To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study adopted a Kansei engineering methodology to examine users’ Kansei values toward automotive interior designs by conducting experiments under two models: sensory experience and perceived value evaluation models. In the sensory experience model, 60 participants were recruited to experience using 27 vehicle samples and to assign scores to eight Kansei keywords. Hayashi's quantification theory type 1 was used to calculate the weight of 12 interior space items and 40 interior design categories. In the perceived value evaluation model, 60 participants completed a questionnaire on the influence levels of the Kansei keywords on their Kansei values from the perspectives of four consumer perceived value dimensions. The questionnaire scores were then evaluated using factor analysis to extract nine primary factors affecting participants’ perceptions. This study determined that the interesting and dynamic perceptions corresponded to five design items under the Excitement Quality factors, vigorous and recreational perceptions corresponded to four items under the Relaxation and Comfort factor, and technological and luxurious perceptions corresponded to six items under the Luxury and Splendor factor and the Esteemed Image factor. These findings can help designers and researchers in the relevant sectors create automotive interior designs that fulfill the expectations of users.
Alarm fatigue is a critical safety issue, as it can increase workload and impair operators' situational awareness. This paper proposes a design methodology to enhance the interaction between alarm systems and operators. Through input from VTS personnel as the fundamental design requirements, a user requirement-driven design framework is proposed. It integrates quality function deployment, the theory of inventive problem solving, and software quality characteristics into three design phases. In Phase I, user requirements are obtained from the analysis of current working processes. Phase II investigates the specific non-functional design requirements of vessel alarm systems and the contradictions. In Phase III, the innovative principles generated with the contradiction matrix were analysed. A case study was conducted to verify and illustrate this framework, resulting in a conceptualisation design of a smart vessel alarm system.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), characterized by deficits in memory and cognition and by behavioral impairment, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that influences more than 47 million people worldwide. Currently, no available drug is able to stop AD progression. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies need to be investigated.
We analyzed the RNA sequencing data (RNA-seq) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs in AD. The AD mouse model Tg2576 was used to verify the effects of IGF-2. The Morris Water Maze was administered to test the role of IGF-2 in memory consolidation. In addition, we quantified cell apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The levels of amyloid plaques and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the hippocampus were also determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively.
RNA-seq analysis revealed that IGF-2 was remarkably reduced in AD. The expression of the upstream genes PI3K and AKT and the downstream gene CREB in the PI3K signaling pathway was significantly increased in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice cells treated with IGF-2. The Morris water maze test showed that IGF-2 improved memory consolidation in Tg2576 mice. The activity of caspase-3 was decreased in Tg2576 mice treated with IGF-2. Amyloid plaques in the hippocampus were reduced, and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were decreased. The above effects of IGF-2 on AD were blocked when the PI3K signaling pathway inhibitor wortmannin was added.
IGF-2 attenuates memory decline, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and amyloid plaques in the AD mouse model Tg2576 by activating the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway.
Much effort has been devoted to improving the efficiency of animal cloning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BRG1 contained in Xenopus egg extracts on the development of cloned mouse embryos. The results showed that mouse NIH/3T3 cells were able to express pluripotent genes after treatment with egg extracts, indicating that the egg extracts contained reprogramming factors. After co-injection of Xenopus egg extracts and single mouse cumulus cells into enucleated mouse oocytes, statistically higher pronucleus formation and development rates were observed in the egg Extract− co-injected group compared with those in the no egg extract-injected (NT) group (38–66% vs 18–34%, P<0.001). Removal of BRG1 protein from Xenopus egg extracts was conducted, and the BRG1-depleted extracts were co-injected with single donor cells into recipient oocytes. The results showed that the percentages of pronucleus formation were significantly higher in both BRG1-depleted and BRG1-intact groups than that in the nuclear transfer (NT) group (94, 64% vs 50%, P<0.05). Furthermore, percentages in the BRG1-depleted group were even higher than in the BRG1-intact group (94% vs 64%). More confined expression of Oct4 in the inner cell mass (ICM) was observed in the blastocyst derived from the egg extract-injected groups. However, Nanog expression was more contracted in the ICM of cloned blastocysts in the BRG1-depleted group than in the BGR1-intact group. Based on the present study, BRG1 might not play an essential role in reprogramming, but the factors enhancing pronucleus formation and development of cloned mouse embryos are contained in Xenopus egg extracts.
Shin-Horng Chen, Director, International Division, Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research,
Pei-Chang Wen, Research Fellow, International Division, Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research,
Meng-Chun Liu, Deputy, Director, International Division, Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research
As neighbouring countries, economic relationships between ASEAN and Taiwan have been intensified primarily through de facto economic integration of trade and investment, instead of de jure integration, such as free trade agreements (FTAs). Not until in 2013 when Taiwan signed its FTA with Singapore (known as ASTEP) — its very first trade agreement ever with an ASEAN member. However, long before that, trade and direct investment between the two sides have intertwined to enhance mutual economic relationships. Particularly, it was direct investment in ASEAN made by numerous Taiwanese SMEs starting from the mid-1980s that triggered and pushed forward this economic integration (CIER 1995). In Taiwan, many tend to refer to this integration as the “investment-induced trade”. However, it can involve a process of “deep integration” (WTO 2011; Baldwin 2013a, p. 26) in a crossborder manner.
In addition, global value chains (GVCs) (Gereffi and Frederick 2010; Gereffi, Humphrey and Sturgeon 2005; Gereffi and Memedovic 2003) and otherwise known as global production networks (GPNs) (Chen 2002; Coe et al. 2004; Ernst 2005, 2006; Sturgeon and Lee 2005; UNCTAD 2005) are keys to such integration. It is well-documented that in East Asia, SMEs have made significant contribution to de facto regional economic integration via their participation in GVCs and/ or GPNs (ESCAP 2009; Lim and Kimura 2009; Harvie 2010; Chen 2002; OECD 2007), which in turn has become an important source of national economic growth. A typical example at issue refers to the GPNs, led by a few brand marketers in ICT (information and communications technology) hardware and software (Chen 2002; Yang and Coe 2009), involving such countries as Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, China, India and the Philippines. Furthermore, the WTO (2011) and a few scholars (Baldwin 2013a, 2013b; Low 2013) have suggested that GVCs/GPNs and FTAs often lead to “deep integration”, through intertwining relationships among trade, investment, service and intellectual property; a phenomenon termed the “trade-investmentservice- intellectual property (IP) nexus” (Baldwin 2013a, p. 26).
Set against the above context, this study sets out to examine the evolution of Taiwan's economic links with ASEAN. Indeed, GVCs/ GPNs are major elements underlying the economic links between ASEAN and Taiwan. To discuss this issue, we examine the macro data of direct investment and bilateral trade, from the Taiwanese perspective.
Machine learning (ML) has been perceived as a promising tool for the design and discovery of novel materials for a broad range of applications. In this prospective paper, we summarize recent progress in the applications of ML to composite materials modeling and design. An overview of how different types of ML algorithms can be applied to accelerate composite research is presented. This framework is envisioned to revolutionize approaches to design and optimize composites for the next generation of materials with unprecedented properties.
Research on the risk of stroke following the use of mood stabilisers specific to patients with bipolar disorder is limited.
In this study, we investigated the risk of stroke following the exposure to mood stabilisers in patients with bipolar disorder.
Data for this nationwide population-based study were derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Among a retrospective cohort of patients with bipolar disorder (n = 19 433), 609 new-onset cases of stroke were identified from 1999 to 2012. A case–crossover study design utilising 14-day windows was applied to assess the acute exposure effect of individual mood stabilisers on the risk of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and other types of stroke in patients with bipolar disorder.
Mood stabilisers as a group were significantly associated with the increased risk of stroke in patients with bipolar disorder (adjusted risk ratio, 1.26; P = 0.041). Among individual mood stabilisers, acute exposure to carbamazepine had the highest risk of stroke (adjusted risk ratio, 1.68; P = 0.018), particularly the ischaemic type (adjusted risk ratio, 1.81; P = 0.037). In addition, acute exposure to valproic acid elevated the risk of haemorrhagic stroke (adjusted risk ratio, 1.76; P = 0.022). In contrast, acute exposure to lithium and lamotrigine did not significantly increase the risk of any type of stroke.
Use of carbamazepine and valproic acid, but not lithium and lamotrigine, is associated with increased risk of stroke in patients with bipolar disorder.
For smooth functions
on a quaternion Heisenberg group, we characterize the existence of solutions of the partial differential operator system
. In addition, a formula for the solution function
is deduced, assuming solvability of the system.
We developed novel and polymorphic microsatellite primers for Spathoglottis plicata, a tropical and subtropical terrestrial orchid, to investigate the genetic patterns and population structure among wild populations, and also to identify the varieties and hybrids of S. plicata in horticultural industry. The 12 novel microsatellites from S. plicata were developed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based isolation of microsatellite arrays. These markers that were successfully PCR amplified exhibited polymorphisms in S. plicata. The number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values across loci ranged from 2.000 to 8.000, 0.000 to 0.756, 0.208 to 0.813 and 0.405 to 0.805 in total populations, respectively. The newly developed microsatellite markers exhibited variation in S. plicata. These markers can be used as a tool to further investigate the genetic diversity, conservation genetics and variety/hybrid identification of S. plicata.
This paper investigates a wideband and low axial ratio circularly polarized (CP) antenna, which is composed of a monopole on a novel polarization rotating reflective surface (PRRS) based on a corner-truncated artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure. By adjusting the dimensions of truncated corner properly, the PRRS has two polarization rotation (PR) frequency points. Then, a large PR band of 18% (5.55–6.65 GHz) can be achieved with two adjacent PR frequency points coming together. The profile of the newly PRRS is only0.04λ0. With corner-truncated AMC-based PRRS loading, a measured impedance bandwidth of 1.8 GHz (5.4–7.2 GHz) and the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 1 GHz (5.55–6.65 GHz) could be obtained by the monopole antenna and validated by measurements. The values of AR were well below 1 dB at most of the CP region, which show a perfect CP performance. Moreover, the proposed antenna has exhibited a large axial ratio beamwidth in both the xoz- and yoz-planes and a peak gain of 6.1 dBic within the operational bandwidth.
The construction chronology of three of the earliest Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes (Caves 268, 272, and 275) has been the subject of ongoing debate for over half a century. This chronology is a crucial topic in terms of further understanding of the establishment of the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes, early Buddhism in the Gansu corridor, and its relationship with Buddhism developed in the Central Plains. Building upon archaeological, art historical and radiocarbon (14C) dating studies, we integrate new 14C data with these previously published findings utilizing Bayesian statistical modeling to improve the chronological resolution of this issue. Thus, we determine that all three of these caves were constructed around AD 410–440, suggesting coeval rather than sequential construction.
Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are increasingly reported in residential care homes for the elderly (RCHEs). We assessed whether implementation of directly observed hand hygiene (DOHH) by hand hygiene ambassadors can reduce environmental contamination with MDROs.
From July to August 2017, a cluster-randomized controlled study was conducted at 10 RCHEs (5 intervention versus 5 nonintervention controls), where DOHH was performed at two-hourly intervals during daytime, before meals and medication rounds by a one trained nurse in each intervention RCHE. Environmental contamination by MRDOs, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species (CRA), and extended-spectrum β-lactamse (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae, was evaluated using specimens collected from communal areas at baseline, then twice weekly. The volume of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) consumed per resident per week was measured.
The overall environmental contamination of communal areas was culture-positive for MRSA in 33 of 100 specimens (33%), CRA in 26 of 100 specimens (26%), and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in 3 of 100 specimens (3%) in intervention and nonintervention RCHEs at baseline. Serial monitoring of environmental specimens revealed a significant reduction in MRSA (79 of 600 [13.2%] vs 197 of 600 [32.8%]; P<.001) and CRA (56 of 600 [9.3%] vs 94 of 600 [15.7%]; P=.001) contamination in the intervention arm compared with the nonintervention arm during the study period. The volume of ABHR consumed per resident per week was 3 times higher in the intervention arm compared with the baseline (59.3±12.9 mL vs 19.7±12.6 mL; P<.001) and was significantly higher than the nonintervention arm (59.3±12.9 mL vs 23.3±17.2 mL; P=.006).
The direct observation of hand hygiene of residents could reduce environmental contamination by MDROs in RCHEs.
Evidence regarding the relationships between the socioeconomic status and
long-term outcomes of individuals with bipolar affective disorder (BPD)
We aimed to estimate the effects of baseline socioeconomic status on
A national cohort of adult participants with newly diagnosed BPD was
identified in 2008. The effects of personal and household socioeconomic
status were explored on outcomes of hospital treatment, mortality and
healthcare costs, over a 3-year follow-up period (2008–2011).
A total of 7987 participants were recruited. The relative risks of
hospital treatment and mortality were found elevated for the ones from
low-income households who also had higher healthcare costs. Low premium
levels did not correlate with future healthcare costs.
Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poorer outcome and higher
healthcare costs in BPD patients. Special care should be given to those
with lower socioeconomic status to improve outcomes with potential
benefits of cost savings in the following years.