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Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but predictors of treatment outcome are lacking, and little is known about its neural mechanisms. We recently identified longitudinal changes in neural correlates of conscious emotion regulation that scaled with clinical responses to CBT for MDD, using a negative autobiographical memory-based task.
We now examine the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during viewing of emotionally salient images as predictors of treatment outcome with CBT for MDD, and the relationship between longitudinal change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses and clinical outcomes. Thirty-two participants with current MDD underwent baseline MRI scanning followed by 14 sessions of CBT. The fMRI task measured emotional reactivity and emotion regulation on separate trials using standardized images from the International Affective Pictures System. Twenty-one participants completed post-treatment scanning. Last observation carried forward was used to estimate clinical outcome for non-completers.
Pre-treatment emotional reactivity Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal within hippocampus including CA1 predicted worse treatment outcome. In contrast, better treatment outcome was associated with increased down-regulation of BOLD activity during emotion regulation from time 1 to time 2 in precuneus, occipital cortex, and middle frontal gyrus.
CBT may modulate the neural circuitry of emotion regulation. The neural correlates of emotional reactivity may be more strongly predictive of CBT outcome. The finding that treatment outcome was predicted by BOLD signal in CA1 may suggest overgeneralized memory as a negative prognostic factor in CBT outcome.
Trench 330, begun in 1990, was extended. The earlier phases of building II were examined and in two places what is thought to be the bottom of the sequence has been found. A further area of building I was exposed. It is now thought likely that building I wholly post-dates building II and general considerations suggest that the whole sequence should be accommodated within the Ottoman Turkish period. Below the sequence a thick layer of possibly natural clay was discovered, which has interesting implications for the location of earlier settlement.
Trench 330. Below recent structures the remains of two (possibly related) complexes of buildings were uncovered. Building I was a sunken, probably rectangular, courtyard bounded by a colonnade. Building II was mud brick. Seven major phases were identified. Pottery suggests a terminus post quem in the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries AD.
Trench 340. Below very recent features was a brick barrack block, which probably dates to the 1930s. Below this was a building constructed on mud brick, of at least two principal phases, probably of similar date to Buildings I and II in Trench 330.
The Finds. Twenty-three coins were recovered. Two are probably comparatively early in date (Abbasid or Fatimid). Considerable quantities of pottery were recovered (see Appendices I and II). Other finds of note were a glass weight, probably of Fatimid date, and a small head carved in bone.
The fourth season of the Fezzan Project continued the interdisciplinary approaches of previous seasons. Geographical and environmental work focused principally in sampling sediments for scientific dating and with integrating ground observation with remote sensing data. Excavations continued at Old Germa, where the site has now reached Garamantian levels. In a separate development, the tentative identification has been made of an early mosque at the site, in an area adjacent to the G1 excavation trench. Substantial results were gained from work aimed at enhancing the important data recorded by Charles Daniels in his earlier excavations and survey in the Wadi al-Hayat. The enhancement of the Daniels' survey archive was integrated with completion of the wider prospection being undertaken by the new project. This survey included fieldwalking, standing building survey, analysis of the foggara irrigation systems and recording of rock art scenes. Finds work comprised the finalisation of a pottery type series for the Germa area, the study of small finds from the recent survey work, botanical analysis and completion of lithics recording. A programme of radiocarbon dating is now being undertaken to improve the phasing of sites and monuments. The first two volumes of final reports are now in preparation.
The Fezzan Project completed its five-year fieldwork cycle in 2001. The geographical research team located numerous additional palaeolake sites within the Edeyen Ubari, using a combination of Remote Sensing technology and field visits. Additional samples were taken for analysis and dating from many lake edge locations, relating to both the large Pleistocene lake and to the numerous smaller Holocene lakes that have been identified by the team. The excavations at Old Germa were taken down through Garamantian occupation levels to the natural subsoil below the earliest cultural horizon. The earliest activity, represented by a few mudbrick walls and hearths built directly on the natural soil, is believed to date to c. 400-300 BC. Traces of several phases of Garamantian buildings were uncovered, along with numerous rubbish pits, which yielded a rich assemblage of finds, including, for the first time, examples of Garamantian figurines, small 3-D sculptures of humans and animals. Work on the various classes of finds (pottery, small finds, lithics and other stone artefacts, metallurgical evidence, etc.) complemented the excavation work. In addition, a small amount of further survey work was carried out on sites in the Wadi al-Ajal, along with a contour survey of Old Germa and standing building survey at a number of other sites.
This short note presents a preliminary list of 21 radio-carbon dates obtained from field samples. The samples came from a variety of types of context (charcoal from hearths or middens, fragments of original timbers) from different types of site (farms, gsur, villages) of varying date (Roman, Byzantine/early Arab, Medieval). The results have been calibrated to present the dates in calendar years to one and two standard deviations. Some preliminary comments are advanced on the comparison between these dates and those derived from the study of the fineware pottery assemblages from the sites.
A fourth season of work was carried out in the Spring of 1984. The centrepiece of the programme was the investigation of the well-preserved farm in the Wadi el-Amud (Lamout). The main farm buildings were excavated, faunal and botanical samples were collected systematically from within and between them, the field systems and sluices were examined in detail and investigations begun on the geomorphological and hydrological context. This report presents the basic description of the archaeological data resulting from excavation and survey; a second report will present the results of the various laboratory studies which were generated by the field work.
This article describes the interdisciplinary methods developed by the UNESCO Libyan Valleys Survey in connection with the study of ancient agriculture. These methods combine the techniques of settlement archaeology with those of the earth sciences and palaeoeconomics. The interactive nature of the enquiry does not resolve all the questions, but it can help to re-shape those questions and suggest new lines of enquiry. The example of the Wadi Mansur is used here to demonstrate the application of both conventional and new techniques and the contribution this can make to our appreciation of ancient land use in an arid zone. This provisional statement of results describes the geomorphology of the wadi, the settlement archaeology, ceramic dating evidence, palaeoeconomic data (including palynological evidence), wadi wall technology and typology.
The principal aim of this season's investigations was to obtain contextual information on the geological, geo-morphological and hydrological processes operating within the environs of El Merj, to complement existing archaeological evidence. Provisional conclusions show that broad similarities exist between profiles obtained at two points on the site suggesting that the central area of the site has undergone a similar depositional history. The site seems to have been subject to regular inundation by flood events, occurring 1–2 times per year, which deposited significant quantities of silty-clay sediment eroded from terra rossa soils of the Jebel Akhdar. Less frequently, coarse-grained gravel and cobble deposits were introduced to the profiles, indicative of the effects of much rarer high magnitude floods.
The final season of the three-year programme to survey the central Tripolitanian pre-desert examined the region to the west of the regions of the Wadis Sofeggin and Zem Zem, casting important light on the route between the interior of Libya and the coast during the prehistoric and Roman periods. In particular, a detailed account is given of the archaeological sites of the Bir Scedua Basin and of the Severan fort at Gheriat el-Garbia.
Until the recent resumption of British fieldwork in the Fezzan, knowledge about the Garamantes was largely based on the interim reports of the extensive fieldwork carried out there by Charles Daniels between 1958 and 1977. Following the death of Charles Daniels in 1996, a new project based at the Universities of Leicester and Newcastle is undertaking the full publication of his work. This first interim report discusses progress with the preparation of a survey gazetteer for the Ubari-Germa area of the Wadi el-Agial, reports of the major excavations and the development of a ceramic type series on the basis of excavated material from Zinchecra, Germa and Saniat Gebril.
This article considers some of the ceramic evidence from Sabratha (the excavations of 1948-1951) and from the pre-desert to the south-east of the Gebel Gharian (the area of the UNESCO Libyan Valleys Survey). The association of fineware with different classes of site in the Valleys area is used to construct a chronological framework for settlement within the area. Some of the commoner coarseware types from Sabratha are illustrated and discussed.
The coastal alluvial fan sequences of Cyrenaica are important archives of environmental change data, but hitherto relatively little has been known about their formative processes and rates. The Wadi Zewana coastal fan near Tolmeita was studied and a range of dating techniques (U-Th, ESR and OSL) applied to selected components of the stratigraphy. The sequence spans the last two global glacial periods separated by an Interglacial. Cemented alluvial fan gravel units yielded U-Th leachate-residue ages of 201 ± 18 ka, 179 ± 15 ka and 138 ± 8 ka respectively. The fan toe units are interdigitated with bioclastic beach rock deposits dated to 150 ± 10.9 ka corresponding to an Interglacial high stand in sea level and marine recession sequence featuring transgressive lag gravels, beach sand and cemented aeolian dunes dated to 121 ± 8 ka. Within the Wadi Zewana catchment a complex cut and fill history is evidenced. Aggradation phases dated to 76 ± 4 ka, 42.1 ± 5.1 ka and 12.5 ± 1.5 ka are broadly coincident with global glacials and stadials, whilst during the Last Interglacial and successive interstadials the drainage system underwent entrenchment, manifested on the coastal plain as telescopic fan segmentation and associated fan head trenching.
Le code de la santé publique et notamment l’arrêté du 11 janvier 2007, relatif aux
limites et références de qualité des eaux brutes et des eaux destinées à la consommation
humaine, fixe quatre indicateurs de la qualité radiologique des eaux du robinet
globale, l’activité β globale, l’activité du tritium et la dose totale
indicative), ainsi que des valeurs guides et des références de qualité. Les chroniques
issues de la surveillance des eaux filtrées du Rhône aval montrent que, si la
radioactivité d’origine naturelle demeure bien évidemment constante au cours du temps, les
niveaux de contamination radioactive d’origine artificielle ont fortement diminué à partir
du début des années 90, de 10 à 100 fois suivant les radionucléides. Les données
soulignent également qu’aucune des limites d’activités α globale, β globale et en tritium n’a
été dépassée dans l’eau filtrée du Rhône aval au cours de l’ère industrielle nucléaire.
Les doses totales indicatives (DTI) calculées à partir des prélèvements d’eau filtrée du
Rhône aval (canal Philippe Lamour – Réseau hydraulique régional propriété de la région
Languedoc Roussillon géré par BRL), de l’Orb et de l’Hérault effectués en 2011 sont très
inférieures à la valeur de référence de 100 μSv/an. La contribution à la DTI des radionucléides
artificiels détectés dans ces hydrosystèmes est en outre négligeable (<0,01 %).
Une étude radioécologique a été menée sur les canaux rhodaniens du réseau hydraulique régional propriété de la région Languedoc Roussillon, gérés par BRL. Ces canaux transfèrent de l’eau du fleuve Rhône vers les territoires des départements du Gard et de l’Hérault à des fins d’irrigation et de production d’eau potable. Nos résultats montrent que les caractéristiques hydrauliques intrinsèques des canaux de transport d’eau influent sur la distribution solide/solution des éléments traces en transit et par conséquent sur leur transfert vers les milieux récepteurs. Si les concentrations en phase dissoute (eau filtrée) sont conservées, les concentrations en phase particulaire (matières en suspension et sédiments) sont significativement modifiées au cours du transit. Outre la ségrégation granulométrique des particules entre l’amont et l’aval du système, ces résultats sont très probablement liés à la production biologique autochtone (phyto et zooplancton). Ces résultats originaux soulignent le caractère atypique des canaux de transport d’eau quant au transfert des éléments potentiellement contaminants.