.
To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/ obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization.
A nationwide cross-sectional survey.
Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa.
A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren.
OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P < 0·01) more daily servings of snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90 % v. 72 %). Students in cities ate significantly (P < 0·01) more servings of snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES.
These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.
The Structure I type binary metal clathrates of K/Si, Rb/Si and Cs/Sn have been synthesised and studied by powder X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR. Rietveld analysis shows that in all three materials some of the cages are empty, and that in the Cs/Sn clathrate there are vacancies in the Sn framework. The NMR results yield Knight shifts for 29Si and 39K and confirm that the Cs/Sn clathrate is not conducting. Many of the features of the NMR spectra can be understood in terms of the distributions of atom vacancies.
It is shown that the interpretation of 129Xe chemical shift measurements in microporous solids is not simple, and that considerable caution must be used both in the measurement and interpretation of results, especially for large pore systems. Nevertheless, useful information can be obtained on the phase diagram of xenon in pore systems, and on transport within the solid and between the solid and the gas phase.
The sera of 3522 women who attended an antenatal clinic in Birmingham. England were tested anonymously for antibodies against HTLV-1. Samples from 5 women (0·14%) were positive, one serum showed indeterminate reactivity. Two of the women (0·06%) were born in the West Indies (of Afro-Caribbean ethnic origin), one (0·03%) in Africa (of African ethnic origin), and three (0·09%) were white Caucasian women born in the UK. Thus, HTLV-1 infection in pregnant women in the UK, though comparatively rare, is not negligible. As transmission of HTLV-1 to the newborn via breast milk has been observed and as seropositive mothers can be advised to refrain from breastfeeding or to treat their milk, the question of routine screening for HTLV-1 infection during antenatal care is discussed.
Isothiocyanates have been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of brassica vegetables. When cabbage is consumed, sinigrin is hydrolysed by plant or microbial myrosinase partly to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is mainly excreted as N-acetylcysteine conjugates (NAC) of AITC in urine. The effect of cooking cabbage on the excretion of NAC of AITC, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) activity in rat liver and colon was investigated. Germ-free (GF) and human faecal microbiota-associated (HFM) rats were fed a control diet containing 20 % raw, lightly cooked, or fully cooked cabbage for 14 d. When plant myrosinase was present, excretion of NAC of AITC/24 h was increased by 1·4 and 2·5 times by the additional presence of microbial myrosinase after consumption of raw and lightly cooked cabbage respectively. When plant myrosinase was absent, as after consumption of fully cooked cabbage, excretion of the AITC conjugate was almost zero in GF and HFM rats. None of the cabbage diets modified hepatic GST activity. When microbiota was absent, colonic GST was 1·3-fold higher after fully cooked cabbage, and hepatic UGT was increased by 1·4–1·8-fold after all cabbage diets, compared with the control feed. There were no differences in GST or UGT following cabbage consumption when microbiota was present. It is possible that other constituents of cabbage, rather than metabolites of glucosinolates per se, may be responsible for changes in phase 2 enzyme activity. The main effect of cooking cabbage and altering colonic microbiota was on excretion of NAC of AITC.
Glucosinolate consumption from brassica vegetables has been implicated in reduction of cancer risk. The isothiocyanate breakdown products of glucosinolates appear to be particularly important as chemoprotective agents. Before consumption, brassica vegetables are generally cooked, causing the plant enzyme, myrosinase, to be denatured, influencing the profile of glucosinolate breakdown products produced. Some human intestinal microflora species show myrosinase-like activity (e.g. bifidobacteria). We aimed to increase bifidobacteria by offering a prebiotic (inulin) in a randomised crossover study. Six volunteers consumed inulin (10 g/d) for 21 d followed by a 21 d control period (no inulin). Treatment periods were reversed for the remaining six volunteers. During the last 5 d of each period two cabbage-containing meals were consumed. Total urine output was collected for 24 h following each meal. Cabbage was microwaved for 2 min (lightly cooked) or 5·5 min (fully cooked). Faecal samples were collected at the start and after the inulin and control treatments. Bifidobacteria were enumerated by real-time PCR. Allyl isothiocyanate production was quantified by measuring urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid (AMA). Bifidobacteria increased following prebiotic supplementation (P < 0·001) but there was no impact of this increase on AMA excretion. AMA excretion was greater following consumption of lightly cooked cabbage irrespective of prebiotic treatment (P < 0·001). In conclusion, the most effective way to increase isothiocyanate production may be to limit the length of time that brassica vegetables are cooked prior to consumption.
This paper presents the story of two calculating machines invented by Sir Samuel Morland (1625–95) in the 1660s. These instruments are the earliest known mechanical calculators made in England. Their designs are unusual and very much of their time. They appealed to some, especially at court, and were dismissed by others, such as Robert Hooke. The first part of the paper introduces Morland and the courtier–inventor's world, in which a reputation as a ‘machinist’ or an engineer could accompany high social status. It considers why a former diplomat and postal spy would turn to invention in general and to mechanical calculators in particular as a career move in the Restoration court. The second part addresses the instruments – attention to their design reveals Morland's inspiration. The paper concludes with an examination of the market for the calculators in London, Paris and Florence. While it is notable that the calculators circulated both in court and in the commercial sphere, even more interesting is the contrast between their receptions in these two spheres. The story of these machines and their maker helps flesh out the poorly understood world of the courtier–inventor in early modern England.
The isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, has been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of brassica vegetables. When broccoli is consumed, sulforaphane is released from hydrolysis of glucoraphanin by plant myrosinase and/or colonic microbiota. The influence of meal composition and broccoli-cooking duration on isothiocyanate uptake was investigated in a designed experiment. Volunteers (n 12) were each offered a meal, with or without beef, together with 150 g lightly cooked broccoli (microwaved 2·0 min) or fully cooked broccoli (microwaved 5·5 min), or a broccoli seed extract. They received 3 g mustard containing pre-formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) with each meal. Urinary output of allyl (AMA) and sulforaphane (SFMA) mercapturic acids, the biomarkers of production of AITC and sulforaphane respectively, were measured for 24 h after meal consumption. The estimated yield of sulforaphane in vivo was about 3-fold higher after consumption of lightly cooked broccoli than fully cooked broccoli. Absorption of AITC from mustard was about 1·3-fold higher following consumption of the meat-containing meal compared with the non meat-containing alternative. The meal matrix did not significantly influence the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin and its excretion as SFMA from broccoli. Isothiocyanates may interact with the meal matrix to a greater extent if they are ingested pre-formed rather than after their production from hydrolysis of glucosinolates in vivo. The main influence on the production of isothiocyanates in vivo is the way in which brassica vegetables are cooked, rather than the effect of the meal matrix.
The protective effects of brassica vegetables against cancer may be partly related to their glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are hydrolysed by plant myrosinase following damage of plant tissue. Isothiocyanates are one of the main groups of metabolites of glucosinolates and are implicated in the preventive effect against cancer. During cooking of brassica the glucosinolate–myrosinase system may be modified as a result of inactivation of plant myrosinase, loss of enzymic cofactors such as epithiospecifier protein, thermal breakdown and/or leaching of glucosinolates and their metabolites or volatilisation of metabolites. Cooking brassica affects the site of release of breakdown products of glucosinolates, which is the upper gastrointestinal tract following consumption of raw brassica containing active plant myrosinase. After consumption of cooked brassica devoid of plant myrosinase glucosinolates are hydrolysed in the colon under the action of the resident microflora. Feeding trials with human subjects have shown that hydrolysis of glucosinolates and absorption of isothiocyanates are greater following ingestion of raw brassica with active plant myrosinase than after consumption of the cooked plant with denatured myrosinase. The digestive fate of glucosinolates may be further influenced by the extent of cell rupture during ingestion, gastrointestinal transit time, meal composition, individual genotype and differences in colonic microflora. These sources of variation may partly explain the weak epidemiological evidence relating consumption of brassica to prevention against cancer. An understanding of the biochemical changes occurring during cooking and ingestion of brassica may help in the design of more robust epidemiological studies to better evaluate the protective effects of brassica against cancer.
Most mammals exhibit seasonal variation in the reproductive capacity of one or both sexes. While the female southern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus latifrons is a known seasonal breeder, the extent of seasonality in the male has not been documented. To examine this, gross body measurements including scrotal diameter and the dimensions of the accessory gland bulge were recorded and male reproductive tracts were examined between 1993 and 2000. Testes, epididymides and accessory glands from all males were dissected free of connective tissue and weighed. In addition, matched semen samples were collected over four time points in 2000 corresponding to the breeding season (September), immediately post-breeding season (November), during the non-breeding season (January), and immediately before the onset of the next breeding season (June) as determined from female reproductive status. Semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and analysed for volume, sperm number and motility characteristics. Ejaculate volume, total ejaculate sperm number, percentage motile sperm, and the sperm motility rating and index were all significantly elevated in September and significantly lower in November and January. This correlated with a significant increase in body weight, peri-cloacal gland width, and the weights of the prostate, Cowper's glands, urethral bulb and crus penis. The data confirm that male reproduction in the southern hairy-nosed wombat, like that of the female, is highly seasonal with a peak in reproductive capacity occurring in August–September and a reduction by November.