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Because of inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive function in people with age-related memory complaints, we examined how self-reports of sleep quality were related to multiple domains of both objective and subjective cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults.
A cross-sectional study involving analysis of baseline data, collected as part of a clinical trial.
Two hundred and three participants (mean age = 60.4 [6.5] years, 69.0% female) with mild memory complaints were asked to rate their sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and their memory performance using the Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), which measures self-awareness of memory ability. Neurocognitive performance was evaluated using the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Trail Making Test, Buschke Selective Reminding Test, and the Brief Visuospatial Test – Revised (BVMT-R).
Total PSQI scores were significantly associated with objective measures of sustained attention (CPT hit reaction time by block and standard error by block) and subjective memory loss (MFQ frequency and seriousness of forgetting). The PSQI components of (poorer) sleep quality and (greater) sleep disturbance were related to (worse) sustained attention scores while increased sleep latency and daytime sleepiness were associated with greater frequency and seriousness of forgetting.
Sleep quality is related to both objective measures of sustained attention and self-awareness of memory decline. These findings suggest that interventions for improving sleep quality may contribute not only to improving the ability to focus on a particular task but also in reducing memory complaints in middle-aged and older adults.
We analyse United States presidential appointee positions subject to Senate confirmation without a confirmed appointee in office. These “vacant” positions are byproducts of American constitutional design, shaped by the interplay of institutional politics. Using a novel dataset, we analyse appointee vacancies across executive branch departments and single-headed agencies from 1989 to 2013. We develop a theoretical model that uncovers the dynamics of vacancy onset and length. We then specify an empirical model and report results highlighting both position and principal–agent relations as critical to the politics of appointee vacancies. Conditional on high status positions reducing the frequency and duration of vacancies, we find important principal–agent considerations from a separation of powers perspective. Appointee positions in agencies ideologically divergent from the relevant Senate committee chair are vacant for less time than in ideologically proximal agencies. Importantly, this relationship strengthens as agency ideology diverges away from the chair and towards the chair’s party extreme.
Recent advances in gene editing technology promise much for medical advances and human well-being. However, in parallel domains, there have been objections to the use of such biotechnologies. Moreover, the psychological factors that govern the willingness to use gene editing technology have been underexplored to date. In this registered report, we sought to test whether pathogen disgust sensitivity is linked with opposition to gene editing. U.K.-based adult participants (N = 347) were recruited to this study. Gene editing attitudes reflected two largely distinct latent factors concerning enhancing human traits and treating medical disorders. In contrast to prediction, pathogen disgust sensitivity was related to greater support for gene editing in both of these domains. This result suggests that gene editing, at least in the current study, is not viewed as pathogenic, or that the perceived benefits of gene editing outweigh any perceived pathogen risk.
From the uncanny werewolf families and zombie border patrol guards in the novels of Stephen Graham Jones (Blackfeet) to the digital citizens and virtually-enhanced tourists in Cherokee writer Blake Hausman's novel Riding the Trail of Tears, Native Americans are creating strange and scintillating new worlds of unforeseen horrors and possibilities. Such works engage the popular genres of horror and fantasy in order to mobilize sophisticated political critiques of capitalism, globalization, and the colonial imbrications of Indigenous peoples, albeit in surprising, genre-bending forms. This chapter explores the features of this new and vibrant field, offering readings of some of its most provocative titles and suggesting ways that such works can help critics and readers chart fresh, productive pathways into both the histories and the futures of North American Indigenous populations. In the very act of strengthening and deepening the connections between the speculative and the real, Native writers craft methodologies of resistance.
This paper investigates party use of seniority systems to allocate nominations for elected and appointed offices. Such systems, which can regulate party members’ access to offices at multiple levels of their careers, are defined by two main rules or norms: an incumbent re-nomination norm and a seniority progression norm. Using comprehensive electoral and candidate data from Norwegian local and national elections from 1945 to 2019, we find systematic patterns consistent with these two norms. Our work illuminates an institutional aspect of candidate selection that the current literature has ignored while noting some of the important consequences of seniority-based nominations for party cohesion and stability.
Invasive species are widely recognized as a major threat to global diversity and an important factor associated with global change. Species distribution models (SDMs) have been widely applied to determine the range that invasive species could potentially occupy, but most examples focus on predictive variables at a single spatial scale. In this study, we simultaneously considered a broad range of variables related to climate, topography, land cover, land use, and propagule pressure to predict what areas in the southeastern United States are more susceptible to invasion by 45 invasive terrestrial plant species. Using expert-verified occurrence points from EDDMapS, we modeled invasion susceptibility at 30-m resolution for each species using a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling approach. We then analyzed how environmental predictors affected susceptibility to invasion at different spatial scales. Climatic and land-use variables, especially minimum temperature of coldest month and distance to developed areas, were good predictors of landscape susceptibility to invasion. For most of the species tested, human-disturbed systems such as developed areas and barren lands were more prone to be invaded than areas that experienced minimal human interference. As expected, we found that landscape heterogeneity and the presence of corridors for propagule dispersal significantly increased landscape susceptibility to invasion for most species. However, we also found a number of species for which the susceptibility to invasion increased in landscapes with large core areas and/or less-aggregated patches. These exceptions suggest that even though we found the expected general patterns for susceptibility to invasion among most species, the influence of landscape composition and configuration on invasion risk is species specific.
High numbers of people present with common mental health disorders and co-morbid personality disorder traits in primary care ‘Improving Access to Psychological Therapies’ (IAPT) services in England and they receive sub-optimal treatments. No previous studies have explored the treatment experiences or needs of this patient population in England.
This qualitative study explored the treatment experiences of patients (n = 22) with common mental health difficulties and co-morbid personality disorder as indicated by a score of 3 or more on the ‘Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale’ (SAPAS) in receipt of primary care-based IAPT treatment.
A qualitative health research approach was used. Qualitative individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audio recorded, data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework analysis approach.
Findings revealed a need to adapt away from prescriptive cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) treatment models towards more flexible, personalised and individualised treatment with this patient group. Time to emotionally offload, build a therapeutic relationship and link past experiences to presenting problems were highlighted as important.
For the first time, the needs and treatment experiences of this patient group have been explored. This paper provides a unique patient experience insight that should be considered when exploring new approaches to working with and developing effective interventions via a stepped care approach.
Fast pixelated detectors incorporating direct electron detection (DED) technology are increasingly being regarded as universal detectors for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), capable of imaging under multiple modes of operation. However, several issues remain around the post-acquisition processing and visualization of the often very large multidimensional STEM datasets produced by them. We discuss these issues and present open source software libraries to enable efficient processing and visualization of such datasets. Throughout, we provide examples of the analysis methodologies presented, utilizing data from a 256 × 256 pixel Medipix3 hybrid DED detector, with a particular focus on the STEM characterization of the structural properties of materials. These include the techniques of virtual detector imaging; higher-order Laue zone analysis; nanobeam electron diffraction; and scanning precession electron diffraction. In the latter, we demonstrate a nanoscale lattice parameter mapping with a fractional precision ≤6 × 10−4 (0.06%).
This chapter proposes that globalization of multinational enterprises (MNEs) can be viewed as involving self-organizing swarms searching for optimal solutions to challenges presented by new and rapidly changing organizational ecologies. These challenges include developing innovative strategies for leadership, communication, training, management style, organizational design, and so forth. In this model, optimization most effectively occurs through evolutionary performance-based processes rather than more rational, analytic ones. This chapter applies recent theory and research on swarm intelligence to globalization, relates it to work on building microcultures in MNEs and suggests that the combination of these two processes can lead to more “intelligent swarming.” The latter involves a more detailed description of the past solution attempts of one’s own work team and those of other potentially comparable teams, including a fuller explication of key ecological characteristics, identification of potentially relevant comparison ecologies, and accurate evaluation of solution outcomes. It also involves better data storage and retrieval. Conditions which nurture intelligent swarming are discussed. Two training activities that have been used in a variety of organizational contexts and adaptable to enhancing intelligent swarming are described – “World Café” and “Smart Swarming.”
The current study aimed to investigate availability and placement of healthy and discretionary (less healthy) food in supermarkets in Victoria, Australia, and examine variation by supermarket chain and area-level socio-economic disadvantage.
Cross-sectional supermarket audit. Measures included: (i) proportion of shelf space (in square metres) allocated to selected healthy and discretionary food and beverages; (ii) proportion of end-of-aisle, checkout and island bin displays containing discretionary food and beverages and (iii) proportion of space within end-of-aisle, checkout and island bin displays devoted to discretionary food and beverages.
Metropolitan areas of Melbourne and Geelong, Australia. Assessment: June–July 2019.
Random sample of 104 stores, with equal numbers from each supermarket group (Coles, Woolworths, Aldi and Independent stores) within strata of area-level socio-economic position.
Proportion of shelf space devoted to selected discretionary foods was greater for Independent stores (72·7 %) compared with Woolworths (65·7 %), Coles (64·8 %) and Aldi (63·2 %) (all P < 0·001). Proportion of shelf space devoted to selected discretionary food for all Coles, Woolworths and Aldi stores was 9·7 % higher in the most compared with the least disadvantaged areas (P = 0·002). Across all stores, 90 % of staff-assisted checkout displays and 50 % of end-of-aisle displays included discretionary food. Aldi was less likely to feature discretionary food in end-of-aisle and checkout displays compared with other supermarket groups.
Extensive marketing of discretionary food in all Australian supermarket chains was observed, which is likely to strongly influence purchasing patterns and population diets. Findings should be used to inform private and public sector policies to reduce marketing of discretionary food in supermarkets.
This study investigated whether the duration and type of screen time (ST) (TV viewing, recreational computer use, video gaming) is longitudinally associated with z-BMI and if these relationships are mediated by disordered eating (emotional, restrained).
At baseline, participants were n 1197 (T1; 60 % female) adolescents (mean age = 13·51 years) who completed surveys over 2 years. ST was assessed by a self-reported measure created by the investigative team, while emotional and restrained eating was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEB-Q). Height and weight were objectively measured to quantify z-BMI.
Thirty-one public and two private schools from the region of Ottawa, Canada.
Students in grades 7–12.
Parallel multiple mediation analyses revealed that more time spent watching TV at baseline is associated with higher z-BMI at T3 (total effect; B = 0·19, se = 0·07, P = 0·01, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·34), but no relationships were observed for total ST exposure or other types of ST and z-BMI. Disordered eating did not mediate the positive association between baseline TV viewing and z-BMI at T3.
TV viewing was longitudinally associated with higher z-BMI in a community-based sample of adolescents, but disordered eating behaviours did not mediate this relationship. However, other non-pathological eating behaviours may mediate the association between ST and obesity and warrant further investigation. Finding suggests that targeting reduction in youth’s TV viewing may be an effective component in the prevention of childhood obesity.
To quantify sales trends for key energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods and beverages over 5 years in Australia.
The Euromonitor Global Market Information Database and linear regression models were used to estimate average annual change in sales per capita of thirteen EDNP food categories and two EDNP beverage categories (defined using Australian Dietary Guidelines) over 5 years (2012–2017 for foods and 2011–2016 for beverages). The average annual change in sales was divided by the observed sales in 2012 (foods) or 2011 (beverages) to estimate the average percentage-change in sales per capita per annum.
All major retail outlets in Australia.
Euromonitor Global Market Information Database sales data.
Between 2012 and 2017, sales per capita per annum of frozen pizza (6 %), pastries (5 %), potato chips (crisps) (5 %), tortilla chips (3 %), chocolate confectionery (2 %), frozen processed potatoes (2 %), ice cream (2 %) and sugar confectionery (0·2 %) increased. There were no changes in sales of sweet biscuits, chocolate spreads and cakes, and sales of savoury biscuits and processed meat decreased (–2 and –1 %, respectively). Between 2011 and 2016, sales per capita per annum of sports and energy drinks increased (4 %), sales of regular (sugar-sweetened) cola (–6 %) and all non-cola soft drinks (–1 %) decreased and sales of diet cola did not change.
Sales of EDNP foods and beverages generally increased or remained stable relative to population growth. Our results demonstrate the need for public health policies to reduce sales of EDNP foods and beverages.
On coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid was frequently detected on high-touch surfaces, floors, and socks inside patient rooms. Contamination of floors and shoes was common outside patient rooms on the COVID-19 wards but decreased after improvements in floor cleaning and disinfection were implemented.
We evaluate the extent to which Coca-Cola tried to influence research in the Global Energy Balance Network, as revealed by correspondence between the company and leading public health academics obtained through Freedom-of-Information (FOI) requests.
US state FOI requests were made in the years 2015–2016 by US Right to Know, a non-profit consumer and public health group, obtaining 18 030 pages of emails covering correspondence between The Coca-Cola Company and public health academics at West Virginia University and University of Colorado, leading institutions of the Global Energy Balance Network. We performed a narrative, thematic content analysis of 18 036 pages of Coca-Cola Company’s emails, coded between May and December 2016, against a taxonomy of political influence strategies.
Emails identified two main strategies, regarding information and messaging and constituency building, associated with a series of practices and mechanisms that could influence public health nutrition. Despite publications claiming independence, we found evidence that Coca-Cola made significant efforts to divert attention from its role as a funding source through diversifying funding partners and, in some cases, withholding information on the funding involved. We also found documentation that Coca-Cola supported a network of academics, as an ‘email family’ that promoted messages associated with its public relations strategy, and sought to support those academics in advancing their careers and building their affiliated public health and medical institutions.
Coca-Cola sought to obscure its relationship with researchers, minimise the public perception of its role and use these researchers to promote industry-friendly messaging. More robust approaches for managing conflicts of interest are needed to address diffuse and obscured patterns of industry influence.