To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
This study proposes two multimodal frameworks to classify pathological voice samples by combining acoustic signals and medical records. In the first framework, acoustic signals are transformed into static supervectors via Gaussian mixture models; then, a deep neural network (DNN) combines the supervectors with the medical record and classifies the voice signals. In the second framework, both acoustic features and medical data are processed through first-stage DNNs individually; then, a second-stage DNN combines the outputs of the first-stage DNNs and performs classification. Voice samples were recorded in a specific voice clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital, including three common categories of vocal diseases, i.e. glottic neoplasm, phonotraumatic lesions, and vocal paralysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework yields significant accuracy and unweighted average recall (UAR) improvements of 2.02–10.32% and 2.48–17.31%, respectively, compared with systems that use only acoustic signals or medical records. The proposed algorithm also provides higher accuracy and UAR than traditional feature-based and model-based combination methods.
Fatigue properties of Mo/W multilayers with individual layer thickness (λ) of 5, 20, 50 and 100 nm on flexible polyimide substrates were investigated. The experimental results show that the fatigue resistance increases with decreasing λ from 100 nm to 20 nm, and reaches the maximum at λ=20 nm, and then decreases when further decreasing λ. Fatigue cracks of Mo/W multilayers with different λ were found to propagate along columnar grain boundary in the out-of-plane direction and along the boundary of cluster structures. The enhanced fatigue resistance is attributed to the larger cluster inclination angles and the more tortuous in-plane cracking paths.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
In the drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet system, deformation process and the direct relations between the droplet motions and the liquid properties have been seldom investigated, although they are very critical for the printing accuracy. In this study, experiments and computational simulations regarding deformation of a single droplet driven by a piezoelectric nozzle have been conducted to address the deformation characteristics of droplets. It is found that the droplet deformation is influenced by the pressure wave propagation in the ink channel related to the driven parameters and reflected in the subsequent droplet motions. The deformation extent oscillates with a certain period of
and a decreasing amplitude as the droplet moves downwards. The deformation extent is found strongly dependent on the capillary number (
), first ascending and then descending as the number increases. The maximum value of the deformation extent is surprisingly found to be within range of 0.068–0.082 of the
number regardless of other factors. Furthermore, the Rayleigh’s linear relation of the oscillation frequency of the droplet to the parameter,
is the surface tension coefficient,
is the density and
is the droplet’s radius), is updated with a smaller slope shown both by experiment and simulation.
China is expected to become one of the largest markets for prescription drugs in the world and pharmaceutical advertising is becoming increasingly important, particularly in the socially and culturally contested area of mental health. This article briefly explores the background of drug advertising policies in China and the UK and focuses on the distinctive challenges of antidepressant drug regulation. Then, using tools of critical discourse analysis, it examines Chinese antidepressant adverts, and compares them with relevant British adverts. The findings indicate that, relative to the UK, Chinese antidepressant adverts are generally oversimplified, and the critical information concerning the concepts of caution, danger and adverse effects are underrepresented. However, there are many interdependent factors that contribute to the distinctive Chinese antidepressant drug regulatory regime. Hence, Chinese policymakers must maintain a delicate balance between learning from Western regulatory regimes, but also avoiding borrowing too heavily from them.
Baissogryllidae is an extinct family of the insect superfamily Grylloidea, previously known from Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous time. A new genus and species, Sinagryllus xinjiangensis gen. et sp. nov., is described here based on a well-preserved forewing from the Lower Jurassic Sangonghe Formation of Xinjiang, northwestern China. It can be attributed to Baissogryllidae based on the combination of the following characteristics: a true mirror in the male tegminal stridulatory apparatus; and a distinct widening of the area between CuA2, lateral part of the diagonal vein, and proximal part of the proximal branch of MP+CuA1. This find represents not only the earliest record of Baissogryllidae, but also the first fossil wing of Grylloidea reported from China.
Population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs that use a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are often faced with a noncompliance issue and its subsequent waiting time (WT) for those FIT positives complying with confirmatory diagnosis. We aimed to identify factors associated with both of the correlated problems in the same model.
A total of 294,469 subjects, either with positive FIT test results or having a family history, collected from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled for analysis. We applied a hurdle Poisson regression model to accommodate the hurdle of compliance and also its related WT for undergoing colonoscopy while assessing factors responsible for the mixture of the two outcomes.
The effect on compliance and WT varied with contextual factors, such as geographic areas, type of screening units, and level of urbanization. The hurdle score, representing the risk score in association with noncompliance, and the WT score, reflecting the rate of taking colonoscopy, were used to classify subjects into each of three groups representing the degree of compliance and the level of health awareness.
Our model was not only successfully applied to evaluating factors associated with the compliance and the WT distribution, but also developed into a useful assessment model for stratifying the risk and predicting whether and when screenees comply with the procedure of receiving confirmatory diagnosis given contextual factors and individual characteristics.
Current available methods to detect cow milk adulteration or accidental contamination of goat milk are both laborious and time consuming. The aim of this technical research communication was to develop a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for quantitative detection of cow milk in goat milk. A competitive lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip was developed using a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) labeled with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for specifically binding to cow milk casein. The detection limit of this rapid detection was 0.07% of cow milk in goat milk, providing equal specificity and higher sensitivity when compared with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These result suggest that the established rapid GNPs-LFIA strip could be used for monitoring cow milk adulteration/contamination of goat milk.
Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) have been researched extensively for solving traffic issues and for realising the concept of an intelligent transport system. A well-developed positioning system is critical for CAVs to achieve these aims. The system should provide high accuracy, mobility, continuity, flexibility and scalability. However, high-performance equipment is too expensive for the commercial use of CAVs; therefore, the use of a low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver to achieve real-time, high-accuracy and ubiquitous positioning performance will be a future trend. This research used RTKLIB software to develop a low-cost GNSS receiver positioning system and assessed the developed positioning system according to the requirements of CAV applications. Kinematic tests were conducted to evaluate the positioning performance of the low-cost receiver in a CAV driving environment based on the accuracy requirements of CAVs. The results showed that the low-cost receiver satisfied the “Where in Lane” accuracy level (0·5 m) and achieved a similar positioning performance in rural, interurban, urban and motorway areas.
We present a study of absolute and convective instabilities in electrohydrodynamic flow subjected to a Poiseuille flow (EHD-Poiseuille). The electric field is imposed on two infinite flat plates filled with a non-conducting dielectric fluid with unipolar ion injection. Mathematically, the dispersion relation of the linearised problem is studied based on the asymptotic response of an impulse disturbance imposed on the base EHD-Poiseuille flow. Transverse, longitudinal and oblique rolls are investigated to identify the saddle point satisfying the pinching condition in the corresponding complex wavenumber space. It is found that when the ratio of Coulomb force to viscous force increases, the transverse rolls can transit from convective instability to absolute instability. The ratio of hydrodynamic mobility to electric mobility, which exerts negligible effect on the linear stability criterion when the cross-flow is small, has significant influence on the convective–absolute instability transition, especially when the ratio is small. As we change the value of the mobility ratio, a saddle point shift phenomenon occurs in the case of transverse rolls. The unstable longitudinal rolls are convectively unstable as long as there is a cross-flow, a result which is deduced from a one-mode Galerkin approximation. Longitudinal rolls have a larger growth rate than transverse rolls except for a small cross-flow. Finally, regarding the oblique rolls, a numerical search for the saddle point simultaneously in the complex streamwise and transverse wavenumber spaces always yields an absolute transverse wavenumber of zero, implying that oblique rolls give way to transverse rolls when the flow is unstable.
Energy chirp compensation of the electron bunch (e-bunch) in a laser wakefield accelerator, which is caused by the phase space rotation in the gradient wakefield, has been applied in many schemes for low energy spread e-bunch generation. We report the experimental observation of energy chirp compensation of the e-bunch in a nonlinear laser wakefield accelerator with a negligible beam loading effect. By adjusting the acceleration length using a wedge-roof block, the chirp compensation of the accelerated e-bunch was observed via an electron spectrometer. Apart from this, some significant parameters for the compensation process, such as the longitudinal dispersion and wakefield slope at the bunch position, were also estimated. A detailed comparison between experiment and simulation shows good agreement of the wakefield and bunch parameters. These results give a clear demonstration of the longitudinal characteristics of the wakefield in a plasma and the bunch dynamics, which are important for better control of a compact laser wakefield accelerator.
In this study, we investigate a new simple scheme using a planar undulator (PU) together with a properly dispersed electron beam (
beam) with a large energy spread (
) to enhance the free-electron laser (FEL) gain. For a dispersed
beam in a PU, the resonant condition is satisfied for the center electrons, while the frequency detuning increases for the off-center electrons, inhibiting the growth of the radiation. The PU can act as a filter for selecting the electrons near the beam center to achieve the radiation. Although only the center electrons contribute, the radiation can be enhanced significantly owing to the high-peak current of the beam. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that this method can be used for the improvement of the radiation performance, which has great significance for short-wavelength FEL applications.
With the spread of English around the globe, academics increasingly seek to figure out what global English means to the world. Some accept English globalisation as a reality and take it as natural, neutral and beneficial for international and intercultural communication (Crystal, 2003). Some recognise English skills as important linguistic capital and must-have global literacy (Park & Wee, 2012; Tsui & Tollefson, 2007). However, others associate the global expansion of English with linguistic imperialism and the death of indigenous languages (Phillipson, 2009). Some regard globally spread English as native English varieties, particularly American and British English (Modiano, 2001; Trudgill, 1999), others argue for the rise of local varieties of World Englishes (WE) (Bolton, 2005; Kachru, 1986) and the international use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) (Jenkins, 2007; Seidlhofer, 2011). Although these generic interpretations of English have solid arguments from their own perspectives, none is sufficient to elucidate all the ‘complexity of ideological ramifications of the spread of English in [any] particular locality’ (Pan, 2011: 79).
In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.
This study quantified the fatty acid profile with emphasis on the stereo-specifically numbered (sn) 2 positional distribution in TAG and the composition of main phospholipids at different lactation stages. Colostrum milk (n 70), transitional milk (n 96) and mature milk (n 82) were obtained longitudinally from healthy lactating women in Shanghai. During lactation, total fatty acid content increased, with SFA dominating in fatty acid profile. A high ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was observed as 11:1 over lactation due to the abundance of linoleic acid in Chinese human milk. As the main SFA, palmitic acid showed absolute sn-2 selectivity, while oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, the main unsaturated fatty acids, were primarily esterified at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. Nervonic acid and C22 PUFA including DHA were more enriched in colostrum with an sn-2 positional preference. A total of three dominant phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM)) were analysed in the collected samples, and each showed a decline in amount over lactation. PC was the dominant compound followed by SM and PE. With prolonged breast-feeding time, percentage of PE in total phospholipids remained constant, but PC decreased, and SM increased. Results from this study indicated a lipid profile different from Western reports and may aid the development of future infant formula more suitable for Chinese babies.
Soil moisture is a key issue for eco-hydrological research in arid and semi-arid regions, and is primarily concerned with water availability for vegetation. Shallow and deep soil moisture occurs according to the maximum infiltration depth. Soil moisture has three-dimensional characteristics: inter-layer variability, horizontal heterogeneity and temporal variability. Soil moisture is affected by various factors including terrain, soil characteristics, climate and vegetation, and the effects of these change with time (e.g., rainfall patterns) and space (e.g., soil depth). In arid and semi-arid regions, deep soil moisture is of particular importance to vegetation restoration and the evaluation of vegetation sustainability; however, accurate prediction of the spatial distribution of deep soil moisture in the Loess Plateau of China still faces numerous challenges. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanisms, models and scale effects of soil moisture, particularly for deep soil moisture.
At present, the number of people with tuberculosis in China is second only to India and ranks second in the world. Under such a severe case of tuberculosis in China, prevention and control of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed. This study aimed to study the temporal and geographical relevance of the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis and the factors affecting the incidence of tuberculosis. Spatial autocorrelation model was used to study the spatial distribution characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis from a quantitative level. The research results showed that the overall incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (IPT) in China was low in the east, high in the west and had certain seasonal characteristics. We use Spatial Lag Model to explore influencing factors of pulmonary tuberculosis. It indicates that the IPT is high in areas with underdeveloped economics, poor social services and low average smoking ages. Additionally, the IPT is high in areas with high AIDS prevalence. Also, compared with Classical Regression Model and Spatial Error Model, our model has smaller values of Akaike information criterion and Schwarz criterion. Besides, our model has bigger values of coefficient of determination (R2) and log-likelihood (log L) than the other two models. Apart from that, it is more significant than Spatial Error Models in the spatial dependence test for the IPT.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) microspheres (CNMS) were fabricated via a solvothermal method by using dicyandiamide and cyanuric chloride as precursors. The morphology, band structure, and defects can be simultaneously regulated by merely adjusting the concentration of precursors. Structural characterization results indicate that all the prepared samples possess spherical morphology, while the band gap decreased as the precursor concentration increased from 8 mmol (CNMS-1) to 24 mmol (CNMS-3). Besides, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results suggested that the valence band of CNMS-2 (16 mmol) was much higher than that of CNMS-1 and CNMS-3. Additionally, organic elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance results unveil the formation of nitrogen defects on the surface of prepared samples. Besides, CNMS-2 exhibits an enhanced apparent reaction rate constant of RhB degradation than that of CNMS-1 and CNMS-3. The improved apparent reaction rate constant may be due to the lowered valence band as well as the formation of nitrogen defects. This work might guide the regulation of the morphology and band structure of g-C3N4-based materials prepared via the one-pot hydrothermal method.