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In this chapter, we examine the problem of Buraku discrimination – a traditional type of discrimination specific to Japan of which few Japanese people are aware. Similar to, but not the same as, the caste system in South Asia, Buraku were areas in which those involved in certain occupations considered distasteful were required to reside. At its most simple, the Burakumin (‘Buraku people’) are those descended from those living in these areas, but Buraku discrimination is more complex than this. The United Nations CERD has called on the Japanese government to address the issue of Buraku discrimination and the government asserts that it is fully committed to doing so. However, traditional Buraku discrimination is now manifesting as hate speech and online discrimination. The Dowa policy – a special measure that had aimed to tackle the issue – ended in 2002 and no new measures were put in place until 2016, when an Act for Eliminating Discrimination against Buraku was finally passed. This chapter focuses on three incidents that occurred in the 2000s as instances of hate speech and clarifies the modern characteristics of Buraku discrimination.
One of the strongest findings across the sciences is that publication bias occurs. Of particular note is a “file drawer bias” where statistically significant results are privileged over nonsignificant results. Recognition of this bias, along with increased calls for “open science,” has led to an emphasis on replication studies. Yet, few have explored publication bias and its consequences in replication studies. We offer a model of the publication process involving an initial study and a replication. We use the model to describe three types of publication biases: (1) file drawer bias, (2) a “repeat study” bias against the publication of replication studies, and (3) a “gotcha bias” where replication results that run contrary to a prior study are more likely to be published. We estimate the model’s parameters with a vignette experiment conducted with political science professors teaching at Ph.D. granting institutions in the United States. We find evidence of all three types of bias, although those explicitly involving replication studies are notably smaller. This bodes well for the replication movement. That said, the aggregation of all of the biases increases the number of false positives in a literature. We conclude by discussing a path for future work on publication biases.
We analysed associations between exposure to nightlife businesses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 PCR test results at a tertiary hospital in Tokyo between March and April 2020. A nightlife group was defined as those who had worked at or visited the businesses. We included 1517 individuals; 196 (12.9%) were categorised as the nightlife group. After propensity score matching, the proportion of positive PCR tests in the nightlife group was significantly higher than that in the non-nightlife group (nightlife, 63.8%; non-nightlife, 23.0%; P < 0.001). An inclusive approach to mitigate risks related to the businesses needs to be identified.
The present study aimed to reveal trends in simulated education in Japanese gerontological nursing by conducting a text mining analysis of the Igaku Chuo Zasshi databank.
Simulated education is focused by field of Japanese nursing education in recently. Therefore, we searched for original articles containing the terms “Simulated education” and “gerontological nursing” which were published between 2014and 2019. Articles containing these terms, as well as thesaurus words in the articles, were analyzed using Trend Search. The analysis provided a conceptual map of related words, with the strength of the relationship reflected in the thickness of lines and the distance between them.
Igaku Chuo Zasshi
A literature search was conducted using Igaku Chuo Zasshi, the Japanese medical literature database provided by the NPO Japan Medical Abstracts Society. This database comprises approximately 5000 journal titles and 6,300,000 articles.
Text mining software
Trend Search is a commercially available software developed by FUJITSU. Articles were anonymized prior to analysis.
Only anonymous articles were selected.
Results and Conclusions
The search identified 15 articles. Mapping yielded the two wedges of [Learning] and [Simulated game]. The [Learning] wedge had three groups ( Introduce, Communications, and Aging ). Introduce refers to nursing processes via simulated patients or role play. Communications refers to practice in gerontological nursing. Aging refers to role playing with group works in fundamental nursing. The [Simulated game] wedge had two groups (Effects and On-the-job training). Effects refers to leaving bed or psychographics. On-the-job training refers to simulation of elderly because of understanding.
Icing on aircraft can drastically reduce aerodynamic performance and lead to serious accidents. Therefore, prediction of the accreted ice shape and area and its effects on aerodynamic performance is crucial during the design phase of an aircraft. However, numerical simulations based on conventional grid-based methods such as the finite volume method cannot accurately reproduce the complex ice shapes, which involve horn growth, feather growth, air voids, and severe surface roughness. In the present study, instead of the grid-based method, a hybrid grid- and particle-based method was newly proposed and applied to the icing problem on a NACA0012 airfoil. The explicit moving particle semi-implicit method was employed as the particle-based method due to its short computing time. The numerical simulations effectively reproduced feather-shaped ice, air voids, and surface roughness. Finally, by computing the flow around the iced airfoil, it was confirmed that flow separation around the leading edge occurred due to the ice layer, which resulted in a thicker boundary layer and wake and an increase in the drag coefficient of approximately 70% after a residence time of only 60 seconds.
Novel IoT market solutions and research promise IoT modules that do not require programming or electrical setup, yet shop floor personnel need to face problem solving activities to create technical solutions. This paper introduces the Karakuri card deck and presents a case study composed of four workshop sessions in four manufacturing settings, where shop floor personnel tested the cards as a means of ideating and presenting conceptual IoT solutions in the form of diagrams. The results indicate the validity of the proposed conceptual solutions and suggest prototyping as a next step.
Polysaccharide-based nanoparticles such as pectin had always been of greatest interest because of its excellent solubility and mucoadhesive nature and are highly suitable for oral drug delivery for drug administration. In this study, we used commercially available pectin samples based on their degree of esterification, and nanoparticles were fabricated by the ionotropic gelation method using magnesium (Mg2+) as the divalent cross-linker. We conducted a comparative analysis on the three pectin NPs—high methoxylated pectin (HMP), low methoxylated pectin (LMP), and amidated LMP (AMP)—to examine the difference in characteristics such as shape, size, and biocompatibility. HMP and AMP were found to be similar in size (~850 nm), whereas LMP was found to be of ~700 nm. The three NPs were also tested for their biocompatibility toward THP-1 cells. All three NPs were found to have the potential as a nanocarrier of therapeutic and preventive drugs, especially through oral routes.
We broaden the applicability of sparse coding, a machine learning method, to low-dose electron holography by using simulated holograms for learning and validation processes. The holograms, with shot noise, are prepared to generate a model, or a dictionary, that includes basic features representing interference fringes. The dictionary is applied to sparse representations of other simulated holograms with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Results demonstrate that this approach successfully removes noise for holograms with an extremely small SNR of 0.10, and that the denoised holograms provide the accurate phase distribution. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the dictionary learned from the simulated holograms can be applied to denoising of experimental holograms of a p–n junction specimen recorded with different exposure times. The results indicate that the simulation-trained sparse coding is suitable for use over a wide range of imaging conditions, in particular for observing electron beam-sensitive materials.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Using multi-state discharge data, to identify predictors of frequent emergency department (ED) use among the homeless patients seen in emergent care, and to compare frequent versus less frequent homeless ED users for their risk of serious health services utilization outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Based on the State Emergency Department Database and the State Inpatient Database, homeless individuals (n = 88,541) who made at least one ED visit in four states (Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New York) in 2014. In this retrospective cross-sectional analysis, patient-level demographic and clinical factors were assessed as predictors for increased ED use. Risks of opioid overdose, opioid-related hospital admission/ED visit, in-hospital mortality, mechanical ventilation, and number of hospitalizations were compared between individuals with 4 or more vs. 2-3 vs. 1 ED visit(s), adjusting for potential confounders including hospital fixed effects (allowing for within hospital comparisons). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Higher rates of ED use were associated with Medicare coverage <65; primary diagnosis of alcohol abuse, asthma, or abdominal pain; and co-morbidity of alcohol abuse, psychoses, or chronic pulmonary disease. Individuals with ≥4 visits had significantly higher adjusted risk of opioid overdose (3.7% vs. 1.2% vs. 1.0%), opioid-related hospitalizations/ED visits (17.9% vs. 8.5% vs. 6.6%), mechanical ventilation (9.8% vs. 7.0% vs. 4.7%), and greater # of hospitalizations (3.2 vs. 1.3 vs. 0.8) compared to individuals with 2-3 or 1 ED visit. Individuals with ≥4 and 2-3 ED visits had similar but increased risks of in-hospital mortality compared to individuals with 1 ED visit (2.8% vs. 2.8% vs. 2.3%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Homeless patients who were high ED users were more likely to be hospitalized and have other adverse outcomes. These findings encourage targeted interventions (i.e. housing) for the high-utilizer homeless population to reduce the burden of serious outcomes and costs for the patient and society.
The objective of this study was to explore factors associated with hara-kiri as a method of suicide and suicidal behavior in contemporary Japan.
A retrospective study was conducted on medical records of 421 patients (174 male; 247 female) who were considered suicidal and treated at the Kitasato University Hospital Emergency Medical Center in Japan between January 2006 and March 2008. We compared hara-kiri and all other methods regarding sociodemographics and clinical features of all suicidal patients.
Instances of hara-kiri suicide attempt had the highest proportion of males (63%) among all suicide and suicidal behavior. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences between hara-kiri and other suicide attempt methods in the age of the suicidal patients. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that those who attempted hara-kiri suicide were likely to be male, be diagnosed with schizophrenia, survive, and be married.
Our findings indicate that hara-kiri as a method of suicide and suicidal behavior remain prevalent in Japan, and the study findings also suggest that both clinical and cultural factors might play a role in hara-kiri as a method of suicide and suicidal behavior.
In this study, we evaluated brain perfusion in patients with first-episode medicated schizophrenia using the new analytical method, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) applied to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
We performed SPECT with 99-Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) of the brain and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with schizophrenia (n = 30) and control subjects matched for age and gender (n = 37). A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (Z > 3.0, P < 0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons).
In comparison with control subjects, the volumes of the bilateral frontal areas were found to be decreased on MRI. Blood flow was found to be reduced in the bilateral temporal areas in the patients with schizophrenia on SPECT.
In this study, patients with first-episode schizophrenia appeared to have significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion, although temporal volumes were not significantly decreased in comparison with control subjects. Abnormality of temporal lobe blood flow in schizophrenia may show that functional changes occur earlier than structural changes, and may assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Altered levels of phenylalanine and its metabolites in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have previously been reported in schizophrenia. This study attempted to examine whether phenylalanine kinetics is altered in schizophrenia using the 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PBT).
Subjects were 20 patients with schizophrenia and the same number of controls. 13C-phenylalanine was administered and then 13CO2 concentration in breath was monitored for 120 minutes. The Δ 13CO2 at each collecting time, the maximal Δ 13CO2 (Cmax), the time to reach Cmax (Tmax), the area under the curve of time course of Δ13CO2 (AUC), the cumulative recovery rate (CRR) at each collecting time of the 13C-PBT were calculated for each subject.
Body weight (BW) and diagnostic status were significant predictors for Cmax. BW, age and diagnostic status were significant predictors for AUC and CRR at 120 minutes (CRR0-120). A repeated measures ANCOVA controlling for age and BW revealed a different pattern of change in CRR over time between the patients and controls and that Δ13CO2 in schizophrenia were lower than that in healthy control at all sampling point during 120 min, with an overall significant differences between healthy control and schizophrenia. The ANCOVA controlling for age and BW, showed that Cmax, AUC and CRR0-120 were significantly lower in schizophrenics than in controls.
Our data indicate the different change of Δ13CO2 and CRR over time and the decreased Cmax, AUC and CRR0-120 of 13C-PBT in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting the altered phenylalanine kinetics in schizophrenia.
In Japan, a lot of people used to be prejudiced against gay men, lesbians or bisexuals despite the fact that “homosexuality” as a category was eliminated from diagnostic criteria. Still, there is little investigation into the relations between individual's personality and the attitudes toward homosexuals.
A total of 164 heterosexual students of health and welfare (91 men and 67 women) with a mean age of 19.7 (SD = 1.0) years participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked to complete the Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals (IAH) and a short form of Five Factor Personality Questionnaire as well as an inquiry about their encounters with homosexuals.
Results and discussion:
Factor analysis of IAH resulted in three-factor solutions with factors identified as “avoidance of homosexual neighbors”, “avoidance of contacts with homosexuals” and “avoidance of approach from homosexuals”. Logistic regression analysis showed that “encounters with homosexuals” (=yes, OR = .15, 95%CI: .05–.46) and personality traits such as “extroversion” (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.05–1.19), “emotionality” (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.07–1.21) and “playfulness” (OR = .85, 95%CI: .79–.93) were predictors of “avoidance of homosexual neighbors”. Similarly, “avoidance of contacts with homosexuals” was associated with sex (=male, OR = 2.73, 95%CI: 1.38–5.42), “extroversion” (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.00–1.11) and “playfulness” (OR = .92, 95%CI: .86–.98), and “avoidance of approach from homosexuals” was associated with sex (=male, OR = 6.90, 95%CI: 3.25–14.64), “emotionality” (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.02–1.14) and “playfulness” (OR = .92, 95%CI: .86–.99). These results indicate that personality traits weakly but significantly influence the development of attitude toward homosexuals among Japanese adolescents.
The implementation of advanced multi-level modulation schemes such as quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) in contrast to the conventional on–off keying is crucial to further boost the terahertz (THz) communications speed. Thereby, carrier phase noise reduction in the THz range is one of the key goals that need to be urgently achieved. In this paper, the photonic-based THz sources and the phase noise problem are briefly summarized. Then, a low phase-noise photonic source based on the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) optical fiber cavity is first applied for a 300-GHz-band QPSK wireless communication link. The highest data rate at forward-error-correction limited condition was 15 Gbaud utilizing the SBS-based photonic source with a small transmit power of ~ −36 dBm. Its transmission characteristics are evaluated and compared with the conventional optical frequency comb generator (OFCG)-based source at 5 Gbaud. The proposed SBS-based photonic source has been proven to offer better performances than the OFCG-based source with respect to the phase noise, optical carrier to noise ratio, and bit error rate in communications.
Thorny lacewings (Rhachiberothidae) are currently distributed only within Africa, whereas they are prevalent in the fossil record of various Cretaceous ambers across the Northern Hemisphere, with a handful of the fossil records from some Eocene European ambers. Four rhachiberothid species in four extinct genera are known from the mid-Cretaceous amber of northern Myanmar. Here, we report further examples of the remarkable palaeodiversity of this group from the same amber deposit, adding the four new fossil genera and seven new species: Acanthoberotha cuspis gen. et sp. nov., Astioberotha falcipes gen. et sp. nov., Stygioberotha siculifera gen. et sp. nov., Uranoberotha chariessa gen. et sp. nov., Creagroparaberotha cuneata sp. nov., Micromantispa galeata sp. nov. and M. spicata sp. nov. Based on a series of well-preserved specimens, we discuss the fine details of the raptorial forelegs and genital segments, which may be important for elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among genera. Our findings reveal an unexpectedly diverse assemblage of thorny lacewings in the Cretaceous System, highlighting the morphologically diverse rhachiberothids in Burmese amber. The discovery of seven additional rhachiberothid species in Myanmar amber suggests the potential for much higher diversity and abundance of the Cretaceous rhachiberothids than previously documented. Furthermore, morphological variation in the raptorial forelegs was found to be extremely diverse among the Burmese amber paraberothines, especially in terms of the size, number and shape of spines (or spine-like setae) on the inner edges of protibia, and the morphological structure of the probasitarsus.