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Utilization of cover crops has increased rapidly in the United States. However, more information is needed on the proper cover crop termination timing to maximize weed control and crop yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at two locations in Indiana to evaluate the influence of cover crop species, termination timing, and herbicide treatment on winter and summer annual weed suppression and corn yield. Cereal rye and canola cover crops were terminated early or late (2 weeks before or after corn planting) with a glyphosate- or glufosinate-based herbicide program. Canola and cereal rye reduced total weed biomass collected at termination by up to 74% and 91%, in comparison to fallow, respectively. Canola reduced horseweed density by up to 56% at termination and 57% at POST application compared to fallow. Cereal rye reduced horseweed density by up to 59% at termination and 87% at POST application compared to fallow. Canola did not reduce giant ragweed density at termination in comparison to fallow. Cereal rye reduced giant ragweed density by up to 66% at termination and 62% at POST application. In general, termination timing had little to no effect on weed biomass and density reduction in comparison to the effect of cover crop species. Cereal rye reduced corn grain yield at both locations in comparison to fallow, especially for the late termination timing. Corn grain yield reduction up to 49% (4,770 kg ha-1) was recorded for cereal rye terminated late in comparison to fallow terminated late. Canola did not reduce corn grain yield in comparison to fallow within termination timing; however, late terminated canola reduced corn grain yield by up to 21% (2,980 kg ha-1) in comparison to early terminated fallow. Results from this study suggest that cereal rye planted at 90 kg ha-1 or canola planted at 6 kg ha-1 can be effective as cover crops for horseweed suppression prior to corn. Cereal rye can also effectively suppress giant ragweed emergence, while canola is not as effective at suppressing large-seeded broadleaves such as giant ragweed. Corn yield loss will likely occur with the use of cereal rye as a cover crop when no supplemental N fertilizers are applied preplant. These results also indicate that early-terminated cover crops can often result in higher corn grain yields than late-terminated cover crops in an integrated weed management program.
After a population of laser-driven hot electrons traverses a limited thickness solid target, these electrons will encounter the rear surface, creating TV/m fields that heavily influence the subsequent hot-electron propagation. Electrons that fail to overcome the electrostatic potential reflux back into the target. Those electrons that do overcome the field will escape the target. Here, using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code EPOCH and particle tracking of a large population of macro-particles, we investigate the refluxing and escaping electron populations, as well as the magnitude, spatial and temporal evolution of the rear surface electrostatic fields. The temperature of both the escaping and refluxing electrons is reduced by 30%–50% when compared to the initial hot-electron temperature as a function of intensity between
. Using particle tracking we conclude that the highest energy internal hot electrons are guaranteed to escape up to a threshold energy, below which only a small fraction are able to escape the target. We also examine the temporal characteristic of energy changes of the refluxing and escaping electrons and show that the majority of the energy change is as a result of the temporally evolving electric field that forms on the rear surface.
A multichannel calorimeter system is designed and constructed which is capable of delivering single-shot and broad-band spectral measurement of terahertz (THz) radiation generated in intense laser–plasma interactions. The generation mechanism of backward THz radiation (BTR) is studied by using the multichannel calorimeter system in an intense picosecond laser–solid interaction experiment. The dependence of the BTR energy and spectrum on laser energy, target thickness and pre-plasma scale length is obtained. These results indicate that coherent transition radiation is responsible for the low-frequency component (
1 THz) of BTR. It is also observed that a large-scale pre-plasma primarily enhances the high-frequency component (
3 THz) of BTR.
Despite aspirations to be a world-class national curriculum, the Australian Curriculum (AC) has been criticised as ‘manifestly deficient’ (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2014 p. 5) as an inclusive curriculum, failing to meet the needs of all students with disabilities (SWD) and their teachers. There is a need for research into the daily attempts of educators to navigate the tension between a ‘top-down’ system-wide curriculum and a ‘bottom-up’ regard for individual student needs, with a view to informing both policy and practice. This article is the first of two research papers in which we report the findings from a national online Research in Special Education (RISE) Australian Curriculum Survey of special educators in special schools, classes, and units regarding their experience using the AC to plan for and teach SWD. Survey results indicated (a) inconsistent use of the AC as the primary basis for developing learning objectives and designing learning experiences, (b) infrequent use of the achievement standards to support assessment and reporting, and (c) considerable supplementation of the AC from other resources when educating SWD. Overall, participants expressed a lack of confidence in translating the AC framework into a meaningful curriculum for SWD. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Introduction: Prehospital blood transfusion has been adopted by many civilian helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) agencies and early outcomes are positive. Shock Trauma Air Rescue Service (STARS) operates six bases in Western Canada and in 2013 implemented a prehospital transfusion program. We describe the processes and standard work ensuring safe storage, administration, and stewardship of this precious resource. Our aim was to produce a sustainable and safe blood storage system that could be carried on each mission flown. Methods: Close collaboration with transfusion services and adherence to Canadian Transfusion Standards was key at each step of development. An inexpensive, reusable, temperature controlled thermal packaging device was obtained along with an electronic temperature logger. Conditioning of the device and temperature maintenance (1 6C) was tested to ensure safe storage conditions. Online training programs were developed for air medical crew (AMC) as well as transport physicians (TPs) regarding administration indications, safety, and stewardship processes. Blood traceability and usage was monitored on an ongoing basis for quality assurance. Results: Two units of O negative packed red blood cells (pRBCs) are now carried on each flight. The blood box is conditioned and prepared by transfusion services for routine exchange every 72 hours. If pRBCs are administered the blood bank is immediately notified for preparation of another cooler. Unused blood is returned to blood bank circulation. Conclusion: The introduction of the STARS blood on board program supports the provision of emergent transfusion to selected patients in the pre-hospital environment. Our standard work and stewardship processes minimize wastage of blood products while keeping it readily available for critically ill and injured patients. Subsequent work will aim to describe characteristics and patient centred outcomes.
Giant electromagnetic pulses (EMP) generated during the interaction of high-power lasers with solid targets can seriously degrade electrical measurements and equipment. EMP emission is caused by the acceleration of hot electrons inside the target, which produce radiation across a wide band from DC to terahertz frequencies. Improved understanding and control of EMP is vital as we enter a new era of high repetition rate, high intensity lasers (e.g. the Extreme Light Infrastructure). We present recent data from the VULCAN laser facility that demonstrates how EMP can be readily and effectively reduced. Characterization of the EMP was achieved using B-dot and D-dot probes that took measurements for a range of different target and laser parameters. We demonstrate that target stalk geometry, material composition, geodesic path length and foil surface area can all play a significant role in the reduction of EMP. A combination of electromagnetic wave and 3D particle-in-cell simulations is used to inform our conclusions about the effects of stalk geometry on EMP, providing an opportunity for comparison with existing charge separation models.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
Tungsten is one the most important material for both plasma facing and structural applications in current designs for advanced divertors. Recent work has shown that composites can be manufactured from nanostructured tungsten foils which show significantly higher toughness than monolithic tungsten, but there is no data on the radiation resistance of such materials. In this study W-5 wt% Re foil in both an as rolled and annealed condition was implanted with 2MeV W+ ions to two damage levels, 0.07 and 0.4 dpa. The change in hardness was measured using nanoindentation. An increase in hardness was seen in both materials at both damage levels, with more hardening seen for the 0.4 dpa implanted samples. However the increase in hardness due to ion implantation was 2.6 times higher in the annealed material as compared to the as rolled material. This is due to the smaller grain size and higher dislocation density providing more sinks for the irradiation produced defects in the as rolled material as compared to the annealed material. Thus showing that unannealed tungsten foils are superior for use in applications in which they will see significant levels of radiation damage.
Model alloys have been made of pure W and 1% & 5% W-Ta and W-Re. Indentation hardness and modulus data were obtained by nanoindentation to assess the effect of composition on mechanical properties. Results showed that both the Ta and Re compositions hardened with increasing alloy content, greater in the W-5%Ta composition which showed an increase of 1.03GPa (17%), compared to a 0.43GPa (7%) increase in W-5%Re. The samples also showed very small increases in modulus of ∼ 25GPa (6%) in both W-5%Re and W-5%Ta. The samples were implanted with 3000appm concentration of helium. All samples show a substantial increase in hardness of up to 107% in the case of pure W. An appreciable difference in modulus is also seen in all samples. Initial TEM work has shown no visible He bubbles, suggesting that the mechanical properties changes are due to He-vacancy cluster formation below the resolvable limit.
Diversity within Shigella dysenteriae (n=40) and Shigella boydii (n=30) isolates from children living in Egypt aged <5 years was investigated. Shigella-associated diarrhoea occurred mainly in summer months and in children aged <3 years, it commonly presented with vomiting and fever. Serotypes 7 (30%), 2 (28%), and 3 (23%) accounted for most of S. dysenteriae isolates; 50% of S. boydii isolates were serotype 2. S. dysenteriae and S. boydii isolates were often resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (42%, 17%, respectively), although resistance varied among serotypes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis separated the isolates into distinct clusters correlating with species and serotype. Genetic differences in trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam-encoding resistance genes were also evident. S. dysenteriae and S. boydii are genetically diverse pathogens in Egypt; the high level of multidrug resistance associated with both pathogens and resistance to the most available inexpensive antibiotics underlines the importance of continuing surveillance.
A robust, stable and thin primary amine functionalization is applied to gold and silver nanoparticles from poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) by converting a fraction of the amine groups in the polymer to dithiocarbamate (DTC) ligands, which absorb strongly onto noble metal surfaces. We observe marked improvements in the properties of gold nanospheres with a DTC-anchored rather than physisorbed PAH cap. The same level of improvement is not seen in silver nanoparticles, although it is clear from a distinct change in the plasmon spectrum in silver nanocubes that the DTC ligand does interact with the silver surface. In spite of their amine functionalization, both silver and gold particles show low cytotoxicity, possibly due to absorption of serum proteins forming a protective coating on the positively charged particle surface.
Attempts to explain the clear seasonality of rotavirus infections have been made by relating disease incidence to climate factors; however, few studies have disentangled the effects of weather from other factors that might cause seasonality. We investigated the relationships between hospital visits for rotavirus diarrhoea and temperature, humidity and river level, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using time-series analysis adjusting for other confounding seasonal factors. There was strong evidence for an increase in rotavirus diarrhoea at high temperatures, by 40·2% for each 1°C increase above a threshold (29°C). Relative humidity had a linear inverse relationship with the number of cases of rotavirus diarrhoea. River level, above a threshold (4·8 m), was associated with an increase in cases of rotavirus diarrhoea, by 5·5% per 10-cm river-level rise. Our findings provide evidence that factors associated with high temperature, low humidity and high river-level increase the incidence of rotavirus diarrhoea in Dhaka.
This work demonstrates the application of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to modeling X-ray reflectometry (XRR) data taken from a sub 10 nm Hafnium oxide film. We present here a comparison of two structural models for a 6 nm HfxOy atomic layer deposition (ALD) film on Si. Using the MCMC method and two distinct structural models, we show evidence of a thin interface between the HfxOy and Si layers with a density much higher than native SiO2. Results from genetic algorithm XRR analysis and thickness measurements using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy are included for comparison. We also demonstrate that our interpretation of HfxOy thickness differs between the two structural models (i.e., total film thicknesses may be partially additive within each model).
In February and in June 1998, two people developed acute hepatitis B following in-patient care in a district general hospital. Initial enquiries indicated their infections were not attributable to staff undertaking exposure-prone procedures (EPPs). We report the findings and implications of the subsequent investigation: a multi-disciplinary, multi-agency investigation, including molecular epidemiological analysis. Occupational Health records showed that staff involved in EPPs with the patients were HBsAg negative. No contact between the patients was identified nor were there failures in sterilization. The patients' HBV strains were identical, indicating a common source. A total of 231 out of 232 staff who might have treated either patient were tested for HBsAg; the remaining doctor, working abroad, was HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive and had the same HBV strain as the patients. On two occasions the doctor's hand had been cut while breaking glass vials, but there was no documentation linking these events to the two patients. The doctor had been vaccinated in 1993 and tested for anti-HBs prior to commencing work in 1997. The doctor was recalled to Occupational Health but did not attend and was not followed up. In total, 4948 patients potentially treated by the doctor received an explanatory letter and 3150 were tested for HBsAg. Only one was positive, and HBV sequencing showed no link to the doctor. Occasionally transmission of HBV from heath-care workers can occur in a non-EPP setting and the implications of this require examination by those setting national policy. Occupational Health Services should investigate clinical heath-care workers who do not respond to vaccination. They should ensure HBV carriers are identified and offer them appropriate advice to prevent transmission to patients.