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Experiments are presented on the deformation of free surface induced by water exit of axisymmetric bodies, particular at the moment before body detaching from water. A set of experimental apparatus is designed to provide driving force for the bodies. A high-speed camera is adopted to capture the motion and deformation of the free surface. Bodies of various shapes, including a stretched spheroid, a sphere, a circular cone and a combination of cylinder and circular cone, are lifted out of water with different velocities, by using a straight rod attached on the top of models. It is found that free-surface deformation is affected by the moving velocity a lot. Three wake flow or free-surface spike patterns are generated corresponding to different velocities. When the velocity is larger than a critical velocity, cavitation incepts and bubble is entrapped inside the water spike, which changes the flow pattern and shape of the spike. It is aimed to explore the spike phenomenon of free surface and explain the reasons behind it.
Hyperbolic polariton modes are highly appealing for a broad range of applications in nanophotonics, including surfaced enhanced sensing, sub-diffractional imaging, and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Here we show that attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-spectroscopy using standard spectroscopic tools can launch hyperbolic polaritons in a Kretschmann–Raether configuration. We measure multiple hyperbolic and dielectric modes within the naturally hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride as a function of different isotopic enrichments and flake thickness. This overcomes the technical challenges of measurement approaches based on nanostructuring, or scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy. Ultimately, our ATR approach allows us to compare the optical properties of small-scale materials prepared by different techniques systematically.
To observe the five-year efficacy of standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy for house dust mite allergy in monosensitised and polysensitised children with persistent allergic rhinitis.
From January 2007 to August 2009, 236 children with persistent allergic rhinitis were divided into 2 groups: 1 group received standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract; the other received pharmacotherapy with intranasal corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. A total of 193 patients (106 in the immunotherapy group and 87 in the pharmacotherapy group) completed treatment. Scores for symptoms, total medication and quality of life were evaluated.
The subcutaneous immunotherapy group demonstrated a significant reduction in visual analogue scale scores, Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores and total medication scores (p < 0.05) compared with the pharmacotherapy group. No significant differences in the visual analogue scale and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores were found between the polysensitised and monosensitised subgroups (p > 0.05). No serious adverse events occurred.
Standardised subcutaneous immunotherapy has long-term efficacy for children with persistent allergic rhinitis. Single-allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy was appropriate for allergic rhinitis caused by multiple allergens, including house dust mites, in the paediatric population.
It is important to identify molecular candidates involved in morphological and functional changes in the female reproductive system. We have discovered several candidate genes that were significantly altered in chick oviducts by exogenous estrogen and those candidates included dexamethasone (DEX)-induced RAS-related protein 1 (RASD1). RAS-related protein 1, a member of the Ras family of monomeric G proteins, is involved in various cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation and differentiation, as well as a cell-signaling protein regulating hormonal actions. Although the RASD1 gene was first identified as a DEX (a corticosteroid) inducible gene, there is evidence that it is also an estrogen-responsive gene. However, hormone-mediated expression and biological functions of RASD1 in the avian female reproductive system are poorly understood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that RASD1 may be involved in the development and remodeling of the chicken reproductive system as an estrogen-responsive gene. Here we demonstrate differential expression of RASD1 gene and candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting chicken RASD1 transcripts in chicken oviducts in response to diesthylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic non-steroidal estrogen) and the estrogen-mediated molting process. Result of the present study indicated that expression of RASD1 messenger RNA (mRNA) increased in the developing oviducts of chicks treated with DES, particularly in the glandular (GE) and luminal (LE) epithelia of the magnum and the shell gland. Also, during induced molting by zinc feeding, RASD1 expression changed in concert with changes in concentrations of estrogen in blood of laying hens. Our results revealed that expression of RASD1 mRNA decreased as the oviduct regressed and then increased as the oviduct underwent re-growth and recrudescence in hens. Furthermore, RASD1 mRNA was expressed predominantly in GE and LE of the oviduct of laying hens during regeneration of the oviduct after induced molting, but not during the period of regression of the oviduct during molting. In addition, the relative expression of candidate miRNAs (miR-30a-5p, miR-30b-5p, miR-30c-5p and miR-30d) regulating RASD1 transcripts changed in response to estrogen stimulation of chick oviducts. These results indicate that transcription of the RASD1 gene and miRNAs regulating post-transcriptional aspects of expression of RASD1 are modulated by estrogen which is critical for growth, development, remodeling and maintenance of function of the chicken oviduct.
Macrosomia, not only is closely associated with short-term, birth-related problems, but also has long-term consequences for the offspring. We investigated the expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the placenta of macrosomia births using a microarray profile. The data showed that 2929 lncRNAs and 4574 mRNAs were upregulated in the placenta of macrosomia births compared with the normal birth weight group (fold change ⩾2.0, P<0.05), and 2127 lncRNAs and 2511 mRNAs were downregulated (fold change ⩾2.0, P<0.05). To detect the function of the differentially expressed lncRNAs and their possible relationship with the differentially expressed mRNAs, we also performed gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis. The results demonstrated that the PI3K-AKT signalling pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, the focal adhesion pathway, the B cell receptor signalling pathway, and the protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome pathway were significantly differentially expressed in the macrosomia placenta. Four lncRNAs were randomly chosen from the differentially expressed lncRNAs to validate the microarray data by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The qPCR results were consistent with the microarray data. In conclusion, lncRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in the placenta of macrosomia patients, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of macrosomia.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
Human cystic echinococcosis is a widespread, chronic, endemic, helminthic zoonosis caused by larval tapeworms of the species Echinococcus granulosus. At present, there is no rational and effective therapy for patients with echinococcosis. The present study evaluated whether the combination of alkaloids from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds (SMSa2) and Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) was effective in the treatment of experimental echinococcosis. After 20 weeks of secondary infection with protoscoleces, mice were randomly allocated to five groups and treated for 6 weeks by daily intragastric administration of albendazole (ABZ, 100 mg/kg), SMSa2 (100 mg/kg), BCG (abdominal subcutaneous injection at 5 × 106 CFU), SMSa2 + BCG (100 mg/kg SMSa2 and 5 × 106 CFU BCG) or normal saline (untreated group), respectively. The results indicated a significant reduction in the weight of hydatid cysts in the SMSa2 + BCG group compared with the untreated, SMSa2 and BCG groups. The rate of inhibition of hydatid cyst growth in the SMSa2 + BCG group (76.1%) was obviously increased compared with that in the SMSa2 (25.7%) and BCG (26.6%) groups, respectively. Compared with the untreated control, the SMSa2 + BCG group showed a non-significant increase in serum interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, the serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) between the untreated and SMSa2 + BCG groups were not statistically different. Therefore, the combination of alkaloids from S. moorcroftiana seeds and BCG can reduce cyst burden and is an effective therapeutic regimen against echinococcosis.
The in vivo effects of administering free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 cells (2·0×109 colony-forming units/d) were evaluated in high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Results from real-time quantitative PCR targeting to LIP-1 cells showed a higher colon colonisation count of LIP-1 in the rats receiving microencapsulated cells compared with free cells (P<0·05). Moreover, the microencapsulated LIP-1 treatment resulted in a more obvious lipid-lowering effect (P<0·05). Meanwhile, their faecal samples had significantly less lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria (especially Bilophila, Sutterella and Oscillibacter) and mucosa-damaging bacteria (Bilophila and Akkermansia muciniphila), whereas significantly more SCFA-producing bacteria (P<0·05) (namely Lactobacillus, Alloprevotella, Coprococcus, Eubacterium and Ruminococcus) and bacteria that potentially possessed bile salt hydrolase activity (Bacteroides, Clostridium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus), and other beneficial bacteria (Alistipes and Turicibacter). Further, Spearman’s correlation analysis showed significant correlations between some of the modulated gut bacteria and the serum lipid levels. These results together confirm that microcapsulation enhanced the colon colonisation of LIP-1 cells, which subsequently exhibited more pronounced effects in improving the gut microbiota composition of hyperlipidaemic rats and lipid reduction.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: “Loss to follow up” is a common phenomenon and challenge in clinical medicine. Missed appointments are a well-documented source of waste in the health care system, and can lead to strained patient-physician relationships and inferior quality of care. Meningiomas are relatively common, benign tumors that arise from the dural coverings of the brain. Although complete surgical resection is considered curative, surgically excised meningiomas have a well-documented propensity to recur, necessitating continued imaging surveillance of postresection patients. A recent retrospective study at our institute demonstrated that 20% of postresection patients fail to return for follow up within a year of their surgery. Although social determinants of health have been associated with failure to follow up in this population, there has been no research identifying patient-reported barriers that result in loss to follow up in this patient population. The purpose of this study is to identify specific barriers that prevent patients from returning for surveillance. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used an IRB approved, prospective brain tumor clinical database to identify patients who underwent surgical resection of intracranial meningioma at our institution between 2001 and 2013. “Loss to follow up” was defined as failure to attend follow-up appointments with neurosurgery, radiation oncology, or neuro-oncology within a year of the most recent assigned follow-up interval, as recorded in the electronic medical record. Structured interviews were conducted with patients who met study criteria and specific barriers to follow-up were elicited, transcribed, and coded. In 2 cases, a primary caregiver participated in all or portions of the interview with the patient. A general assessment of patient knowledge about meningioma and a screening for basic health literacy were also conducted. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There were 80 patients in the brain tumor clinical database met chart review criteria for inclusion in the study. A total of 9 structured interviews were conducted; 1 interview was excluded from analysis for failure to meet study criteria. In total, 24 unique obstacles to follow up were recorded. These were stratified and grouped into 4 broad categories: 2 of 8 (25%) patients identified environmental factors, including distance to appointment and challenges with insurance coverage as barriers to follow up; 2 patients (25%) identified psychosocial factors, including poor communication with and distrust of their neurosurgeon as barriers to follow up; 2 (25%) patients identified health factors, including poor health and old age, as barriers to follow up; 6 patients identified healthcare systems factors as barriers to follow up, with 6 patients (75%) reporting seeing a non-specialist for follow up after surgery and 4 patients (50%) reporting not being told by their neurosurgeon that they would need continued follow up. Of those patients seen by non-specialists, only 1 reported any recent brain imaging by those providers. All patients had limited to no prior knowledge of meningiomas before their diagnosis. Four (50%) patients reported satisfaction with the level education about meningiomas they received from their physician. Of these patients, 3 (75%) correctly reported that meningiomas may recur following surgery. Of the patients who did not report satisfaction with physician counseling, 3 (75%) did not realize that meningiomas can recur. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Healthcare system factors, including uncoordinated transition of postoperative care to non-neurosurgeons and uncertain postoperative surveillance schedules, represent that most common patient-identified barriers to follow up after meningioma resection. Improving transition of care from specialists to non-specialists, including designation of appropriate imaging surveillance schedules, as well as improving communication between specialists and patients about the need for continued follow up, represent clear points for intervention that could improve care for this patient population. In addition, consistent and clear counseling about meningioma and its disease course may reduce loss to follow up following meningioma resection. It is important to note, however, that the small sample size represents a significant limitation of the study.
Neuroticism, a ‘Big Five’ personality trait, has been associated with sub-clinical traits of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the current study was to examine whether causal overlap between ASD and ADHD traits can be accounted for by genetic and environmental risk factors that are shared with neuroticism. We performed twin-based structural equation modeling using self-report data from 12 items of the Neo Five-Factor Inventory Neuroticism domain, 11 Social Responsiveness Scale items, and 12 Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale items obtained from 3,170 young adult Australian individual twins (1,081 complete pairs). Univariate analysis for neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits suggested that the most parsimonious models were those with additive genetic and unique environmental components, without sex limitation effects. Heritability of neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits, as measured by these methods, was moderate (between 40% and 45% for each respective trait). In a trivariate model, we observed moderate phenotypic (between 0.45 and 0.62), genetic (between 0.56 and 0.71), and unique environmental correlations (between 0.37and 0.55) among neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits, with the highest value for the shared genetic influence between neuroticism and self-reported ASD traits (rg = 0.71). Together, our results suggest that in young adults, genetic, and unique environmental risk factors indexed by neuroticism overlap with those that are shared by ASD and ADHD.
Studies from high-income countries report moderate-to-strong positive associations between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other mental disorders, but there is little evidence about the comorbidity of AUD from low-and-middle-income countries.
A sample of 74 752 adults from five provinces that account for >12% of China's adult population was screened using the General Health Questionnaire, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was administered by psychiatrists to a subsample of 9619 males. The associations between AUD and other mental disorders at each site and the characteristics of men with AUD with and without comorbid mental disorders were estimated using logistic regression and summarized across sites using meta-analysis. Generalized estimation equations estimated the associations between the clinical features of alcohol dependence and comorbidity.
Robust inverse associations were found between current AUD and any mood disorder (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8) and any anxiety disorder (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3–1.0). Compared with men without AUD, men with AUD without comorbid disorders were more likely to be middle-aged, to be currently married, and to have higher family incomes. Men with comorbid AUD and other disorders were more likely to have the clinical features of alcohol dependence than men with AUD without comorbid disorders.
Inverse associations between AUD and other mental disorders and the higher social status of men with AUD than men without AUD found in this large, representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese males highlight the importance of considering the local substance-use culture when designing clinical or preventive interventions for addictive conditions.
Astronomy cloud computing environment is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). Based on virtualization technology, astronomy cloud computing environment was designed and implemented by China-VO team. It consists of five distributed nodes across the mainland of China. Astronomer can get compuitng and storage resource in this cloud computing environment. Through this environments, astronomer can easily search and analyze astronomical data collected by different telescopes and data centers , and avoid the large scale dataset transportation.
There have been a number of studies that have attempted to estimate the past radiocarbon reservoir effects in Qinghai Lake, China. This article reports on measurements on modern samples collected at the lake in October 2003 and October 2009, which allow us to better understand the systematics of the lake and shed new insights on the processes occurring in the lake. The results indicate that atmospheric exchange of 14C is the main process affecting surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the lake, but dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can be explained as a combination of sources. We also conclude that sediment carbon can be explained by a model where input from the surrounding rivers and groundwater are important, in agreement with the model of Yu et al. (2007).
The disk of the Milky Way suffered from the tidal effect as the Magellanic Clouds were passing by. Numerical stimulations were performed to study the evolution of the mass distribution in this disk. These simulations were run with the galactic disk initially flat, and different sets of the initial position and velocity of the Magellanic Clouds were considered. One of the most conspicuous observational facts is the warp of the disk of the Milky Way. Results show that the characteristics of this warp are related to the orbit of the Magellanic Clouds.
We have carried out a multiproxy analysis of high-resolution eutrophic peat/mud, sand dune, and loess/paleosol sequences covering the Holocene period in both southern and northern China, in order to test the hypothesis of a time-transgressive Holocene optimum in the East Asian monsoon area (An et al. 2000). Samples were radiocarbon dated to establish the chronology. Our results indicate that the Holocene optimum occurred between ∼10,000–5000 cal yr ago in both southern and northern China, consistent with a global pattern rather than simply a local expression. Our data also support the conclusion that the evolution of Holocene climate in China is consistent with changes in Northern Hemisphere solar radiation.
There are six strains of the complete genomic sequences of black queen cell virus (BQCV) published in the GenBank, including South Africa (AF183905), South Korea (JX149531), Hungary 10 (EF517515), Poland 4 (EF517519), Poland 5 (EF517520) and Poland 6 (EF517521). Based on the six BQCV strains published in the GenBank, ten pairs of primers were designed in the present study using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to obtain the first complete genome sequence of a BQCV strain in China, called the BQCV China-JL1 strain (KP119603). A phylogenetic tree was then built to analyse their genetic relationships. The BQCV China-JL1 strain showed 86–93% similarity with the six strains published in the GenBank. The BQCV China-JL1 strain consisted of 8358 nucleotides (nt). The 5′-proximal open reading frame (ORF1) initiated at nt position 546 and terminated at nt position 4676, ORF3 initiated at nt position 4891 and terminated at nt position 5433, and the 3′-proximal ORF (ORF2) was located between nt positions 5750 and 8203.
This survey examines the geometrically nonlinear bending of a doubly clamped nanobeam that is subjected to combined actions of actuator voltage, prestress, and intermolecular force, with the pull-in instability as the primary objective. A nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, which takes the small scale effect into account, is developed making use of the principle of virtual displacement on the basis of Eringen's nonlocal theory in conjunction with von Kármán assumption. Due to complexity of the resulting equations, a shooting technique is established through taking the applied voltage as an unknown and the central deflection as a control parameter. This treatment has the capability of tackling the nonlinearities from both the large deformation and electrostatic force as well as the intermolecular force and enables the size dependent deflection response to an applied voltage of the nanobeam to be obtained conveniently. Validation is conducted in numerical examples through direct comparisons with existing solutions to confirm the proposed method. Parametric studies are undertaken addressing the impacts of the nonlocal effect, intermolecular force, residual stress, and geometry of the beam on the pull-in behaviors.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.