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In any conservation programme, a variety of actors participate and interact in its different phases. They commonly have different perspectives and priorities regarding conservation, and diversity in the ensuing perspectives constitutes a barrier to effective conservation. In this paper, we analyse the different perspectives around the Programa de Conservación de Maíz Criollo (Programme for the Conservation of Native Maize in Mexico; PROMAC) in order to understand the possible causes that resulted in the programme not fulfilling its objectives. We used Q methodology and semi-structured interviews with farmers from a natural protected area to analyse the perspectives of the key actors who conceptualized, designed and implemented the programme and of the target population. Our research identified two different perspectives: (1) native maize can only be conserved with the support of community processes; and (2) the government, and not farmers, is responsible for the conservation of native maize. For farmers, native maize is key to their subsistence livelihoods, and they participated in the programme because of government monetary incentives. These differences contributed to dissimilar interpretations throughout the programme’s implementation phase, which, in turn, likely contributed to PROMAC failing to meet its objectives.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
To manage widespread conservation conflicts, building a shared understanding among the parties involved has been considered key. However, there is little empirical evidence of the role this understanding might play in the context of imposed biosphere reserves. Using semi-structured and in-depth interviews in two communities within the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, we explored whether or not there is a shared understanding of conflicts between local people and reserve managers, and we analysed its contribution to conflict management. We found that a shared understanding is not a determining factor when the conflict solution demands actions that exceed stakeholders’ functions. While a shared understanding helps with the global process of conflict management, there are other challenges: local impairment resulting from the exclusionary creation and the operation of protected areas and the need for action to solve a conflict that exceeds the functions of stakeholders.
Triclosan (TCS) adsorption behavior by a modified zeolite with Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) was evaluated factoring in pH, contact time, and TCS initial concentration in a batch system. Natural clinoptilolite-type zeolite from Sonora, Mexico was conditioned with a sodium chloride solution, and, subsequently, modified with CTAB. All the zeolites were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and the Zero Point Charge (pHZPC). It was found that the morphological and structural properties of natural zeolite were not affected after treatment with cationic surfactant. Furthermore, adsorption process efficiency was enhanced by the presence of CTAB, obtaining TCS maximum adsorption capacity at an optimal pH of 9.0. In this context, the positively charged surface of the modified zeolite and the anionic triclosan species present were decisive. Kinetics data were well adjusted to a pseudo-second order model with a TCS adsorption capacity of 1.430 ± 0.051 mg g-1 at an equilibrium time of 18 h. Isotherm results were best adjusted to the Langmuir model with a qmax = 2.027 mg g-1 using an initial Co concentration of 18.0 mg L-1, and reaching an equilibrium Ce concentration of 0.559 mg L-1. The mechanism for the adsorption of TCS by CTAB-modified zeolite was proposed to be electrostatic attractions between the group of partial positive charge of CTAB and the anionic species of triclosan. Consequently, CTAB-modified zeolites could be used as effective adsorbents for triclosan removal.
The present study investigates the adsorption of fluorides (F) by a hydrotalcite MgFe (HT MgFe) and an iron-based metal oxide (MgFe oxide). Both materials were synthesized by the coprecipitation method and were calcined at the same temperature HT MgFe, HTC MgFe, oxide MgFe and oxide MgFeC. Both solids were characterized by the XRD technique. Materials showed typical crystalline forms; in the case of HT MgFe, an octahedral crystalline form and for the oxide MgFe cubic crystalline form, the analysis of the BET method classifies the materials as mesoporous. In the adsorption study, it was determined that the optimal pH for adsorption is 7. Regarding the adsorption kinetics, the HTC MgFe and oxide MgFeC samples were adjusted to the pseudo-second order model, which describes the process as chemiadsorption; meanwhile, for the samples, isotherms were adjusted to the Langmuir model, which describes the material as homogeneous with a strong interaction between the sorbate and the sorbent.
The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and psychometrically evaluate the Brazilian version of the “End-of-Life Professional Caregiver Survey” (BR-EPCS).
This is an observational cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 285 Brazilian healthcare professionals who work or worked in the palliative care area. A minimum number of 280 participants were established, following the recommendation of 10 subjects for each instrument item. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer — Quality of Life Group Translation Procedure protocol was used for the translation and the cultural adaptation. For the precise/reliable evaluation of factors measured by the BR-EPCS, Cronbach's alpha (α) and composite reliability coefficients were used. The factorial analyses were made by means of the exploratory structural equation modeling methods and confirmatory factor analysis. We have conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the sociodemographic variables' capabilities in the result prediction measured by BR-EPCS factors.
The factorial analysis showed the relevance of two factors: Factor 1 — “Given care effectiveness” (18 items; Cronbach's α = 0.94; Composite Reliability = 0.95) and Factor 2 — “Mourning and ethical and cultural values” (10 items; Cronbach's α = 0.89; Composite Reliability = 0.88). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the working time, sex, palliative care training, and its own advance directives are predictors of the constructs assessed by the BR-EPCS.
Significance of results
The BR-EPCS is a reliable, valid, and culturally appropriate tool to identify the educational needs of healthcare professionals who work with palliative care. This instrument can be used for educational and research reasons.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
Community nurseries within natural protected areas (NPAs) represent an attractive option to link biodiversity conservation with socioeconomic development, yet their functioning lacks proper assessment. Here, we analyse the national context of community nurseries in Mexican NPAs and suggest a specific framework to evaluate their viability. First, we examine the impact of a major governmental funding programme on these projects. Next, we conduct a case study in a focal nursery to identify challenges faced by its operation. Despite the large number of community nurseries funded by the programme, current performance indicators are not suitable to assess their viability. In turn, the case study reveals this nursery’s partial success, with a clear contribution to social development but a limited impact on economic improvement and vegetation conservation. Regardless of the characteristics of individual community nurseries, we suggest a framework that is potentially useful for evaluating community nursery viability, which enables agencies to detect problems, find solutions and use resources efficiently, while balancing biodiversity conservation and development.
The aim of this study was to investigate if Mexican-Mestizo individuals with obesity, with or without binge eating disorder (BED), exhibited mutations or other type of genetic variants in the sequence of ANKK1.
Subjects and methods:
Fifty unrelated individuals (21–53 years of age) with obesity, of Mexican-Mestizo ethnic origin were included; 25 of them had BED and 25 presented obesity without BED. The diagnosis of BED was based on criteria proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Besides, we also analyzed 100 individuals with normal body mass index. DNA from blood leukocytes was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and all exons of ANKK1 were sequenced.
After ANKK1 sequencing we did not find any mutations; however, we observed various polymorphisms. One polymorphism, rs4938013 in exon 2 showed an association with obesity, whilst rs1800497 (also known as Taq1A) in exon 8, showed an association with BED (P = 0.020). Remarkable, for this study, the number of individuals for both polymorphisms for and additive model was sufficient to derive strong statistical power (80%, with a P < 0.05).
To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report where the complete sequences of ANKK1 has been analyzed in individuals with obesity, with or without BED. No mutations were found; however, one polymorphism was associated with obesity, with or without BED, and another one was associated with BED.
Bison antiquus Leidy, 1852 was one of the largest and most widely distributed megafaunal species during the Late Pleistocene in North America, giving rise to the modern plains bison in the middle Holocene. Despite the importance of the ancient bison, little is known about its feeding ecology. We employed a combination of extended mesowear, and mesowear III to infer the dietary preference and habitat use of three Mexican samples of B. antiquus. These included two northern samples—La Piedad-Santa Ana and La Cinta-Portalitos—from the Transmexican Volcanic Belt morphotectonic Province, as well as one southern sample—Viko Vijin—from the Sierra Madre del Sur morphotectonic province. We found that the northern Mexican samples were primarily nonstrict grazers, whereas the southern sample displays a pattern consistent with mixed feeding habits. This suggests variability among the diets of the bison from these samples, caused by different paleoenvironments. This evidence complements the paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the studied localities; for the northern samples, open prairies composed of patches of woodland or shrubland and, for the southern locality, a fluvial floodplain with short-lived vegetation. In both scenarios, grasses (Poaceae) were nondominant. The dietary habits of our samples of ancient bison in Mexico are the southernmost dietary inference for the species in North America and expand our knowledge of the dietary habits of B. antiquus during the Late Pleistocene.
Perovskites solar cells have reached impressive efficiencies (22%) in recent years. Because certain environmental concerns are raised by the use of lead halides, there is an interest to seek out lead-free alternatives, featuring bismuth or antimony. Alongside, one of the major drawbacks displayed by MAPbI3 is their low stability at ambient conditions. In this work, (RP4)xBiyIz were synthesized, using different types of tetra-alkylphosphoniums (R4PI) were R = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl, to assess their stability. Afterwards, they were characterized to study their morphology and crystal structure, as well as their optical properties.
In the industry, the titanium nitride (TiN) coating is widely used in cutting tools, decorative and corrosion protection film, but unfortunately, this coating presented a poor performance under some work condition. For that, different studies have been dedicated to improving its properties with the inclusion of a third element that modifies the film structure, chemical and mechanical properties. In this work, TiN layers with/without of Al, B, and Cr inclusion were studied in order to analyze their effect in the film tribological performance. These were deposited using cathodic arc PVD technic on AISI-M2 steel. They were chemical and structural characterized using EDX and XRD, respectively. While the film thickness was determinate using a ball-cratering technique. Their tribological performance was studied using a sliding reciprocating movement in dry conditions, under three loads, at 30 min against Al2O3 ball as counterbody. The resulting wear tracks were studied using optical microscopy in order to study the wear mechanism. Raman spectroscopy was used to determinate the chemical changes produced on wear zones and the lost material was measured with a stylus profilometer. As result, the structure and morphology were modified with the inclusion of the third element. The TiN with the inclusion of Al and B presented a higher friction force and wear rate than TiN films. While the TiN with Cr inclusion film presented the best tribological performance with lower wear rate and friction coefficient. The Raman studies did not showed considerable changes on the damage coted surface areas, except for TiAlN coating that show the M2 tool steel Raman spectra on the areas where the film was removed.
The deficiency of Se, an essential micronutrient, has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our study was designed to determine total serum Se, selenoproteins (extracellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3), selenoprotein P (SeP)), selenoalbumin (SeAlb) and selenometabolites in healthy women and their newborns at delivery. This cross-sectional study included eighty-three healthy mother–baby couples. Total Se and Se species concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord sera by an in-series coupling of two-dimensional size-exclusion and affinity HPLC. Additional measurements of serum SeP concentration and of serum GPx-3 enzyme activity were carried out using ELISA. Total Se concentration was significantly higher in maternal serum than in cord serum (68·9 (sd 15·2) and 56·1 (sd 14·6) µg/l, respectively; P<0·01). There were significant correlations between selenoprotein and SeAlb concentrations in mothers and newborns, although they also showed significant differences in GPx-3 (11·2 (sd 3·7) v. 10·5 (sd 3·5) µg/l; P<0·01), SeP (42·5 (sd 9·5) v. 28·1 (sd 7·7) µg/l; P<0·01) and SeAlb (11·6 (sd 3·6) v. 14·1 (sd 4·3) µg/l; P<0·01) concentrations in maternal and cord sera, respectively. Serum GPx-3 activity and concentration were positively correlated in mothers (r 0·33; P=0·038) but not in newborns. GPx-3 activity in cord serum was significantly correlated with gestational age (r 0·44; P=0·009). SeAlb concentration was significantly higher in babies, whereas SeP and GPx-3 concentrations were significantly higher in mothers. The differences cannot be explained by simple diffusion; specific transfer mechanisms are probably involved. GPx-3 concentrations in mothers, at delivery, are related to maternal Se status, whereas the GPx-3 activity in cord serum depends on gestational age.
The small red brocket deer Mazama bororo is endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a biome that has been greatly fragmented and altered by human activities. This elusive species is morphologically similar to the red brocket deer Mazama americana and the Brazilian dwarf brocket deer Mazama nana, and genetic typing is necessary for reliable identification. To determine the geographical range of M. bororo more accurately, we conducted non-invasive genetic sampling using scat detection dogs trained to locate deer faeces. We surveyed 46 protected areas located within the species’ potential distribution and collected a total of 555 scat samples in 30 of the protected areas. Using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism approach, we genotyped 497 scat samples (89%) and detected M. bororo in seven localities in three Brazilian states. The results support a range extension of the small red brocket deer to latitudes 23 and 28°S and longitudes 47 and 49°W. We show that the species’ distribution is associated with 37,517 km2 of the Ombrophilous Dense Forest in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and this conclusion is supported by species distribution modelling. The small red brocket deer is the largest endemic species in Brazil and may have the smallest geographical distribution of any Neotropical deer species. This species occupies fragmented landscapes and is threatened by human encroachment, poaching, and predation by dogs, and based on our findings we recommend policy intervention for conservation planning of the Ombrophilous Dense Forest.