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Rib bone biopsy samples are often used to estimate changes in skeletal mineral reserves in cattle but differences in sampling procedures and the bone measurements reported often make interpretation and comparisons among experiments difficult. ‘Full-core’ rib bone biopsy samples, which included the external cortical bone, internal cortical bone and trabecular bone (CBext, CBint and Trab, respectively), were obtained from cattle known to be in phosphorus (P) adequate (Padeq) or severely P-deficient (Pdefic) status. Experiments 1 and 2 examined growing steers and Experiment 3 mature breeder cows. The thickness of cortical bone, specific gravity (SG), and the amount and concentration of ash and P per unit fresh bone volume, differed among CBext, CBint and Trab bone. P concentration (mg/cc) was closely correlated with both SG and ash concentrations (pooled data, r=0.99). Thickness of external cortical bone (CBText) was correlated with full-core P concentration (FC-Pconc) (pooled data, r=0.87). However, an index, the amount of P in CBext per unit surface area of CBext (PSACB; mg P/mm2), was more closely correlated with the FC-Pconc (pooled data, FC-Pconc=37.0+146×PSACB; n=42, r=0.94, RSD=7.7). Results for measured or estimated FC-Pconc in 10 published studies with cattle in various physiological states and expected to be Padeq or in various degrees of Pdefic status were collated and the ranges of FC-Pconc indicative of P adequacy and P deficiency for various classes of cattle were evaluated. FC-Pconc was generally in the range 130 to 170 and 100 to 120 mg/cc fresh bone in Padeq mature cows and young growing cattle, respectively. In conclusion, the FC-Pconc could be estimated accurately from biopsy samples of CBext. This allows comparisons between studies where full-core or only CBext biopsy samples of rib bone have been obtained to estimate changes in the skeletal P status of cattle and facilitates evaluation of the P status of cattle.
The large-amplitude δ Scuti star CY Aqr was observed from sites in the U.S.A., South Africa and Australia during August 1988. Coates et al. (1991) published 48 new times of maximum light derived from these observations and assembled, from the literature, previous times of maximum light. It is clear that the period of the star is changing with the balance of evidence favouring discrete changes in 1951 and 1966, rather than a continuous change.
It has been suggested by Fitch (1973) and Else (1972), from an analysis of the observations of Zissell (1968), that there is a secondary frequency present in CY Aqr. Coates et al. (1992) have analysed both the 1988 observations and those of Zissell. After subtracting the primary frequency and its harmonics, they find no stable secondary frequency above the noise level of two millimagnitudes.
The Monash Observatory, located at Mount Burnett, Victoria, seventy kilometres east of the city of Melbourne, at a latitude of 38° S has a 0.45-m Cassegrainian and a 0.25-m Newtonian telescope. Both are equipped for photoelectric photometry, with microcomputer-based data logging systems. The 0.45-m has recently replaced the observatory's original 0.4-m Newtonian. Our site is near the coast, and has less than 20% photometric weather. Access to the telescopes and facilities of Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories (MSSSO) increases our observing time and the scope of our research. For a description of the Monash Observatory at mid-1984 see Coates et al, (1984).
Introduction: Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory tract infection among infants, characterized by wheeze and respiratory distress. Reliance on pulse oximetry has been associated with increased hospitalizations, prolonged hospital stay and escalation of care. The objectives were to determine if there is a difference in the proportion of unscheduled medical visits within 72 hours of emergency department discharge in infants with bronchiolitis who desaturate to <90% for at least one minute during home oximetry monitoring versus those without desaturations. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study from 2008 to 2013 enrolling 118 otherwise healthy infant aged 6 weeks to 12 months discharged home from a tertiary care pediatric emergency department with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis. The primary outcome was unscheduled medical visits for bronchiolitis, a visit to any health care provider due to concerns about respiratory symptoms, within 72 hours of discharge in infants with and without desaturations. Secondary outcomes included examination of the severity and duration of the desaturations, delayed hospitalizations within 72 hours of discharge and the effect of activity on desaturations. Results: During a mean monitoring period of 19 hours, 75/118 (64%) infants had at least one desaturation event (median continuous duration 3.4 minutes). 59/118 infants (50%) had at least 3 desaturations, 12 (10%) desaturated for >10% monitored time and 51(43%) had desaturations lasting ≥ 3 minutes continuously. 59/118 (50%) infants desaturated to ≤ 80% and 29 (24%) to ≤ 70% for ≥ 1 minute. A total 18/75 infants with desaturations (24.0%) had an unscheduled visit for bronchiolitis versus 11/43 of their non-desaturating counterparts (25.6%) [Difference - 1.6%; 95%CI -0.15 to ∞, p=0.66]. One of 75 desaturating infants (1.3%) and 2/43 (4.6%) of those without desaturations were hospitalized within 72 hours [Difference of -3.3%; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.10, p = 0.27]. Seventy seven percent of infants with desaturations experienced them during sleep or while feeding. Conclusion: The majority of infants with mild bronchiolitis experienced recurrent or sustained desaturations after discharge home. Children with and without desaturations had comparable rates of return for care, with no difference in unscheduled return medical visits and delayed hospitalizations.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
From the observed timings of primary eclipse of HD 5303 we find that its 2.7 day period is increasing at a rate of about one second per year. In this paper we consider the implications of this in terms of mass transfer or mass loss from the system.
Photoelectric B and V light curves and high dispersion spectroscopic observations were obtained in 1985 February for the rapidly rotating spotted star HD 36705. The visual light range was about 0.09 magnitude, with a well correlated B-V change of approximately 0.04 magnitude, the star being redder when faintest. There is evidence for a broadband flare of ~0.05 magnitude in V and 0.07 magnitude in B. This occurred near maximum light.
Spectroscopic observations show a variation in the equivalent width of the Ca K emission by a factor of about two in antiphase with the photometric variations, maximum emission corresponding to minimum brightness. This is probably due to bright plages and enhanced chromospheric heating associated with the photospheric starspots.
High dispersion, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations confirm the presence of lithium λ 6708 as reported by Rucinski (1982, 1985).
Several interpretations of the nature of HD 36705 are discussed; however at present none is completely satisfactory and further observations are required. As the star is probably at less than 100 pc, a parallax determination may be possible, and could help answer many of the questions concerning HD 36705.
We present broadband photoelectric light curves for the RS CVn type star PZ Telescopium for 1980, 1982 and 1983. The photometric period is about 0.943 days. The V light curve shows radical changes in form and range over a few months, and may be continuously variable. B and V data were obtained in 1982 and 1983. In 1982 no (B-V) change with phase was detected. However, in the first part of the 1983 observing season, a (BV) change of around 0.02 magnitude was found. Also at this time, maximum light was some 0.05 magnitude above that measured previously. Our preliminary spectroscopic data obtained in 1983 indicate that PZ Tel is a double lined binary whose components are of approximately equal luminosities, but this is yet to be confirmed. We suggest that the photometric variations are due to the presence of large cooler starspots on the photosphere of one or both components, as seems to be the case for related systems. The rapid changes in the observed light curve imply equally rapid changes in the distribution of the starspots, and make this an interesting object for further study.
We present some preliminary results of an optical and radio study of the very active RS CVn binary HD 127535. Photometric measurements show the presence of a large amplitude wave which exhibits marked changes in shape and range on time scales as short as a few months. This photometric variation is almost certainly due to large cool starspots on the cooler, more luminous component. As part of a survey of southern active-chromosphere stars with the Parkes radio telescope, HD 127535 has been observed at 5, 8.4 and 22 GHz. No detection was made at 5 GHz, possibly because of confusion due to the angular proximity of the star to the galatic plane. However, it is one of the strongest sources detected in the 8.4 GHz survey, and is one of only two stars detected at 22 GHz. Photometry obtained two cycles before the 8.4 GHz observations suggest a possible correlation between the radio emission and the photometric wave, i.e. spot visibility, but more data are needed.
A recent survey of EA eclipsing binaries by the Parkes 64-m telescope operating at 8.4 GHz detected 15 out of 47 systems on at least one out of the 10 nights surveyed. The detected systems were HD 6882 (ξ Phe), HD 36486 (δ Ori A), HD 39780 (TZ Men), HD 57167 (R CMa), HD 58713 (RY Gem), HD 74307 (S Cnc), HD 132742 (δ Lib), HD 147683 (V769 Sco), HD 161741 (V393 Sco), HD 163708 (V1647 Sgr), HD 16871Q(XZ Sgr), HD 183794 (V822 Aql), HD 187949 (V505 Sgr), HD 199005 (KZ Pav), and HD 207098 (δ Cap).
A full account of the observations and interpretation has been submitted to The Astrophysical Journal.
About one-half of the 15 detections refer to main-sequence pairs of spectral types earlier than F and the remainder are classical Algols.
Lori D. Frasier, Division Director, Center for the Protection of Children at Penn State Hershey Children’s Hospital and Professor of Pediatrics at Penn State Hershey College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA,
Brittany Coats, Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Adjunct Assistant Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a medical diagnosis that encompasses data from clinical and experimental studies. The neuroimaging evaluation is a critical piece of the diagnosis, but should not be considered separate from the biomechanical research, clinical history, laboratory testing, and any other investigative information that is felt to be clinically warranted. Furthermore, many clinical subspecialties in addition to pediatrics and medical imaging offer supportive diagnostic information that must be incorporated in the overall analysis of a case. The ophthalmologist, critical care specialist, emergency medicine physician, trauma surgeon, and neurosurgeon play vital roles in the clinical assessment. Investigative collaboration requires a close relationship with biomechanical engineering, law enforcement, Child Protective Services (CPS), and forensic pathology. Child abuse is unique compared with other diagnostic processes because there is no single or combined set of clinical indicators that proves a child has been abused. In fact, there are many medical conditions that can mimic some or all of the indicators seen in child abuse. Laboratory testing and clinical evaluation is essential in the identification of confounding medical conditions. However, in the context of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in an infant or young child who, in the absence of other medical factors, does not have a sufficient history of trauma to account for the injuries, AHT leads the differential diagnosis.
Radio interferometric observations of extragalactic radio sources have been made with antennas at the Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California during fourteen separate experiments distributed between September 1976 and May 1978. The components of the baseline vector and the coordinates of the sources were estimated from the data from each experiment separately. The root-weighted-mean-square scatter about the weighted mean (“repeatability”) of the estimates of the length of the 3900 km baseline was approximately 7 cm, and of the source coordinates, approximately or less, except for the declinations of low-declination sources. With the source coordinates all held fixed at the best available, a posteriori, values, and the analyses repeated for each experiment, the repeatability obtained for the estimate of baseline length was 4 cm. From analyses of the data from several experiments simultaneously, estimates were obtained of changes in the x component of pole position and in the Earth's rotation (UT1). Comparison with the corresponding results obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) discloses systematic differences. In particular, the trends in the radio interferometric determinations of the changes in pole position agree more closely with those from the International Polar Motion Service (IPMS) and from the Doppler observations of satellites than with those from the BIH.
Nuts are rich in many nutrients that can benefit multiple cardiometabolic functions, including arterial compliance, blood pressure, inflammation, glucoregulation and endothelial vasodilatation. Impaired vasodilatation may contribute to impaired cognitive performance due to poor cerebral perfusion. The present narrative review examines associations between nut consumption, vascular health and cognitive function. It includes a systematic search which identified seventy-one epidemiological or intervention studies in which effects of chronic nut consumption on blood pressure, glucoregulation, endothelial vasodilator function, arterial compliance, inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive performance were evaluated. Weighted mean changes were estimated where data were available; they indicate that nut consumption reduces blood pressure and improves glucoregulation, endothelial vasodilator function and inflammation, whilst a limited number of studies suggest that nut consumption may also improve cognitive performance. Further clinical trials are warranted to explore relationships between nut consumption, endothelial function and cognitive function.
To study the natural recovery from sports concussion, 12 concussed high school football athletes and 12 matched uninjured teammates were evaluated with symptom rating scales, tests of postural balance and cognition, and an event-related fMRI study during performance of a load-dependent working memory task at 13 h and 7 weeks following injury. Injured athletes showed the expected postconcussive symptoms and cognitive decline with decreased reaction time (RT) and increased RT variability on a working memory task during the acute period and an apparent full recovery 7 weeks later. Brain activation patterns showed decreased activation of right hemisphere attentional networks in injured athletes relative to controls during the acute period with a reversed pattern of activation (injured > controls) in the same networks at 7 weeks following injury. These changes coincided with a decrease in self-reported postconcussive symptoms and improved cognitive test performance in the injured athletes. Results from this exploratory study suggest that decreased activation of right hemisphere attentional networks mediate the cognitive changes and postconcussion symptoms observed during the acute period following concussion. Conversely, improvement in cognitive functioning and postconcussive symptoms during the subacute period may be mediated by compensatory increases in activation of this same attentional network. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–10)
Perchlorate (ClO4−) is widespread in Martian soils at concentrations between 0.5 and 1%. At such concentrations, perchlorate could be an important source of oxygen, but it could also become a critical chemical hazard to astronauts. In this paper, we review the dual implications of ClO4− on Mars, and propose a biochemical approach for removal of perchlorate from Martian soil that would be energetically cheap, environmentally friendly and could be used to obtain oxygen both for human consumption and to fuel surface operations.
The Monash University Physics Department is constructing a spectrograph, to be attached to a 0·46-m Cassegrainian telescope. To help future users of the spectrograph determine the operational capabilities of the spectrograph a PC-based software package was created. This program allows the user to simulate the response of the spectrograph to various stellar types under differing observational constraints. We have estimated the precision of measurements of stellar radial velocities with the spectrograph. The estimates are reasonable but are yet to be compared with real data.
Digital images were made of Bamberg Observatory Sky Patrol plates of the field surrounding the active-chromosphere star CF Octantis (HD 196818). These images, taken with an inexpensive camera, were analysed using standard aperture photometry techniques. Good agreement was found with catalogued photographic magnitudes for stars in the range mpg ∼8.5 to ∼10.5. The root-mean-square deviations in the measured differences for non-variable field stars was found to be of order 0.10 mag, although a small number of larger differences occurred. For CF Oct, a period search of data from 1966 recovered the known 20 d variation due to starspot rotational modulation, with a range of variation of order 0.5 mag photographic. For active-chromosphere stars with moderately large photometric variations (>∼0.3 mag), and moderate to long rotation periods (>∼1 week), careful analysis of similarly obtained digital copies of archive plates may provide valuable insights into historical actvity.
We have used times of maximum light for SX Phe, obtained by ourselves and other workers over 55 years to study the behaviour of the fundamental and first overtone radial pulsation modes of the star. We find (1/P0)dP0/dt to be (+2.53 ± 0.05) × 10−8 yr−1 and (1/P1)dP1/dt to be (−1.60 ± 0.03) × 10−7 yr−1, which differ significantly from the value +1.9 × 10−9 yr−1 expected if the changes are due to standard evolution of the star. The residuals in O–C from a quadratic fit cannot be explained by a light–time effect in a binary. There is some evidence that the amplitudes of the two modes change slowly with time.