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Introduction/Innovation Concept: Student Run Simulation Team (SRST) is an extracurricular medical student group that provided peers with opportunities to learn and teach principles of acute care medicine in a simulated environment. Early exposure to simulation has been identified as a way for medical students to engage in self-directed education. SRST operated through a peer-led model. Senior medical students designed and delivered didactic sessions, simulation scenarios, and debriefed the scenarios to emphasise targeted objectives. Methods: Informal interviews conducted by the SRST as part of a needs analysis identified barriers to an effective transition from pre-clerkship to clerkship. Specifically, principles of team dynamics including effective communication and role clarification in emergency situations were identified as areas where students lacked confidence. The curriculum focused on leadership and an effective team approach to common acute presentations. SRST members acquired simulation skills under the guidance of a simulation team at the University of Calgary. In the inaugural year, 8 second year students developed and delivered the curriculum to 16 first year students. Quality improvement surveys and participant feedback contributed to ongoing program review and refinement. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: Didactic lectures and task-trainer based skills sessions were created to assist the medical students in developing a foundational approach to a patient presenting to the emergency department. Three distinct simulations of increasing complexity were designed for students to build on their skills. SRST members worked with simulation consultants during 4 custom designed training sessions to develop simulation skills (design and debriefing). The distinguishing aspect of SRST is an emphasis on the non-technical skills of teamwork, leadership, and communication, rather than knowledge acquisition alone. The structure also included a succession plan for continued peer-led education where the student participants will form the next year’s team and will receive similar simulation education. Conclusion: SRST is the first student-run simulation initiative to be established in a Canadian medical school. This near-peer team allowed for early practice of non-technical skills in emergency settings. SRST facilitated opportunities for simulation education for both the junior students as participants, and the senior medical students as educators. This is an ongoing initiative, with plans to continue program development in future years.
The electronic properties of ThO2 single crystals were studied using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results show that the Th 4f core level is in an oxidation state that is consistent with that expected for Th in ThO2. The effective Debye temperature is estimated from the temperature dependent photoemission intensities of the Th 4f core level over the temperature range of 290 to 360 K. A Debye temperature of 468±32 K has been determined.
Between 1750 and 1870 – from the publication of the Encyclopédie to the early work of Nietzsche and of Darwin's Descent of man – the relationship of science and religion in the western world passed from fruitful co-operation and modest tensions to harsh public conflict, a situation that many observers have since come incorrectly to assume to be a permanent fact of modern cultural life. To understand that Victorian clash and why historians and others should not draw excessively pessimistic conclusions from it, one must analyse the earlier nineteenth-century relations of science and religion so as to present the late-century controversy as an event to be explained rather than as an inevitable occurrence arising from necessary, existential hostilities.
Many years ago Gordon Allport observed, ‘A narrowly conceived science can never do business with a narrowly conceived religion’. Such narrow conceptions had not prevailed in 1750, but as a result of transformations within scientific and religious communities and changes in the structure of publication, education, and wider cultural discourse a narrowing of focus had come into being by the middle of the nineteenth century and with that narrowing the conflict of science and religion. In this respect Thomas Henry Huxley wrote more presciently than he may have realized when he once claimed:
The antagonism between science and religion about which we hear so much, appears to me to be purely factitious – fabricated, on the one hand, by short-sighted religious people who confound a certain branch of science, theology, with religion; and, on the other, by equally short-sighted scientific people who forget that science takes for its province only that which is susceptible of clear intellectual comprehension.
‘The aim of physical science is to observe and interpret natural phenomena’, declared British physicist James Clerk Maxwell in the South Kensington Museum handbook. Although most of his contemporaries would readily have agreed with Maxwell, presentday intellectual historians and historians of science believe that the analysis and understanding of the Victorian scientific enterprise, as well as of science generally, must extend far beyond the parameters suggested by Maxwell's definition. Numerous recent studies have firmly established that much of the intellectual content, methodological orientation, and professional organization of science cannot be separated from its social and cultural environments even if those environments are not wholly determinant of scientific activity. Scientists in their capacity as observers and interpreters of physical nature still remain part of the larger social order, and between them and it there exists a dialectical relationship of mutual influence and interaction. As one element of this complex situation, scientists find that they must justify their activities to the political powers and other social institutions upon whose good will, patronage, funding, and cooperation they depend. Indeed in the past century and a half no single group of Western intellectuals has more successfully persuaded both governments and private foundations and corporations of their worthiness for receiving financing as have those persons engaged in scientific activity. The body of rhetoric, argument, and polemic produced in this particular process may be termed public science, and those who sustain this particular enterprise may be regarded as public scientists.
The essays in this volume, composed over a period of twenty years, reflect portions of my exploration of Victorian intellectual life. I commenced that effort as a graduate student suspicious that many of the categories used to understand the Victorians were inadequate and misleading. As I read further Victorian writers, I repeatedly encountered passages that did not fit the patterns of interpretation that then generally predominated. As time passed, I came to the firmer conviction that the history of the nineteenth century whether in Great Britain or elsewhere was still to be written. So long as Victorian scholars tended to interpret their field largely according to the categories and values bequeathed them by Victorian writers themselves, the scholarly enterprise could not extend beyond the intellectual and cultural boundaries established by the nineteenthcentury writers for their own purposes. Those boundaries have now begun to shift as new categories have been introduced, as Victorians previously unread by scholars have become read, and as the contemporary polemical purposes of Victorian writers have been recognized. As a consequence, the experience of the Victorians and their intellectual activity can no longer be regarded as unproblematic, inevitable, or quaint.