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We compared systematic and random survey techniques to estimate breeding population sizes of burrow-nesting petrel species on Marion Island. White-chinned (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and blue (Halobaena caerulea) petrel population sizes were estimated in systematic surveys (which attempt to count every colony) in 2009 and 2012, respectively. In 2015, we counted burrows of white-chinned, blue and great-winged (Pterodroma macroptera) petrels within 52 randomized strip transects (25 m wide, total 144 km). Burrow densities were extrapolated by Geographic Information System-derived habitat attributes (geology, vegetation, slope, elevation, aspect) to generate island-wide burrow estimates. Great-winged petrel burrows were found singly or in small groups at low densities (2 burrows ha−1); white-chinned petrel burrows were in loose clusters at moderate densities (3 burrows ha−1); and blue petrel burrows were in tight clusters at high densities (13 burrows ha−1). The random survey estimated 58% more white-chinned petrels but 42% fewer blue petrels than the systematic surveys. The results suggest that random transects are best suited for species that are widely distributed at low densities, but become increasingly poor for estimating population sizes of species with clustered distributions. Repeated fixed transects provide a robust way to monitor changes in colony density and area, but might fail to detect the formation/disappearance of new colonies.
The OSU-FEI Electron Microscopy Collaboratory multiplies the number of individuals who can experience hands-on advanced microscopy techniques. The microscopy classroom allows up to 33 attendees to operate, individually and in real time, electron microscopes as if they were sitting in front of the actual instruments. The communications link, a fast backbone augmented by Internet2, allows various microscopes to be operated from the classroom or by collaborators in another city. This system transforms the training of new users from a one-person-at-a-time session with an expert operator to a group collaborative activity that can include users from around the world.
In a survey of 471 patients, we collected self-reported weight and height data and asked about self-perceptions of provider support toward weight loss and other weight management concerns. Multivariable analysis found that respondents with higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely to report that a physician had told them that they were overweight (OR=3.49, 95% CI 2.06–5.89, P<0.001). However, this conversation was less likely to change their personal view of their weight (OR=0.62 per 5 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.45–0.86, P=0.004), or motivate them to lose weight (OR=0.67 per 5 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.50–0.91, P=0.009). Higher BMI was associated with higher weight-loss goals (P<0.001), while anticipated time to achieve those goals was increased (P<0.001). Physician involvement in weight management was important, but the patients’ needs and experiences differed by BMI. Approaches to addressing barriers and identifying resources for weight management should be tailored to individuals by considering BMI.
The ability of the aorta to buffer blood flow and provide diastolic perfusion (Windkessel function) is a determinant of cardiovascular health. We have reported cardiac dysfunction indicating downstream vascular abnormalities in young adult baboons who were intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) at birth as a result of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. Using 3 T MRI, we examined IUGR offspring (eight male, eight female; 5.7 years; human equivalent 25 years) and age-matched controls (eight male, eight female; 5.6 years) to quantify distal descending aortic cross-section (AC) and distensibility (AD). ANOVA showed decreased IUGR AC/body surface area (0.9±0.05 cm2/m2v. 1.2±0.06 cm2/m2, M±s.e.m., P<0.005) and AD (1.7±0.2 v. 4.0±0.5×10−3/mmHg, P<0.005) without sex difference or group-sex interaction, suggesting intrinsic vascular pathology and impaired development persisting in adulthood. Future studies should evaluate potential consequences of these changes on coronary perfusion, afterload and blood pressure.
In order to accurately estimate body composition at slaughter and to meet specific market targets, the influence of age at time of castration (surgical or immunological) on body composition and boar taint indicators must be determined for male pigs. In all, 48 males were randomly assigned to one of four management regimens: (1) entire male pigs (EM), (2) EM surgically castrated at ~40 kg BW and 10 weeks of age (late castrates; LC), (3) conventional, early surgical castrates (within 4 days of birth; EC) and (4) EM immunized with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog (primary dose at 30 kg BW and 8 weeks of age; booster dose at 70 kg and 14 weeks of age; IM). Pigs were fed corn and soybean meal-based diets that were not limiting in essential nutrients. Back fat was sampled on days −3, 8, 18 and 42, relative to administering the booster dose of GnRH analog at day 0, to determine androstenone concentrations (n=8 or 9/group). Fat androstenone concentrations in IM were lower than EM between days 8 and 42 after administering the booster dose (173 v. 863 ng/g, respectively; P<0.01), and were not different from surgically castrated males (EC and LC) after day 18. Slaughter occurred at ~115 kg BW, 42 days (6 weeks) after administering the booster dose for IM, and 10 and 20 weeks after surgical castration for LC and EC, respectively (n=8 or 9/group). At slaughter, live BW, liver weight as a percent of live BW, dissectible bone as a percent of cold carcass side, body protein and water contents and whole-body protein deposition decreased with time after surgical castration (linear; P<0.05), whereas dressing percentage, dissectible fat, probe fat depth and body fat content increased with time after surgical castration (linear; P<0.05). The IM had intermediate dressing percentage and dissected fat to EM and EC, whereas liver weight as a percent of live BW and body protein and lipid contents were not different from EM. Whole-body lipid deposition tended to be greater in IM than in EM between 14 and 20 weeks of age (373 v. 286 g/d; P=0.051). In conclusion, castration of male pigs after 6 weeks of age has a lasting effect on physical and chemical body composition. The relationship between time after castration and body composition may be developed to predict carcass composition and can be used to determine the ideal immunization schedule aimed at specific markets in the future.
Most of the atomic species originating in the solar atmosphere between the upper chromosphere and the corona have their strong characteristic wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum. A simple normal-incidence spectrometer system with solar blind detectors such as the Harvard instrument operating between approximately 250 Å and 1350 Å is ideally suited for observing in this most interesting range of the solar atmosphere where the temperature rises outward from 104 to 3 × 106 K. The temperature range represented by the various atomic and ionic species in the extreme ultraviolet is associated with many types of solar structure, prominences and filaments, the supergranulation cells and network, active regions and their associated loop structures and other features. Simultaneous observations in lines of different characteristic temperatures provide a three-dimensional probe of the solar atmosphere. In the instrument, the principal polychromatic position observes the Lyman continuum, Lα, C II, C III, O IV, O VI, and Mg x with seven detectors simultaneously from the same spatial image element, 5″ in size. Approximately 60 additional polychromatic positions are used routinely to carry out specific observing programs, for example, covering several lines of a given stage of ionization, observing lines or continuum from specific species of interest such as helium in prominences, comparing combinations of lines from a given ionic species such as O v where the relative intensities give a rather direct measurement of the density at a given temperature, or measuring differing positions in the Lyman continuum providing intensity measurements which can be interpreted in terms of the departure from ionization equilibrium.
We examine the trade-offs associated with using Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) interface for subject recruitment. We first describe MTurk and its promise as a vehicle for performing low-cost and easy-to-field experiments. We then assess the internal and external validity of experiments performed using MTurk, employing a framework that can be used to evaluate other subject pools. We first investigate the characteristics of samples drawn from the MTurk population. We show that respondents recruited in this manner are often more representative of the U.S. population than in-person convenience samples—the modal sample in published experimental political science—but less representative than subjects in Internet-based panels or national probability samples. Finally, we replicate important published experimental work using MTurk samples.
Several authors claimed that expression of suicidal ideation is one of the most important predictors of completed suicide. However, the strength of the association between suicidal ideation and subsequent completed suicide has not been firmly established in different populations. Furthermore, the absolute suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation is unknown. In this meta-analysis, we examined whether the expression of suicidal ideation predicted subsequent completed suicide in various populations, including both psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations.
A meta-analysis of cohort and case–control studies that assessed suicidal ideation as determinant for completed suicide in adults. Two independent reviewers screened 5726 articles for eligibility and extracted data of the 81 included studies. Pooled risk ratios were estimated in a random effects model stratified for different populations. Meta-regression analysis was used to determine suicide risk during the first year of follow-up.
The risk for completed suicide was clearly higher in people who had expressed suicidal ideation compared with people who had not, with substantial variation between the different populations: risk ratio ranging from 2.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.87) in affective disorder populations to 8.00 (95% CI 5.46–11.7) in non-psychiatric populations. In contrast, the suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation in the first year of follow-up was higher in psychiatric patients (risk 1.40%, 95% CI 0.74–2.64) than in non-psychiatric participants (risk 0.23%, 95% CI 0.10–0.54). Past suicide attempt-adjusted risk ratios were not pooled due to large underreporting.
Assessment of suicidal ideation is of priority in psychiatric patients. Expression of suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients should prompt secondary prevention strategies to reduce their substantial increased risk of suicide.
CRESST II is an experiment for direct WIMP search, using cryogenic detectors. the ratio of the two signals (temperature rise and scintillation light) measured for each interaction is an excellent parameter for discrimination of the radioactive background. the main remaining background is the neutron flux present at the experimental site, since neutrons produce the same signals as WIMPs do. Based on Monte Carlo simulations the present work shows how neutrons from different origins affect CRESST and which measures have to be taken into account to reach the sensitivity goal.
The analysis of high S/N spectra and photometric data of 60 Cyg shows that: (1) Pronounced long-term variations in spectra are accompanied with light variations. (2) The medium-term variations of RV could indicate that 60 Cyg is a spectroscopic binary. (3) Two independent structures dominate the rapid variability of both spectrum and light of the star.
We recently showed that the mRNA expression of genes encoding for specific nutrient sensing receptors, namely the free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) 1, 2, 3, and the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR) 2, undergo characteristic changes during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation in certain adipose tissues (AT) of dairy cows. We hypothesised that divergent energy intake achieved by feeding diets with either high or low portions of concentrate (60% v. 30% concentrate on a dry matter basis) will alter the mRNA expression of FFAR 1, 2, 3, as well as HCAR2 in subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) of dairy cows in the first 3 weeks postpartum (p.p.). For this purpose, 20 multiparous German Holstein cows were allocated to either the high concentrate ration (HC, n=10) or the low concentrate ration (LC, n=10) from day 1 to 21 p.p. Serum samples and biopsies of SCAT (tail head) and RPAT (above the peritoneum) were obtained at day −21, 1 and 21 relative to parturition. The mRNA abundances were measured by quantitative PCR. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. The FFAR1 and FFAR2 mRNA abundance in RPAT was higher at day −21 compared to day 1. At day 21 p.p. the FFAR2 mRNA abundance was 2.5-fold higher in RPAT of the LC animals compared to the HC cows. The FFAR3 mRNA abundance tended to lower values in SCAT of the LC group at day 21. The HCAR2 mRNA abundance was neither affected by time nor by feeding in both AT. On day 21 p.p. the HC group had 1.7-fold greater serum concentrations of propionic acid and lower concentrations of acetic acid (trend: 1.2-fold lower) compared with the LC group. Positive correlations between the mRNA abundance of HCAR2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-2 (PPARG2) indicate a link between HCAR2 and PPARG2 in both AT. We observed an inverse regulation of FFAR2 and FFAR3 expression over time and both receptors also showed an inverse mRNA abundance as induced by different portions of concentrate. Thus, indicating divergent nutrient sensing of both receptors in AT during the transition period. We propose that the different manifestation of negative EB in both groups at day 21 after parturition affect at least FFAR2 expression in RPAT.