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Over the last decade, polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers gained interest, both from the academic world and from various industries. Due to the demanding needs for environmentally friendly composites, the automotive industry is now searching for biodegradable and renewable composite materials and products. There are a wide variety of different natural fibers which can be applied as reinforcement or fillers, showing potential as a replacement for inorganic fibers in automotive components. The fact that plastics are often economical to produce implies an advantage especially in very complex shapes, make them promising for obtaining composite materials, achieving short demolding times, as no chemical reaction is required. Moreover, polymers are used increasingly for stressed tribological components, whereby plastic parts replace metallic bearings, gear wheels or sliding elements. In this regard, the objective of this work was to produce composite materials based on natural fibers and to characterize the influence of the addition of different amounts of filler. To do so, composites of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and peanut shells (PS), at different proportions (2, 4 6, 8 and 10% wt.), were prepared. The composites were produced by injection molding and molded into a particular tension test simple mold. Although the FTIR presented an increment on the O-H vibration and a band around 1600 cm-1, the HDPE structure did not present modification. The mechanical properties of the HDPE were affected with the inclusion of the fibers. The tensile performance of the HDPE decrease with the increment of the fibers inclusion whiles the elastic modulus increases. The sample with 2% of natural fibers presented the lowest wear rate (k) and coefficient of friction (µ).
In the industry, the titanium nitride (TiN) coating is widely used in cutting tools, decorative and corrosion protection film, but unfortunately, this coating presented a poor performance under some work condition. For that, different studies have been dedicated to improving its properties with the inclusion of a third element that modifies the film structure, chemical and mechanical properties. In this work, TiN layers with/without of Al, B, and Cr inclusion were studied in order to analyze their effect in the film tribological performance. These were deposited using cathodic arc PVD technic on AISI-M2 steel. They were chemical and structural characterized using EDX and XRD, respectively. While the film thickness was determinate using a ball-cratering technique. Their tribological performance was studied using a sliding reciprocating movement in dry conditions, under three loads, at 30 min against Al2O3 ball as counterbody. The resulting wear tracks were studied using optical microscopy in order to study the wear mechanism. Raman spectroscopy was used to determinate the chemical changes produced on wear zones and the lost material was measured with a stylus profilometer. As result, the structure and morphology were modified with the inclusion of the third element. The TiN with the inclusion of Al and B presented a higher friction force and wear rate than TiN films. While the TiN with Cr inclusion film presented the best tribological performance with lower wear rate and friction coefficient. The Raman studies did not showed considerable changes on the damage coted surface areas, except for TiAlN coating that show the M2 tool steel Raman spectra on the areas where the film was removed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The overall goal of this project is to enhance the use of GCRA in Latina breast cancer survivors at high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer to reduce disparities in GCRA uptake. The aims of the study are to (1) develop a cultural adaptation of an evidence-based TGC intervention that consists of phone genetic counseling and a booklet, (2) evaluate the impact of TGC Versus Usual Care, and (3) explore the communication patterns in TGC and genetic counseling sessions with an interpreter. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We are conducting a 2-phase, mixed methods study. In Phase I we will develop a cultural adaption of an evidence-based intervention (TGC) for high-risk Latina breast cancer survivors using the Learner Verification and Revision Framework (n=15). In Phase II we will use a cluster randomized design with four community sites randomized to Spanish TGC (n=2 sites) or usual care (n=2 sites) (n=60; 15 per site). The primary outcome is genetic counseling uptake. Among women who receive genetic counseling either through TGC (n~30) or with an interpreter (n~15), we will assess counseling quality by reviewing 20 randomly selected audiotaped sessions (10 TGC; 10 interpreters). We will evaluate women’s HBOC knowledge and satisfaction with counseling. Communication processes and outcomes will be assessed using gold standard RIAS quantitative coding system and qualitative discourse analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We elicited input from transdisciplinary team members to develop an initial adaptation of a TGC print booklet and intervention protocol for use with high-risk Latina breast cancer survivors with limited English proficiency. The booklet contains low-literacy information about HBOC, risk factors, pros and cons of testing, and management strategies. Based on these materials and prior work, we anticipate TGC will consist of one 1 hour or less TGC session by phone. Participants interested in pursuing testing will receive a saliva kit and will participate in a second TGC session (30 min) to discuss test results and management options. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Given access barriers and the shortage of Spanish-speaking genetic counselors, adapting and translating TGC intervention is a promising strategy that could reduce disparities by broadening the reach and accessibility to genetic counseling while enhancing the quality of the service for Latinas with limited English proficiency.
The in vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts (E-Cham and E-Cato, respectively) on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) and the anthelmintic effect of these extracts against the pre-adult stage of the parasite in gerbils were evaluated using both individual and combined extracts. The in vitro confrontation between larvae and extracts was performed in 24-well micro-titration plates. The results were considered 24 and 72 h post confrontation. The in vivo nematicidal effect was examined using gerbils as a study model. The extracts from the two assessed plants were obtained through maceration using n-hexane as an organic agent. Gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus L3 were treated intraperitoneally with the corresponding extract either individually or in combination. The results showed that the highest individual lethal in vitro effect (96.3%) was obtained with the E-Cham extract at 72 h post confrontation at 40 mg/ml, followed by E-Cato (78.9%) at 20 mg/ml after 72 h. The highest combined effect (98.7%) was obtained after 72 h at 40 mg/ml. The in vivo assay showed that the individual administration of the E-Cato and E-Cham extracts reduced the parasitic burden in gerbils by 27.1% and 45.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the anthelmintic efficacy increased to 57.3% when both extracts were administered in combination. The results of the present study show an important combined nematicidal effect of the two plant extracts assessed against L3 in gerbils.
Aluminum alloys have increased their use due to the properties such as low density, resistance to corrosion under environmental conditions and mechanical properties. In this work, the alloying elements are immiscible promoting dendrites formation with different phases attributed to zinc and tin. The applied mechanical stresses promoted the modification of the dendrite sizes (interdendritic space) as well as pore sizes and shapes. The microhardness decreased in the ternary Al-Zn-Sn alloy with a subsequent increase caused by microstructural changes after cold work. By XPS, the metallic elements were detected with an aluminum oxide layer.
Recent advances in the calculation and measurement of transition probabilities, electron excitation rate coefficients and photoionization cross sections relevant to the study of planetary nebulae are discussed. A compilation of these parameters is also presented.
Aluminum-Graphite composites were prepared from pure aluminum and natural graphite the mixture was processed by the mechanical milling (MM) technique. The microstructural characteristics of prepared composites were investigated by X-rays diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical response of samples was evaluated by compression and hardness tests. To obtain solid samples from milled powders we used an alternative sintering process based on induction heating. Although this method is frequently used for refractory ceramics fabrication (>1500°C), it has not been properly evaluated for materials processing at low temperature (<500°C). This work presents a comparative study of Al-Gr composites sintered by using two routes: conventional pressure-less and high frequency induction heating. After the inductive sintering, is noticeable a pronounced reduction of porosity and increase on the mechanical response of induction sintered specimens, compared with the processed by conventional route. Also, yield strength and hardness increases with graphite addition and induction sintering reaching an increase of 50 and 90%, respectively (compared with an Alp-2h blank).
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The off-target and organ-specific toxicities observed in cancer immunotherapy present an obstacle to T-cell-based therapeutics. A recent clinical trial underscored the need for improved methods to define TCR specificity after melanoma patients treated with TCR engineered T-cells suffered from fatal cardiovascular toxicity arising from the unpredicted recognition of a muscle-specific peptide. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To address this drawback to T-cell-based immunotherapies, we developed a novel protein engineering approach to define the peptide specificity of a given TCR. Here, directed evolution in a yeast display system produced a large scale peptide library, where recognition by the melanoma reactive DMF5 TCR acted as the guiding selective pressure. After this technique identified a panel of putative cross reactive peptides, sequence analysis and computational modeling followed by kinetic binding experiments and structural analysis determined the DMF5 TCR recognizes 2 distinct classes of peptides through chemically distinct mechanisms. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This information led to the rational, structure-based design of additional cross reactive peptides and introduced a unique approach to screen the human proteome and identify the TCR targets which triggered undesired autoimmunity when this molecule was used in clinical trials. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The distinct chemical nature of the 2 peptide classes suggest TCRs are more cross reactive than previously thought, presenting an obstacle to cell-based immunotherapy. Defining the peptide specificity of TCRs is of high interest to the immunology community, and will lead to improved approaches to designing engineered TCRs for cell therapy.
In this work we give a revised distance (250 ± 20 pc) to the star VV Serpentis and its associated dark cloud complex, redetermine its spectral type (= A2e, see also Herbig, 1960, ApJ Suppl. 4, 337), and report on observations of previously unknown associated emission line stars, and of stars with associated reflection nebulosity (R-stars) belonging to the same region.