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The stress field induced by an edge dislocation or a point force located near a coated triangle-like hole in an infinite plate is provided in this paper. Based on the method of analytical continuation and the technique of conformal mapping in conjunction with the alternation technique, a series solution for the displacement and stresses in the coating layer and the matrix is obtained analytically. Examples for the interaction between an edge dislocation and a coated triangle-like hole for various material constant combinations, coating thicknesses and shape factors are discussed. The analysis discovers that the so-called trapping mechanism of dislocations is more likely to exist near a coated triangle-like hole. The result shows that the dislocation will first be repelled by the coating layer and then attracted by a hole when the coating layer is slightly stiffer than the matrix. However, when the coating layer is sufficiently thin, the dislocation will always be attracted by a hole even the coating layer is stiffer than the matrix.
Although social harmony is one of the most important cultural values in many of Asian societies it has rarely been studied in the mainstream management literatures. Based on the group-value theory of justice we examined how group justice climates influence group effectiveness through group harmony. Analyses of data on 106 upper-level management teams from Chinese organizations showed that justice climates were positively associated with group harmony, which in turn was positively associated with team task performance and team helping behavior. Group harmony was found to significantly mediate the positive effect of both distributive and interactional justice climates on team helping behavior but only marginally on team task performance. Finally, in support of past research both at the group and individual level, procedural justice climate had the weakest effect on group processes and outcomes. By applying the group value theory on group harmony this paper aims to integrate Eastern and Western perspectives on one hand and the justice climates and group harmony research on the other. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
A general series solution to the problem of interacting circular inclusions in plane elastostatics is presented in this paper. The analysis is based on the use of the complex stress potentials of Muskhelishvili and the theorem of analytical continuation. The general forms of the complex potentials are derived explicitly for the circular inhomogeneities under arbitrary plane loading. Using the alternation technique, these general expressions were subsequently employed to treat the problem of an infinitely extended matrix containing two arbitrarily located inhomogeneities. The major contribution of the present proposed method is shown to be capable of yielding approximate closed-form solutions for multiple inclusions, thus providing the explicit dependence of the solution on the pertinent parameters. The result shows that the dislocation has a stable equilibrium position at a certain combination of material constants. The case of an inhomogeneity interacting with a circular hole under a remote uniform load is also investigated.
We derive the mean velocity components at various Galactocentric radii from 8 to 14 kpc using about 40,000 red clump stars observed in the LAMOST survey. We find that the vertical bulk motion for younger red clump stars are significantly larger than that for the older red clump stars. This is likely the kinematical feature of the Galactic warp around its line-of-node, which is located close to the Galactic anti-center region. It is evident that the warp are mainly contributed by the younger stars rather than the older stars. The age variation in the vertical kinematics favors a formation scenario where the Galactic warp is originated from infalling misaligned gas.
In this article we test a model of bounded empowerment: the boundary conditions under which power sharing affects employees' psychological empowerment. Using data from two telecommunication companies, we investigate how management control and power distance orientation moderate the effects of supervisors' power sharing on employees' psychological empowerment. Results show that power sharing improves job performance partly through psychological empowerment. Furthermore, management control enhances rather than impedes the positive effect of power sharing on psychological empowerment. Power distance orientation further enhances management control's positive moderating effect on employee psychological empowerment. Limitations and implications for future research are also discussed.
Asians and Pacific Islanders have higher circulating serum ferritin (SF) compared with Caucasians but the clinical significance of this is unclear. There is a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Taiwanese Indigenous than Han Chinese. Genetically, Indigenous are related to Austronesians and account for 2 % of Taiwan's population. We tested the hypothesis that accumulation of Fe in the body contributes to the ethnic/racial disparities in MetS in Taiwan.
A population-based, cross-sectional study.
National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan and Penghu Island.
A total of 2638 healthy adults aged ≥19 years. Three ethnic groups were included.
Han Chinese and Indigenous people had comparable levels of SF. Austronesia origin was independently associated with MetS (OR = 2·61, 95 % CI 2·02, 3·36). After multiple adjustments, the odds for MetS (OR = 2·49, 95 % CI 1·15, 5·28) was significantly higher among Indigenous people in the highest SF tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Hakka and Penghu Islanders yielded the lowest risks (OR = 1·08, 95 % CI 0·44, 2·65 and OR = 1·21, 95 % CI 0·52, 2·78, respectively). Indigenous people in the highest SF tertile had increased risk for abnormal levels of fasting glucose (OR = 2·34, 95 % CI 1·27, 4·29), TAG (OR = 1·94, 95 % CI 1·11, 3·39) and HDL-cholesterol (OR = 2·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·73) than those in the lowest SF tertile.
Our results raise the possibility that ethnic/racial differences in body Fe store susceptibility may contribute to racial and geographic disparities in MetS.
Integrating theories of psychological ownership and stewardship, and taking a relational perspective, we examine key antecedents and outcomes of professional managers' psychological ownership in Chinese owner-managed family businesses. We tested the model using a survey of 166 Chinese professional managers (one from each of 166 family businesses). We find that owner–manager relationship closeness at work mediates the effect of both the owner's benevolent leadership and owner–manager friendship ties on the manager's psychological ownership. Psychological ownership, in turn, is positively related to the manager's intention to stay and to stewardship behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
In this article we review research on Chinese guanxi and social networking in the past twenty years and identify the major perspectives, theories, and methodologies used in guanxi research at micro and macro levels. We summarize the main findings of over 200 journal articles on guanxi research in terms of its conceptual definitions and measurements, its antecedents and consequences, and its dynamics and processes. Furthermore, we identify the gaps between different levels of guanxi research and discuss future directions to advance our understanding of the complex and intricate guanxi phenomenon.
The present study investigated dietary intake, glucose metabolism and sex hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of forty-five women (aged 25–40 years) with PCOS and 161 control women (aged 25–43 years) with non-PCOS-related infertility were recruited. Anthropometry, glucose tolerance and sex hormones were determined and dietary intake was assessed. Women with PCOS had lower serum sex hormone-binding globulin and increased BMI, waist:hip ratio, luteinising hormone, ratio of luteinising hormone:follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and free androgen index (FAI). Postprandial glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance were elevated in women with PCOS. Women with PCOS had reduced energy and carbohydrate intake but higher fat intake. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin level was negatively associated with BMI in both groups and negatively correlated with macronutrient intake in the PCOS group with hyperandrogenism. However, FAI was positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference and glucose metabolic parameters in both groups. Therefore, women with PCOS consume lower energy and carbohydrate compared with those with non-PCOS-related infertility and macronutrient intake is only negatively associated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin level in the PCOS group with hyperandrogenism.
We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue. Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research.
The challenges associated with meeting 20nm technology requirements for better Cu CMP process uniformity and lower defectivity have been studied. Required improvements in uniformity were obtained through platen process optimization along with evaluation & selection of specific Cu slurries and pads and their performance reported. The principal factors influencing defect formation, including Cu barrier metallurgy, interconnect pattern density and process queue times were studied. Specific new post CMP clean chemistries were evaluated to assess their capability to suppress defect formation and their performance reported. The trade off between uniformity and defect suppression as a function slurry, pad and post Cu CMP clean chemistry is described.
Green tea catechin has been proposed to have an anti-obesity effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effect of catechin-rich green tea in combination with inulin affects body weight and fat mass in obese and overweight adults. A total of thirty subjects were divided into a control group and an experimental group who received 650 ml tea or catechin-rich green tea plus inulin. A reduction of body weight ( − 1·29 (sem 0·35) kg) and fat mass (0·82 (sem 0·27) kg) in the experimental group was found after 6 weeks, and no adverse effects were observed. After refraining from consumption for 2 weeks, sustained effects on body weight and fat mass were observed. We conclude that continuous intake of catechin-rich green tea in combination with inulin for at least 3 weeks may be beneficial for weight management.
Visible-light-driven Ag3VO4 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis method. Under various hydrothermal conditions, the structures of silver vanadates were tuned by manipulating the hydrothermal time and the ratio of silver to vanadium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that the powders prepared in a stoichiometric ratio consisted of pure α-Ag3VO4 or mixed phases of Ag4V2O7 and α-Ag3VO4. With increasing the Ag-to-V mole ratio to 6:1, the resulting samples were identified as pure monoclinic structure α-Ag3VO4. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated that silver vanadate particles had strong visible light absorption with associated band gaps in the range of 2.2-2.5 eV. The sample synthesized in the excess silver exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that synthesized in a stoichiometric ratio. The powder synthesized at silver-rich at 140℃ for 4 h (SHT4) exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among all samples. The reactivity of SHT4 (surface area, 3.52 m2 g-1) on the decomposition of gaseous benzene was about 16 times higher than that of P25 (surface area, 49.04 m2 g-1) under visible light irradiation. A well developed crystallinity of Ag3VO4 of SHT 4 was considered to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency.
Of 303 children hospitalized with acute non-bloody, non-mucoid diarrhoea, 69 (22·8%) had polymicrobial infection, including 52 (17·2%) multiple viral infection and 17 (5·6%) viral and bacterial co-infection. Rotavirus had the most important role in both categories; thus the control of rotavirus infection is crucial for maintaining children's health in Taiwan.
Increasing the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of photovoltaic devices is important for improving the conversion efficiency of solar light into electricity. The optical properties of mesoporous TiO2 films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) were investigated by varying the size of the particles (20–150 nm). A four–flux optical model was used to describe the light absorption and scattering within the film. Reflectance and transmittance spectra were recorded by a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The wavelength-dependent absorption coefficient k(λ) and scattering coefficient s(λ) were determined for different films. The absorptance G(λ) (absorbed light flux) for films made of different particle sizes and of varying thicknesses can be calculated from these optical parameters. This study helps in improving the optical design of dye-sensitized solar cells.
Although gender-based division of labour and the identity theory of stress suggest that the relationship between work and family demands and life stress may vary as a function of gender, it is largely unknown whether these arguments are also valid in China. To address this gap in the existing literature, the current study investigates the gender differences in perceived work and family demands, and the effects of these perceived demands on the life stress of Chinese male and female employees. The study of 153 married Chinese employees found that Chinese women perceived a higher level of family demands than did Chinese men, whereas there was no significant gender difference in the perception of work demands. In addition, while perceived family demands were similarly related to life stress differently for men and women, perceived work demands were associated more strongly with the life stress of men than that of women.