1Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group (2004) Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 81, 19–25.
2Knochenhauer, ES, Key, TJ, Kahsar-Miller, M, et al. (1998) Prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected black and white women of the southeastern United States: a prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 3078–3082.
3March, WA, Moore, VM, Willson, KJ, et al. (2010) The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample assessed under contrasting diagnostic criteria. Hum Reprod 25, 544–551.
4Azziz, R, Woods, KS, Reyna, R, et al. (2004) The prevalence and features of the polycystic ovary syndrome in an unselected population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 2745–2749.
5Legro, RS, Kunselman, AR, Dodson, WC, et al. (1999) Prevalence and predictors of risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, controlled study in 254 affected women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 165–169.
6Vrbikova, J & Hainer, V (2009) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome. Obes Facts 2, 26–35.
7Remsberg, KE, Talbott, EO, Zborowski, JV, et al. (2002) Evidence for competing effects of body mass, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and androgens on leptin levels among lean, overweight, and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 78, 479–486.
8Hahn, S, Tan, S, Elsenbruch, S, et al. (2005) Clinical and biochemical characterization of women with polycystic ovary syndrome in North Rhine-Westphalia. Horm Metab Res 37, 438–444.
9Ni, RM, Mo, Y, Chen, X, et al. (2009) Low prevalence of the metabolic syndrome but high occurrence of various metabolic disorders in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 161, 411–418.
10Dunaif, A (1997) Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis. Endocr Rev 18, 774–800.
11Ovalle, F & Azziz, R (2002) Insulin resistance, polycystic ovary syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fertil Steril 77, 1095–1105.
12Chang, RJ, Nakamura, RM, Judd, HL, et al. (1983) Insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57, 356–359.
13Galluzzo, A, Amato, MC & Giordano, C (2008) Insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardio Dis 18, 511–518.
14Thomson, RL, Buckley, JD & Brinkworth, GD (2011) Exercise for the treatment and management of overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a review of the literature. Obes Rev 12, e202–e210.
15Moran, LJ, Noakes, M, Clifton, PM, et al. (2006) Short-term meal replacements followed by dietary macronutrient restriction enhance weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 77–87.
16Marsh, KA, Steinbeck, KS, Atkinson, FS, et al. (2010) Effect of a low glycemic index compared with a conventional healthy diet on polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 83–92.
17Matthews, DR, Hosker, JP, Rudenski, AS, et al. (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412–419.
18Hatch, R, Rosenfield, RL, Kim, MH, et al. (1981) Hirsutism: implications, etiology, and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 140, 815–830.
19Lee, H, Oh, JY, Sung, YA, et al. (2009) The prevalence and risk factors for glucose intolerance in young Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrine 36, 326–332.
20Cupisti, S, Kajaia, N, Dittrich, R, et al. (2008) Body mass index and ovarian function are associated with endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in women with hyperandrogenic syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 158, 711–719.
21Carmina, E, Legro, RS, Stamets, K, et al. (2003) Difference in body weight between American and Italian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: influence of the diet. Hum Reprod 18, 2289–2293.
22Kelestimur, F, Unluhizarci, K, Baybuga, H, et al. (2006) Prevalence of polycystic ovarian changes and polycystic ovary syndrome in premenopausal women with treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fertil Steril 86, 405–410.
23Chen, X, Yang, D, Mo, Y, et al. (2008) Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected women from southern China. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 139, 59–64.
24O'Connor, A, Gibney, J & Roche, HM (2010) Metabolic and hormonal aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: the impact of diet. Proc Nutr Soc 69, 628–635.
25Barber, TM, McCarthy, MI, Wass, JAH, et al. (2006) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol 65, 137–145.
26Diamanti-Kandarakis, E (2007) Role of obesity and adiposity in polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, S8–S13.
27Golbahar, J, Al-Ayadhi, M, Das, NM, et al. (2012) Sensitive and specific markers for insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case–control study from Bahrain. Int J Women's Health 4, 201–206.
28Nardo, LG, Buckett, WM, White, D, et al. (2002) Three-dimensional assessment of ultrasound features in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): ovarian stromal volume does not correlate with biochemical indices. Hum Reprod 17, 1052–1055.
29Liou, TH, Tang, JH, Hsieh, CH, et al. (2009) Clinical and biochemical presentation of polycystic ovary syndrome among obese and nonobese women. Fertil Steril 92, 1960–1965.
30Ducluzeau, PH, Cousin, P, Malvoisin, E, et al. (2003) Glucose-to-insulin ratio rather than sex hormone-binding globulin and adiponectin levels is the best predictor of insulin resistance in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 3626–3631.
31Wei, HJ, Young, R, Kuo, IL, et al. (2009) Prevalence of insulin resistance and determination of risk factors for glucose intolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study of Chinese infertility patients. Fertil Steril 91, 1864–1868.
32Legro, RS, Castracane, VD & Kauffman, RP (2004) Detecting insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: purposes and pitfalls. Obstet Gynecol Surv 59, 141–154.
33Pugeat, M, Crave, JC, Elmidani, M, et al. (1991) Pathophysiology of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG): relation to insulin. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 40, 841–849.
34Jayagopal, V, Kilpatrick, ES, Jennings, PE, et al. (2003) The biological variation of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in polycystic ovarian syndrome: implications for SHBG as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 1528–1533.
35Martens, JW, Geller, DH, Arlt, W, et al. (2000) Enzymatic activities of P450c17 stably expressed in fibroblasts from patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 4338–4346.
36Barr, S, Hart, K, Reeves, S, et al. (2011) Habitual dietary intake, eating pattern and physical activity of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 1126–1132.
37Colombo, O, Pinelli, G, Comelli, M, et al. (2009) Dietary intakes in infertile women a pilot study. Nutr J 8, 53.
38Douglas, CC, Norris, LE, Oster, RA, et al. (2006) Difference in dietary intake between women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls. Fertil Steril 86, 411–417.
39Wu, SJ, Pan, WH, Yeh, NH, et al. (2011) Trends in nutrient and dietary intake among adults and the elderly: from NAHSIT 1993–1996 to 2005–2008. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 20, 251–265.
40Wang, GS (editor) (2012) Dietary Reference Intakes. 7th ed.Taipei, Taiwan: Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health, Taiwan, R.O.C.
41Toscani, MK, Mario, FM, Radavelli-Bagatini, S, et al. (2011) Insulin resistance is not strictly associated with energy intake or dietary macronutrient composition in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Nutr Res 31, 97–103.