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To examine the potential links between activity spaces, the food retail environment and food shopping behaviours for the population of young, urban adults.
Participants took part in the Canada Food Study, which collected information on demographics, food behaviour, diet and health, as well as an additional smartphone study that included a seven-day period of logging GPS (global positioning system) location and food purchases. Using a time-weighted, continuous representation of participant activity spaces generated from GPS trajectory data, the locations of food purchases and a geocoded food retail data set, negative binomial regression models were used to explore what types of food retailers participants were exposed to and where food purchases were made.
Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton and Halifax, Canada.
Young adults aged 16–30 years (n 496). These participants were a subset of the larger Canada Food Study.
Demographics, household food shopper status and city of residence were significantly associated with different levels of exposure to various types of food retailers. Food shopping behaviours were also statistically significantly associated with demographics, the activity space-based food environment, self-reported health and city of residence.
The study confirms that food behaviours are related to activity space-based food environment measures, which provide a more comprehensive accounting of food retail exposure than home-based measures. In addition, exposure to food retail and food purchasing behaviours of an understudied population are described.
To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity.
We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men.
We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern’s lowest tertile (both P<0·0001; prevalence=47 and 14 %, respectively). We found similarly strong associations in men. There was no association between the Mixed Diet pattern and overweight or obesity.
We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.
To examine exposure to energy drink marketing among youth and young adults, and test perceptions of energy drink advertisements (ads) regarding target audience age and promoting energy drink use during sports.
A between-group experiment randomly assigned respondents to view one of four energy drink ads (sport-themed or control) and assessed perceptions of the ad. Regression models examined marketing exposure and perceptions.
Online survey (2014).
Canadians aged 12–24 years (n 2040) from a commercial panel.
Overall, 83 % reported ever seeing energy drink ads through at least one channel, including on television (60 %), posters/signs in stores (49 %) and online (44 %). Across experimental conditions, most respondents (70·1 %) thought the ad they viewed targeted people their age or younger, including 42·2 % of those aged 12–14 years. Two sport-themed ads were more likely to be perceived as targeting a younger audience (adjusted OR (95 % CI): ‘X Games’ 36·5 %, 4·16 (3·00, 5·77); ‘snowboard’ 19·2 %, 1·50 (1·06, 2·13)) v. control (13·3 %). Participants were more likely to believe an ad promoted energy drink use during sports if they viewed any sport-themed ad (‘X Games’ 69·9 %, 8·29 (6·24, 11·02); ‘snowboard’ 76·7 %, 11·85 (8·82, 15·92); ‘gym’ 66·8 %, 7·29 (5·52, 9·64)) v. control (22·0 %). Greater reported exposure to energy drink marketing was associated with perceiving study ads as promoting energy drink use during sports.
Energy drink marketing has a high reach among young people. Ads for energy drinks were perceived as targeting youth and promoting use during sports. Such ads may be perceived as making physical performance claims, counter to Canadian regulations.
Automakers are interested in creating optimal car shapes that can visually convey environmental friendliness and safety to customers. This research examined the influence of vehicle form on perceptions based on two subjective inference measures: safety and perceived environmental friendliness (PEF). A within-subjects study was conducted in 2009 (Study 1) to study how people would evaluate 20 different vehicle silhouettes created by designers in industry. Participants were asked to evaluate forms on several scales, including PEF, safety, inspired by nature, familiarity, and overall preference. The same study was repeated in 2016 (Study 2). The results from the first study showed an inverse relationship between PEF and perceptions of safety. That is, vehicles that appeared to be safe were perceived to be less environmentally friendly, and vice versa. Participants in the second study showed a similar trend, but not as strongly as the 2009 participants. Several shape variables were identified to be correlated with participants’ PEF and safety ratings. The changes in the trend of participants’ evaluations over seven years were also discussed. These results can provide designers with insights into how to create car shapes with balanced PEF and safety in the early design stage.
The Galactic Center contains large amounts of molecular and ionized gas as well as a plethora of energetic objects. Water masers are an extinction-insensitive probe for star formation and thus ideal for studies of star formation stages in this highly obscured region. With the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we observed 22 GHz water masers in the entire Central Molecular Zone with sub-parsec resolution as part of the large SWAG survey: “Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center”. We detect of order 600 22 GHz masers with isotropic luminosities down to ~10−7 L⊙. Masers with luminosities of ≳10−6 L⊙ are likely associated with young stellar objects. They appear to be close to molecular gas streamers and may be due to star formation events that are triggered at pericenter passages near Sgr A*. Weaker masers are more widely distributed and frequently show double line features, a tell-tale sign for an origin in evolved star envelopes.
St Andrews was of tremendous significance in medieval Scotland. Its importance remains readily apparent in the buildings which cluster the rocky promontory jutting out into the North Sea: the towers and walls of cathedral, castle and university provide reminders of the status and wealth of the city in the Middle Ages. As a centre of earthly and spiritual government, as the place of veneration forScotland's patron saint and as an ancient seat of learning, St Andrews was the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland. This volume provides the first full study of this special and multi-faceted centre throughout its golden age. The fourteen chapters use St Andrews as a focus for the discussion of multiple aspects of medieval life in Scotland. They examine church, spirituality, urban society andlearning in a specific context from the seventh to the sixteenth century, allowing for the consideration of St Andrews alongside other great religious and political centres of medieval Europe.
Michael Brown is Professor of Medieval Scottish History, University of St Andrews; Katie Stevenson is Keeper of Scottish History and Archaeology, National Museums Scotland and Senior Lecturer in Late Medieval History, University of St Andrews.
Contributors: Michael Brown, Ian Campbell, David Ditchburn, Elizabeth Ewan, Richard Fawcett, Derek Hall, Matthew Hammond, Julian Luxford, Roger Mason, Norman Reid, Bess Rhodes, Catherine Smith, Katie Stevenson, Simon Taylor, Tom Turpie.
Procedures and equipment of the laboratory have been described in previous date lists. Except as otherwise indicated, wood, charcoal, and peat samples are pretreated with dilute NaOH and dilute H3PO4 before conversion to the counting gas methane, marls and lake cores are treated with acid only. Very calcareous materials are treated with HCl instead of H3PO4.
Radiocarbon dates obtained since December, 1970, are summarized here. Procedures and equipment have been described previously (R., 1966, v. 8, p. 522). Wood, charcoal, and peat samples are pretreated with dilute NaOH and dilute H3PO4 before conversion to the counting gas, methane; marls and lake cores are treated with acid only. Very calcareous materials are treated with HCl instead of H3PO4.
Procedures and equipment have been described in previous date lists. Except as otherwise indicated, wood, charcoal and peat samples are pretreated with dilute NaOH and dilute H3PO4 before conversion to the counting gas methane; marls and lake cores are treated with acid only. Very calcareous materials are treated with HCL instead of H3PO4.
Procedures and equipment of the laboratory have been described in previous date lists. Wood, charcoal, and peat samples are pretreated with dilute NaOH and dilute H3PO4 before conversion to the counting gas methane; marls and lake cores are treated with acid only. Very calcareous materials are treated with HCl instead of H3PO4.
The radiocarbon dates obtained since August, 1968, are reported here. Wood, charcoal, and peat samples are pretreated with dilute NaOH and dilute H3PO4 before conversion to the methane used as counting gas; marls and lake cores are treated with acid only. The reported dates have been calculated using 5568 years as the half-life of C14, 1950 as the reference year. Samples are run at least once in each of two 0.5 liter counters at 3 atm pressure for a minimum total of 15,000 counts. The standard deviation quoted includes only the 1σ of the counting statistics of background, sample, and standard counts.