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This article presents a normative framework for the assessment of education policies and applies it to the issue of schools’ selecting their students on the basis of religious criteria. Such policies can be justified, and challenged, on many different grounds; public debate is not conducted in terms adequate to the task. The authors’ main objectives are to supplement with non-consequentialist considerations a recent, consequentialist, approach to the normative assessment of education policy proposed by Brighouse et al. (2016, 2018), and to apply the proposed framework to issues of school composition and selection. They argue, further, that policies allowing schools to select all their students on the basis of their parents’ religious affiliation cannot be justified.
In this paper we review the design and development of a 100 J, 10 Hz nanosecond pulsed laser, codenamed DiPOLE100X, being built at the Central Laser Facility (CLF). This 1 kW average power diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) is based on a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design, which includes two cryogenic gas cooled amplifier stages based on DiPOLE multi-slab ceramic Yb:YAG amplifier technology developed at the CLF. The laser will produce pulses between 2 and 15 ns in duration with precise, arbitrarily selectable shapes, at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz, allowing real-time shape optimization for compression experiments. Once completed, the laser will be delivered to the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility in Germany as a UK-funded contribution in kind, where it will be used to study extreme states of matter at the High Energy Density (HED) instrument.
Analysis of injuries during military operations has focused on those related to combat. Non-combat complaints have received less attention, despite the need for many troops to be evacuated for non-battle illnesses in Iraq. This study aims to further characterize the disease and non-battle injuries (DNBIs) seen at a tertiary combat hospital and to describe the types of procedures and medications used in the management of these cases.
In this observational study, patients were enrolled from a convenience sample with non-combat-related diseases and injuries who were evaluated in the emergency department (ED) of a US military tertiary hospital in Iraq from 2007-2008. The treating emergency physician (EP) used a data collection form to enroll patients that arrived to the ED whose injury or illness was unrelated to combat.
Data were gathered on 1,745 patients with a median age of 30 years; 84% of patients were male and 85% were US military personnel. The most common diagnoses evaluated in the ED were abdominal disorders, orthopedic injuries, and headache. Many cases involved intravenous access, laboratory testing, and radiographic testing. Procedures performed included electrocardiogram, lumbar puncture, and intubation.
Disease and non-battle traumatic injuries are common in a tertiary combat hospital. Emergency providers working in austere settings should have the diagnostic and procedural skills to evaluate and treat DNBIs.
BebartaVS, MoraAG, NgPC, MasonPE, MuckA, MaddryJK. Disease and Non-Battle Traumatic Injuries Evaluated by Emergency Physicians in a US Tertiary Combat Hospital. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):53–57.
We describe the successful use of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in the control of massive haemoptysis in a 17-year-old patient with a Fontan circulation. The patient was intubated and ventilated in the ICU with deteriorating gas exchange. Conventional methods to control the haemoptysis were ineffective, and rFVIIa was successfully administered as a rescue therapy. rFVIIa is a powerful pro-thrombotic agent, which is only licensed in haemophiliacs with acquired inhibitors to anticoagulation. It has been used off-license in the treatment of massive haemorrhage, although a Cochrane review did not show any significant benefit; however, it may have a role as a rescue therapy where alternatives options have been exhausted after careful risk–benefit analysis.
A qualified pluralism is defended that recognizes value in a variety of forms of
political theory and resists arguments that purport to show that one particular
approach should occupy a privileged position. Against realists, it is argued
that abstract analyses of political values that bracket a wide range of facts
about people and their circumstances can be both coherent and important, whereas
against those who think “ideal theory” or the
identification of ultimate principles should come first, it is argued that the
case for always giving priority to either one of these is weak.
In the process of flux expulsion, a magnetic field is expelled from a region of closed streamlines on a
time scale, for magnetic Reynolds number
being the turnover time of the flow). This classic result applies in the kinematic regime where the flow field is specified independently of the magnetic field. A weak magnetic ‘core’ is left at the centre of a closed region of streamlines, and this decays exponentially on the
time scale. The present paper extends these results to the dynamical regime, where there is competition between the process of flux expulsion and the Lorentz force, which suppresses the differential rotation. This competition is studied using a quasi-linear model in which the flow is constrained to be axisymmetric. The magnetic Prandtl number
is taken to be small, with
large, and a range of initial field strengths
is considered. Two scaling laws are proposed and confirmed numerically. For initial magnetic fields below the threshold
, flux expulsion operates despite the Lorentz force, cutting through field lines to result in the formation of a central core of magnetic field. Here
is a velocity scale of the flow and magnetic fields are measured in Alfvén units. For larger initial fields the Lorentz force is dominant and the flow creates Alfvén waves that propagate away. The second threshold is
, below which the field follows the kinematic evolution and decays rapidly. Between these two thresholds the magnetic field is strong enough to suppress differential rotation, leaving a magnetically controlled core spinning in solid body motion, which then decays slowly on a time scale of order
There is an opportunity for greatly increased synergy between electronics and
biology, fostered by the march of electronics technologies to the atomic
scale, and by rapid advances in system, cell, and molecular biology. The
convergence of biology and electronics has the potential for significant
impacts on many areas important to national economies and well-being,
including healthcare and medicine, homeland security, forensics, and
protecting the environment and the food supply. Electrochemical biosensors
are label-free detection, which eliminates the external labels or indicators
and greatly shortens the assay time. They are widely used for the detection
of protein binding events, hybridized DNA, neuron tissue, bacteria, and
Miniaturized sensor arrays are capable of parallel analysis of multiple
parameters. Because of the distinct advantages of microsystem platforms,
there has been a trend to integrate sensor arrays onto the surface of
silicon chips and perform measurement using on-chip CMOS electronics
[1–3]. At the same time, there is a great opportunity to expand
lab-on-a-chip solutions that replace bulky benchtop sample analysis tools
with simple, low-power, portable systems. The fabrication compatibility
between many bio/chemical sensor interfaces and CMOS technology makes
a CMOS circuit an outstanding candidate for a silicon-based lab-on-chip
Conflicting answers to the question of what principles of justice are for may generate very different ways of theorizing about justice. Indeed divergent answers to it are at the heart of G. A. Cohen's disagreement with John Rawls. Cohen thinks that the roots of this disagreement lie in the constructivist method that Rawls employs, which mistakenly treats the principles that emerge from a procedure that involves factual assumptions as ultimate principles of justice. But I argue that even if Rawls were to abandon his constructivism, and to accept Cohen's argument that ultimate principles of justice are not grounded directly in any facts, their divergent views concerning the proper role of principles of justice would lead them to different conclusions. I contend that even if ultimate principles of justice are not directly grounded in any facts, the role that principles of justice are needed to play may mean that their justification depends upon facts about what is feasible and facts about what is burdensome to people. Contrary to what Cohen maintains, being dependent on the facts in this manner does not preclude a principle from being ultimate; nor do principles which have this sort of dependence on the facts necessarily combine justice with other values in a way that must lead to conflation.
To audit the quality of medical recommendations for detention under the Mental Health Act 1983, Section 2 and 3. The recommendations were tested against a gold standard based on the statutory criteria. Two cycles were completed, the first containing 214 recommendations, the second 202. Relevant education took place after the first cycle.
The percentage of medical recommendations containing clear statements of why each of the statutory criteria was met increased in the second cycle. It reached 87% for mental disorder; 87% for nature and/or degree; 75% for why community treatment was not possible; 64% for why detention was in the interests of health; 60% for safety; 55% for protection of others; and 70% why informal admission was not possible.
Doctors, scrutineers and approved mental health practitioners welcomed clear guidance about what is expected in a medical recommendation for detention and endorsed the gold standard described. Armed with a better understanding of what is expected and a template to follow, there was an improvement in the reasons given for detention.
Reaction of boehmite, [AI(O)(OH)]n, with an excess of carboxylic acid (HO2CR) results in the formation of the carboxy substituted alumoxanes, [AI(O)x(OH)y(O2CR)z)]n where 2x + y + z = 3 and R = alkyl substituents. The alumoxanes have been fully characterized by SEM, elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The physical properties of the alumoxanes are highly dependent on the identity of R, and range from insoluble crystalline powders, e.g. R = CH3, to powders which readily form solutions or gels in hydrocarbon solvents, e.g. R = C5H11. All of the alumoxanes decompose under mild thermolysis to yield γ-alumina.
The solubility of Th(IV) and U(IV) hydrous oxide was studied in the aqueous HCO3−-CO32−-OH−-H2O system extending to high concentration. The solubility of the Th(IV) and U(IV) hydrous oxides increases dramatically in both high bicarbonate and carbonate solutions and decreases with the increase in hydroxide at a fixed carbonate concentration. In general, the observed solubility of Th(IV) hydrous oxide at a given total carbonate concentration was three to four orders of magnitude higher than the solubility of U(IV) hydrous oxide. In the studies of the U(IV) system, extreme caution was used to ensure that the dissolved U was present as U(IV). Oxidation state analyses and systematic trends in the U(IV) solubility data similar to those for Th(IV), which is not redox sensitive, indicated that the dissolved U was present as U(IV).
In this paper effects of NH3 doping on ZnO thin films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates using diethyl zinc (DEZn) and O2 precursors and N2 as the carrier gas have been studied. NH3 flow rates were varied from 0.1% to 4% in the growth runs. All the runs were done at 500°C at 10 Torr pressure.
The XRD measurements show a single ZnO (002) peak. Raman data for the samples confirms presence of ZnO:N modes at 275cm−1, 510cm−1 and 575 cm−1 and 645cm−1. The PL results for Zn rich films show weak broad peaks centered at 480nm and 650nm with no ZnO band edge emission, while oxygen rich films show weak ZnO band edge emission and a strong broad orange peak centered at 650nm. Hall effect measurements indicate that all of the as-grown films are highly resistive. Some are weakly p-type with carrier concentration of 4.24 × 1014 cm−3 and mobility of 16.55 cm2/Vs. Annealing in N2 ambient for 60 minutes at 800°C enhances the PL band edge emission and converts all the films to highly conducting n-type, with carrier concentration on the order of 8 × 1018 cm−3, mobility on the order of 12 cm2/Vs and resistivity of 0.063 Ω-cm.
Recent policy documents in Britain that have emphasized the importance of integration can be understood as addressing the question of what conditions are required in order to achieve and sustain a just society. The answer they give is that minority cultural groups need to be integrated into society, and that this involves community cohesion, secured through ‘meaningful contact’, and sharing a national identity based on common values. Here, it is argued that although meaningful contact between members of different cultural groups may promote trust between them, this does not warrant the key role which has been given to the idea of community cohesion. It is suggested instead that policies should aim to foster a widespread sense of belonging to the polity, and that this is not the same as sharing a national identity.
Plato (c.428-347 BCE) stands at the beginning of many debates that have continued throughout the history of philosophy. His literary career spanned fifty years and the influence of his ideas and those of his followers pervaded philosophy throughout antiquity. Andrew Masons lucid and engaging introduction, draws on recent scholarship to offer a fresh general survey of Platos philosophy. Aware of the methodological challenges that confront any writer on Plato, Mason handles the issue of Platos intellectual development and relationship with Socrates with an assured grasp. Thematically structured, the book begins with Platos principal contribution to metaphysics, the Theory of Forms, which forms a necessary background to his thought in many areas. His theory of knowledge, which is intimately linked with the Forms is explored in detail along with Platos views of the soul, an important theme in itself and an entry point to discussion of his ethics, one of Platos major concerns. Finally, the book deals with two areas of Platos thought which have had an especially important historical impact, not confined to academic philosophy: his theory of God and nature, and his aesthetics. Throughout, Mason highlights the continuing themes in Platos work and how they develop from one dialogue to another.