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There has been little research investigating how mode of input affects incidental vocabulary learning, and no study examining how it affects the learning of multiword items. The aim of this study was to investigate incidental learning of L2 collocations in three different modes: reading, listening, and reading while listening. One hundred thirty-eight second-year college students learning EFL in Taiwan were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (reading, listening, reading while listening) and a no treatment control group. The experimental groups encountered 17 target collocations in the same graded reader. Learning was measured using two tests that involved matching the component words and recalling their meanings. The results indicated that the reading while listening condition was most effective while the reading and listening conditions contributed to similarly sized gains. The findings suggest that listening may play a more important role in learning collocations than single-word items.
The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium, about 60 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported CTSA hubs at academic health care institutions nationwide, is charged with improving the clinical and translational research enterprise. Together with the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), the Consortium implemented Common Metrics and a shared performance improvement framework.
Initial implementation across hubs was assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods over a 19-month period. The primary outcome was implementation of three Common Metrics and the performance improvement framework. Challenges and facilitators were elicited.
Among 59 hubs with data, all began implementing Common Metrics, but about one-third had completed all activities for three metrics within the study period. The vast majority of hubs computed metric results and undertook activities to understand performance. Differences in completion appeared in developing and carrying out performance improvement plans. Seven key factors affected progress: hub size and resources, hub prior experience with performance management, alignment of local context with needs of the Common Metrics implementation, hub authority in the local institutional structure, hub engagement (including CTSA Principal Investigator involvement), stakeholder engagement, and attending training and coaching.
Implementing Common Metrics and performance improvement in a large network of research-focused organizations proved feasible but required substantial time and resources. Considerable heterogeneity across hubs in data systems, existing processes and personnel, organizational structures, and local priorities of home institutions created disparate experiences across hubs. Future metric-based performance management initiatives across heterogeneous local contexts should anticipate and account for these types of differences.
To describe characteristics of self-identified popular diet followers and compare mean BMI across these diets, stratified by time following diet.
Cross-sectional, web-based survey administered in 2015.
Non-localised, international survey.
Self-selected followers of popular diets (n 9019) were recruited to the survey via social media and email announcements by diet community leaders, categorised into eight major diet groups.
General linear models were used to compare mean BMI among (1) short-term (<1 year) and long-term (≥1 year) followers within diet groups and (2) those identifying as ‘try to eat healthy’ (TTEH) to all other diet groups, stratified by time following the specific diet. Participants were 82 % female, 93 % White and 96 % non-Hispanic. Geometric mean BMI was lower (P < 0·05 for all) among longer-term followers (≥1 year) of whole food, plant-based (WFPB), vegan, whole food and low-carb diets compared with shorter-term followers. Among those following their diet for 1–5 years (n 4067), geometric mean BMI (kg/m2) were lower (P < 0·05 for all) for all groups compared with TTEH (26·4 kg/m2): WFPB (23·2 kg/m2), vegan (23·5 kg/m2), Paleo (24·6 kg/m2), vegetarian (25·0 kg/m2), whole food (24·6 kg/m2), Weston A. Price (23·5 kg/m2) and low-carb (24·7 kg/m2).
Our findings suggest that BMI is lower among individuals who made active decisions to adhere to a specific diet, particularly more plant-based diets and/or diets limiting highly processed foods, compared with those who simply TTEH. BMI is also lower among individuals who follow intentional eating plans for longer time periods.
The combination of pediatric cardiology being both a perceptual and a cognitive subspecialty demands a complex decision-making model which makes artificial intelligence a particularly attractive technology with great potential. The prototypical artificial intelligence system would autonomously impute patient data into a collaborative database that stores, syncs, interprets and ultimately classifies the patient’s profile to specific disease phenotypes to compare against a large aggregate of shared peer health data and outcomes, the current medical body of literature and ongoing trials to offer morbidity and mortality prediction, drug therapy options targeted to each patient’s genetic profile, tailored surgical plans and recommendations for timing of sequential imaging. The focus of this review paper is to offer a primer on artificial intelligence and paediatric cardiology by briefly discussing the history of artificial intelligence in medicine, modern and future applications in adult and paediatric cardiology across selected concentrations, and current barriers to implementation of these technologies.
This paper presents the filter design in the student design competition of EuMW 2019. This contest motivates students for the design and implementation of a dual-band bandpass filter able to get outstanding performance, where different implementation technologies, such as microstrip, coplanar, multilayer microstrip, substrate integrated waveguide, and some others can be effectively employed. Filters are evaluated by considering a figure of merit (FoM) defined by the insertion loss level, selectivity, spurious-free response, and size. To this end, three viable dual-band bandpass filters with different feeding technologies, resonators, and design topologies are investigated for the optimal FoM.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We compared the validity of an International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD) algorithm for identifying high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma in situ (together referred to as CIN2+) from ICD 9th revision (ICD-9) and 10th revision (ICD-10) codes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Using Tennessee Medicaid data, we identified cervical diagnostic procedures in 2008-2017 among females aged 18-39 years in Davidson County, TN. Gold-standard cases were pathology-confirmed CIN2+ diagnoses validated by HPV-IMPACT, a population-based surveillance project in catchment areas of five US states. Procedures in the ICD transition year (2015) were excluded to account for implementation lag. We pre-grouped diagnosis and procedure codes by theme. We performed feature selection using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression with 10-fold cross validation and validated models by ICD-9 era (2008-2014, N = 6594) and ICD-10 era (2016-2017, N = 1270). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 7864 cervical diagnostic procedures, 880 (11%) were true CIN2+ cases. LASSO logistic regression selected the strongest features of case status: Having codes for a CIN2+ tissue diagnosis, non-specific CIN tissue diagnosis, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, receiving a cervical treatment procedure, and receiving a cervical/vaginal biopsy. Features of non-case status were codes for a CIN1 tissue diagnosis, Pap test, and HPV DNA test. The ICD-9 vs ICD-10 algorithms predicted case status with 68% vs 63% sensitivity, 95% vs 94% specificity, 63% vs 64% positive predictive value, 96% vs 94% negative predictive value, 92% vs 89% accuracy, and C-indices of 0.95 vs 0.92, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Overall, the algorithm’s validity for identifying CIN2+ case status was similar between coding versions. ICD-9 had slightly better discriminative ability. Results support a prior study concluding that ICD-10 implementation has not substantially improved the quality of administrative data from ICD-9.
To assess the Framingham risk score as a prognostic tool for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.
Medical records were reviewed for unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients between January 2010 and October 2017. The 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease was calculated. Patients were subdivided into groups: group 1 – Framingham risk score of less than 10 per cent (n = 28); group 2 – score of 10 to less than 20 per cent (n = 6); and group 3 – score of 20 per cent or higher (n = 5).
Initial pure tone average and Framingham risk score were not significantly associated (p = 0.32). Thirteen patients in group 1 recovered completely (46.4 per cent), but none in groups 2 and 3 showed complete recovery. Initial pure tone average and Framingham risk score were significantly associated in multivariable linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.36). The regression coefficient was 0.33 (p = 0.003) for initial pure tone average and −0.67 (p = 0.005) for Framingham risk score.
Framingham risk score may be useful in predicting outcomes for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients, as those with a higher score showed poorer hearing recovery.
This study aimed to evaluate various associated risks between internet addiction (IA) and Attention deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and adolescents by comparing ADHD group with and without IA problem.
78 ADHD children and their parents were performed designed general demographic questionnaire and standardized measurement including Chen IA Scale (CIAS), Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV ADHD questionnaire (SNAP-IV), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Adult ADHD self Rating Scale (ASRS), Symptom Check List (SCL-90) and were then divided into ADHD with IA or without IA group according to IA cutting point. Various associated risks included the BMI value, general demographic data, subtype, comorbidity, childhood common behavior problem, parental ADHD diagnosis, parental symptom, nail biting, and media exposure problem.
ADHD youth with IA problem was highly associated with overweight and playing computer game more than one hour. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that father of these ADHD children in this group were significantly younger, and children self having withdrawn tendency.
Father's younger age, overweight and withdrawal tendency on ADHD youth is risks associated with internet addiction problem and the presence of playing computer game more than one hour on ADHD child is at greater risk for developing internet addiction.
The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of psychological symptoms that individuals experience following orthopedic trauma and whether these are associated with quality of life. the participants completed 2 established questionnaires, SCL-90R scale and SF-36. Additionally, we conducted regression analyses to determine predictors of quality of life among study patients. the proposed model predicted 54.6 of the variance in patients’ SF-36 Mental Component scores. Patient Physical Component summary scores were associated with older age (β = 0.308, P =0.006), state of education (β = 0.308, P = 0.006), smoking habit (β = -0.249, P = 0.048), surgical management (β = 0.193, P = 0.048) and Positive Symptom Distress Index (i.e., the intensity of psychological symptoms; β= -0.782, P = 0.022). in addition, the proposed model predicted 47.4 of the variance in patients’ SF-36 Physical Component scores. Patient Mental Component summary scores were associated with Somatization (β = -0.354, P = 0.002), Anxiety(β= 0.654 P =0.022), Hostility(β= -0.375 P =0.048), Psychoticism (β= -0.5 P =0.031),and Global Severity Index (β= 4.463 P =0.005). the implications of the research findings are further discussed in the following. in a prospective study of 64 patients, 1 in 3 met the threshold for psychological distress. Psychological symptoms were significantly associated with both SF-36 Physical Component and Mental Component summary scores. Future research is necessary to determine whether orthopedic surgery patients would benefit from early screening and intervention to address comorbid psychopathology.
Higher all-cause mortality and shorter life expectancies for people with severe mental illness (SMI, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder) have been frequently reported. Cancer contributes a substantial proportion of mortality (20 to 30%) as the second or third leading cause of death among people with SMI. Outcomes of cancer incidence studies in SMI were considerably heterogeneous, varying by cancer types and mental disorders.
To compare the incidence of overall and each type of cancer between people with SMI in southeast London and general population in UK.
Using the anonymised linkage between a regional monopoly secondary mental health service provider covering four southeast London boroughs and a population-based cancer register, we carried out the comparisons of cancer incidences between people with SMI and general population by age- and gender-standardisation in 2011.
Among SMI subjects with cancer (N=105), the most common cancer types were lung and colorectal cancer followed by breast cancer for women and prostate cancer for men in this area. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for all cancers in SMI were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.97-1.44) overall, 2.43 (95% CI: 1.98-2.94) in men (n=61), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.71-1.31) in women (n=44). Based on relatively small case numbers, raised SIRs were found for lung cancer in men (SIR=7.57, 95% CI: 3.04-15.6) and women (SIR=7.61, 95% CI: 2.79-16.6), and in women for colorectal (SIR=7.85, 95%CI: 2.55-18.32) and breast cancer (SIR=7.86, 95% CI: 4.58-12.59).
Specific pattern of elevated risks of cancer incidence were found for people with SMI.
Cognitive impairment was found related to higher mortality among the elders. However, study results about cognitive malfunction at earlier stages of specialist assessment or treatment to mortality for the ones without dementia were still in debate. An anonymised electronic database in South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM) covering 1.2 million population was utilised to assess the influence of cognitive impairment measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to survival among the clients 65+ years old when firstly assessed during 2007-2010. They were followed up for survival till the end of July, 2011 by the linkage to National Health Services in UK. Overall and subgroup analyses for specific diagnoses were done by Cox regressions. Age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis, ethnicity, marital status, primary care trust, and deprivation score were considered as potential confounders. A total of 7,196 subjects were identified, including 3,674 subjects diagnosed as dementia, 1,435 as depression and 492 as delirium. The adjusted hazard ratios of MMSE score in quintiles (30- 28, 37-25, 24-21, 20-16 and 15-0) when firstly assessed in SLAM were 1.19, 1.36, 1.69 and 2.13 (95% CIs: 0.99-1.42, 1.15- 1.62, 1.42-2.01 and 1.79-2.55) with 1st quintile as reference group (p-value of test for trend < 0.01). Except the delirium group, analyses for all the ones but dementia excluded, the depression group, and depression group with dementia excluded revealed similar outcomes. In current study, we identified a universal effect of cognitive impairment to mortality. Declining cognition function might reflect underlying physical conditions leading to death.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
Compared to the general population, people with schizophrenia have a substantially higher risk of premature mortality which translates into a 10–15 year reduction in life expectancy. The aim of this investigation was to determine if symptoms (including aggression, hallucinations or delusions, and depression) or the environmental and functional status of people with schizophrenia contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group.
We identified cases of schizophrenia, aged ≥15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of specific symptoms, activities of daily living (ADLs), living conditions, occupational and recreational activities (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales) on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10) using Cox regression.
We identified 4270 schizophrenia cases (170 deaths) in the observation period. After controlling for a broad range of covariates, mortality was not significantly associated with hallucinations and delusions or overactive-aggressive behaviour, but was associated with subclinical depression (adjusted HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) and ADL impairment (adjusted HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.9).
Severity of symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, was less important in predicting mortality than subclinical depression and difficulties carrying out activities of daily living. The overall picture appears to be one where the highest all-cause mortality risk is in service users who are least visible to clinical teams.
With the widespread of atypical antipsychotics used among children and adolescents, the treatment effectiveness has been of great interest alongside with the efficacy and safety in this population. The study was designed to assess whether second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with lower service costs in the real world. Factors associated with service costs were also examined.
The claim data (PIMC) of 1996-2008 from the National Insurance Plan of Taiwan was used. Patients aged less than 20 with an incident use of antipsychotics and last for 12 months during this period were included for analysis. Comparisons were made between 8 SGAs and 2 first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Changes in service costs were examined with 95% confidence interval. Multivariate regressions with propensity scores adjustment were performed to explore factors associated with psychiatric service costs.
A total of 343 treatment encounters were included and results showed no difference in psychiatric services costs in the SGAs group as the total service costs were offset to high antipsychotics costs of SGAs, though antiparkinsonian costs were not different between two groups. Factor positively associated with service costs were relapse (RR=4.0, p< 0.0001) and EPS incidence (RR=1.6, p< 0.008), while types of antipsychotics and diagnoses were not significant factors after adjusting for covariates.
Service costs were not different between FGAs and SGAs groups and medication costs were significantly higher in the SGAs group. Relapse and EPS incidence were factors of high costs among children and adolescents psychiatric patients treated with antipsychotics in Taiwan.
In the Philippines, morbidity control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is done through mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelmintics to school-age children (SAC). In 2013, the Philippines was devastated by the deadliest cyclone ever recorded, Typhoon Haiyan. The study aimed to understand the impact of Typhoon Haiyan on the MDA of anthelmintics to SAC in the provinces of Capiz and Iloilo in the Philippines from the perspectives of local health and education officials.
The study was conducted in the municipalities of Panay and Pilar in Capiz and the municipalities of Estancia and Sara in Iloilo, areas that were devastated by Typhoon Haiyan. Qualitative, semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 16 total participants, which included officials of the Department of Health, Department of Education, and concerned local government units. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded in an open, iterative manner. Codes were reviewed to identify patterns and themes.
Participants described the following themes: (1) their perception that the typhoon had no effect on the MDA program or on resources necessary to complete the program; (2) the program’s simple design allowed for 1-time administration to a pre-assembled population; (3) the program allowed a sense of community cohesiveness; (4) the program served as a vehicle for altruism, particularly regarding helping needy children, in this time of calamity.
Our informants perceived that the MDA program in Region VI was not affected by Typhoon Haiyan. They attributed the resilience to the program’s simple procedure, attitudes of altruism, program importance, and community cohesiveness. Despite Typhoon Haiyan’s mass destruction of infrastructure and livelihood leading to incredible challenges, mobilization of the community allowed for the continuation and successful implementation of the MDA program. The experience of Region VI may serve as a model for other low- and middle-income countries prone to natural disasters.
Patients with subthreshold bipolar disorder (sub-BP) experience severe clinical courses and functional impairments, which are comparable to those with bipolar I and II disorders (BP-I and -II). Nevertheless, lifetime prevalence, socioeconomic correlates and diagnostic overlaps of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPS) have not yet been estimated in the general population of South Korean adults.
This study aimed to estimate the lifetime prevalence, correlates and diagnostic comorbidities of BPS using a validated screening instrument in the nationwide general population of South Korea.
A total of 3013 adults among the 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey (KECA-2011) completed face-to-face interviews using the Korean versions of the composite international diagnostic interview 2.1 and mood disorder questionnaire (K-CIDI and K-MDQ).
The lifetime prevalence of BPS in the South Korean adults was measured to be 4.3% (95% CI 2.6–6.9). Nearly 80% of the subjects with BPS were codiagnosed with other DSM-IV nonpsychotic mental disorders: 35.4% (95% CI 24.2–48.5) for major depression and dysthymic disorder, 35.1% (95% CI 27.7–43.3) for anxiety disorders and 51.9% (95% CI 40.5–63.1) for alcohol and nicotine use disorders. Younger age (18–34 years) was the only sociodemographic predictor of BPS positivity (P = 0.014) and the diagnostic overlap patterns were different between men and women.
Positivity for BPS was estimated to be much greater than the prevalence of DSM-IV BP in South Korea. Most of the respondents with BPS were diagnosed with other major mental disorders and this might be related with mis and/or underdiagnosis of clinically relevant Sub-BP.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The life expectancy gap between people with severe mental illness (SMI) and the general population persists and may even be widening. This study aimed to estimate contributions of specific causes of death to the gap. Age of death and primary cause of death were used to estimate life expectancy at birth for people with SMI from a large mental healthcare case register during 2007–2012. Using data for England and Wales in 2010, death rates in the SMI cohort for each primary cause of death category were replaced with gender- and age-specific norms for that cause. Life expectancy in SMI was then re-calculated and, thus, the contribution of that specific cause of death estimated. Natural causes accounted for 79.2% of lost life-years in women with SMI and 78.6% in men. Deaths from circulatory disorders accounted for more life-years lost in women than men (22.0% versus 17.4%, respectively), as did deaths from cancer (8.1% versus 0%), but the contribution from respiratory disorders was lower in women than men (13.7% versus 16.5%). For women, cancer contributed more in those with non-affective than affective disorders, while suicide, respiratory and digestive disorders contributed more in those with affective disorders. In men, respiratory disorders contributed more in non-affective disorders. Other contributions were similar between gender and affective/non-affective groups. Loss of life expectancy in people with SMI is accounted for by a broad range of causes of death, varying by gender and diagnosis. Interventions focused on multiple rather than individual causes of death should be prioritised accordingly.
Types of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) can differ greatly between countries, with greater consumption of sweetened tea in Asia. This study aimed to understand changes in SSB consumption by adolescents in Taiwan over 18 years and their association with demographic characteristics and clinical outcome. This study used survey data from the 1993–1996 and 2010–2011 Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan. Participants were high school students aged 13 to 18 years. Data were weighted and analysed using SUDAAN 11.0 and SAS 9.4. Participants were asked about intake frequencies of SSB and were grouped into four different SSB intake groups based on the combination of high or low frequency (including moderate frequency) of intake of sweetened tea and soda/sports/energy drinks. Results indicated over 99 % of teens reported having at least one SSB in the past week. Smoking status was significantly associated with SSB intake types with high tea intake (high tea and low soda (HL) group, OR 7·56, P < 0·001; high tea and high soda (HH) group, OR 9·96, P < 0·001). After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents in the low tea and high soda (LH) group (β = 0·05, P = 0·034) had significantly higher mean serum uric acid values. In conclusion, sugary tea remains the SSB of choice for Taiwanese adolescents. Those with a frequent intake of soda/sports/energy drinks had a higher chance of being hyperuricaemic.
Recognizing materials development was advancing slower than technological needs, the 2011 the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) advocated interdisciplinary approaches employing an informatics framework in materials discovery and development. In response, an interdisciplinary graduate program, funded by the National Science Foundation, was designed at the intersection of materials science, materials informatics, and engineering design, aiming to equip the next generation of scientists and engineers with Material Data Science. Based on the 4- year implementation experience, this report demonstrates how intellectual communities bridge students interdisciplinary learning processes and support a transition from disciplinary grounding to interdisciplinary learning and research. We hope this training model can benefit other interdisciplinary graduate programs, and produce a more productive and interdisciplinary materials workforce.