Three experiments (EXP) were conducted to determine the role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the control of growth hormone (GH) and LH secretion. In EXP I, prepuberal gilts, 65 ± 6 kg body weight and 140 days of age received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of saline (n = 4), 25 μg (n = 4) or 75 μg (n = 4) IGF-I and jugular blood samples were collected. In EXP II, anterior pituitary cells in culture collected from 150-day-old prepuberal gilts (n = 6) were challenged with 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM [Ala15]-h growth hormone-releasing hormone-(1-29)NH2 (GHRH), or 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I individually or in combinations with 1000 nM GHRH. Secreted GH was measured at 4 and 24 h after treatment. In EXP III, anterior pituitary cells in culture collected from 150-day-old barrows (n = 5) were challenged with 10, 100 or 1000 nM gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I individually or in combinations with 100 nM GnRH. Secreted LH was measured at 4 h after treatment. In EXP I, serum GH and LH concentrations were unaffected by ICV IGF-I treatment. In EXP II, relative to control all doses of GHRH increased (P < 0.01) GH secretion. Only 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I enhanced (P < 0.02) basal GH secretion at 4 h, whereas by 24 h all doses except for 30 nM IGF-I suppressed (P < 0.02) basal GH secretion compared to control wells. All doses of IGF-I in combination with 1000 nM GHRH increased (P < 0.04) the GH response to GHRH compared to GHRH alone at 4 h, whereas by 24 h all doses of IGF-I suppressed (P < 0.04) the GH response to GHRH. In EXP III, all doses of IGF-I increased (P < 0.01) basal LH levels while the LH response to GnRH was unaffected by IGF-I (P > 0.1). In conclusion, under these experimental conditions the results suggest that the pituitary is the putative site for IGF-I modulation of GH and LH secretion. Further examination of the role of IGF-I on GH and LH secretion is needed to understand the inhibitory and stimulatory action of IGF-I on GH and LH secretion.