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Refractory ventricular fibrillation encountered during cardiac arrest has a mortality rate of 97%.1 As per the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines, the management algorithm of ventricular fibrillation consists of chest compressions, epinephrine, defibrillation, and anti-arrhythmics.2 There have been reports describing the use of the fast-acting selective β-blocker, esmolol, and dual-sequential defibrillation in the management of ventricular fibrillation that is refractory to standard ACLS. We present a case of a 24-year-old male who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, with refractory ventricular fibrillation despite high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and ACLS management. Along with standard ACLS, triple-sequential defibrillation was used to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after 82 minutes of downtime. An electrocardiogram (ECG) after ROSC showed an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI), and the patient underwent angiography showing a 100% occlusion of his left anterior descending artery. Following management of his coronary artery disease, he was discharged from the hospital 16 days later and was neurologically intact.
The SCN5A gene is implicated in many arrhythmogenic and cardiomyopathic processes. We identified a novel SCN5A variant in a family with significant segregation in individuals affected with progressive sinus and atrioventricular nodal disease, atrial arrhythmia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and early sudden cardiac arrest.
A patient pedigree was created following the clinical evaluation of three affected individuals, two monozygotic twins and a paternal half-brother, which lead to the evaluation of a paternal half-sister (four siblings with the same father and three mothers) all of whom experienced varying degrees of atrial arrhythmias, conduction disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy in addition to a paternal history of unexplained death in his 50s with similar autopsy findings. The index male underwent sequencing of 58 genes associated with cardiomyopathies. Sanger sequencing was used to provide data for bases with insufficient coverage and for bases in some known regions of genomic segmental duplications. All clinically significant and novel variants were confirmed by independent Sanger sequencing.
All relatives tested were shown to have the same SCN5A variant of unknown significance (p. Asp197His) and the monozygotic twins shared a co-occurring NEXN (p. Glu575*). Segregation analysis demonstrates likely pathogenic trait for the SCN5A variant with an additional possible role for the NEXN variant in combination.
There is compelling clinical evidence suggesting that the SCN5A variant p. Asp197His may be re-classified as likely pathogenic based on the segregation analysis of our family of interest. Molecular mechanism studies are pending.
This study examined whether the interaction between parenting and inhibitory control predicts hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in 195 children. Observation data of positive parenting were collected at 4 years, and mother reports of coercive parenting at 5 years, inhibitory control at 6 years, and hyperactivity-impulsivity/inattention at 7 years were obtained. The common and unique variance of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms were examined as outcomes using a bifactor model. Results indicated that positive parenting practices predicted lower levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity/inattention behaviors at age 7 only when children's inhibitory control was high. These results support the vantage sensitivity model, which posits that some individuals show an increased sensitivity to positive experiences exclusively, and support the appropriateness of a targeted prevention approach in early childhood.
Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is a leafhopper known to vector phytoplasmas in cultivated vines (Vitis vinifera Linnaeus (Vitaceae)) of western Europe. Its occurrence has been recorded in western North America more than 60 years ago, but so far not in eastern North America, including Canada. In the last 15 years, three specimens have been found in Ontario near and around vineyards. Here we report the first record of E. variegatus in Canada and eastern North America.
Facial transplantation is emerging as a therapeutic option for self-inflicted gunshot wounds. The self-inflicted nature of this injury raises questions about the appropriate role of self-harm in determining patient eligibility. Potential candidates for facial transplantation undergo extensive psychosocial screening. The presence of a self-inflicted gunshot wound warrants special attention to ensure that a patient is prepared to undergo a demanding procedure that poses significant risk, as well as stringent lifelong management. Herein, we explore the ethics of considering mechanism of injury in the patient selection process, referring to the precedent set forth in solid organ transplantation. We also consider the available evidence regarding outcomes of individuals transplanted for self-inflicted mechanisms of injury in both solid organ and facial transplantation. We conclude that while the presence of a self-inflicted gunshot wound is significant in the overall evaluation of the candidate, it does not on its own warrant exclusion from consideration for a facial transplantation.
Introduction: Needle-related procedures are considered the most important source of pain and distress in children in hospital settings. Time constraints, heavy workload, busy and noisy environment represent barriers to the use of available interventions for pain management during needle-related procedures. Therefore, the use of a rapid, easy-to-use intervention could improve procedural pain management practices. The objective was to determine if a device combining cold and vibration (Buzzy) is non-inferior (no worse) to a topical anesthetic (Maxilene) for pain management in children undergoing needle-related procedures in the Emergency Department (ED). Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial. We enrolled children aged between 4-17 years presenting to the ED and requiring a needle-related procedure. Participants were randomly assigned to the Buzzy or Maxilene group. The primary outcome was the mean difference in pain intensity during the procedure, as measured with the CAS (0-10). Secondary outcomes were procedural distress, success of the procedure at first-attempt and satisfaction of parents. Results: A total of 352 participants were enrolled and 346 were randomized (Buzzy = 172; Maxilene = 174). Mean difference in procedural pain scores between groups was 0.64 (95%CI -0.1 to 1.3), showing that the Buzzy device was not non-inferior to Maxilene according to a non-inferiority margin of 0.70. No significant differences were observed for procedural distress (p = .370) and success of the procedure at first attempt (p = .602). Parents of both groups were very satisfied with both interventions (Buzzy = 7.8 ±2.66; Maxilene = 8.1 ±2.4), but there was no significant difference between groups (p = .236). Conclusion: Non-inferiority of the Buzzy device over a topical anesthetic was not demonstrated for pain management of children during a needle-related procedure in the ED. However, considering that topical anesthetics are underused in the ED setting and require time, the Buzzy device seems to be a promising alternative as it is a rapid, low-cost, easy-to-use and reusable intervention.
Introduction: The number of CT scans prescribed in the Emergency department (ED) for suspected renal colic has increased over recent years without an associated improvement in patient-centred outcomes. We assessed whether Point-of-Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) decreases the use of formal radiologic imaging. Methods: We completed a retrospective cohort study on consecutive patients 18 years of age and older presenting to the ED with suspected uncomplicated renal colic in a tertiary care centre in Québec in 2016. Exclusion criteria included: previous urologic intervention, solitary kidney, dialysis, fever, pyuria, acute kidney injury, pregnancy, suspicion of a serious alternative diagnosis or persistent symptoms despite analgesia. We compared the proportion (95%CI) of formal radiologic imaging performed (Ultrasound or CT) in patients who had PoCUS in the ED vs. those who did not. Two-tailed Fisher exact test (α = 0.05) and odds ratios (95%CI) calculated from multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, Charlson Index and previous renal colic were used to compare the two groups. The reliability of data collection was evaluated with a kappa score (95%CI). Results: 169 patients with uncomplicated renal colic were included. There was no difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, Charlson Index, or previous renal colic. The PoCUS level of training and the doctor's education level was significantly higher in the PoCUS group. There was a non-significant trend towards less formal imaging in patients of the PoCUS group 65/88 (73.9% [63.4-82.7%]) vs. the non-PoCUS group 69/81 (85.2% [75.6-92.1%]), p = 0.087. After adjustment for confounders, the patients not evaluated with PoCUS were more likely to have formal imaging with a significant odds ratio of 2.41 [1.05-5.56]). Among patients who underwent a CT, incidentalomas were found in 16.5% and only 2.0% demonstrated significant findings leading to changes in ED management, such as an alternative diagnosis, need for admission, or an urgent urological intervention. Inter-observer agreement was excellent between assessers with a kappa score of 0.88 [0.66-1.00]. Conclusion: ED patients with uncomplicated renal colic who are investigated with PoCUS tend to have fewer formal imaging test. When CT scans were performed, incidentalomas were found in 16.5% and ED management changed only 2.0% of the time. PoCUS appears to be a useful tool for decreasing CT utilisation in this low-risk ED population.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterised by akinesis and ballooning of the left ventricular apex during contraction of the otherwise normal base of the heart. We describe the case of a 7-month-old previously healthy female who presented with an unwitnessed cardiac arrest. Workup raised suspicion for non-accidental trauma. Despite progression to brain death, the severely decreased ventricular function and apical akinesis of the left ventricle improved within 40 hours of admission. This report will familiarise paediatricians with this rare cardiomyopathy and emphasise the importance of considering non-accidental trauma as an inciting event for patients with unwitnessed cardiac arrest found to have decreased ventricular function.
Under the Consumer Rights Act 2015 consumer contracts and consumer notices are required to be expressed in plain and intelligible language. This is a difficult concept to capture. Determining whether a contract is expressed in plain and intelligible language involves resource-intensive work by regulators and difficult adjudications by courts. This paper explores whether reading scores present a viable alternative. Can a simple computer program tell a consumer, a business, a regulator or the court that a particular contract is not expressed in plain and intelligible language? The paper begins by exploring the concept and role of plain and intelligible language in the Consumer Rights Act, before considering the ways that reading scores have developed and been used in legal contexts. We then report on the findings of an experimental examination of insurance contracts using a basket of reading scores, using our findings to draw conclusions about the utility of reading scores in determining whether a contract is expressed in plain and intelligible language. We find that reading scores can play a role in such determinations, but that further work is needed to provide appropriate tools for business, regulators and courts to use in assessing plain and intelligible language.
Eliciting implicit value-judgments (VJs) in the HTA process is one way of integrating ethics in HTA since the latter is recognized as a value-laden process. An analysis of the diversity of opinions on implicit VJs in HTA and of their role, highlights the connection there exists between VJs and the different decisions involved in the whole HTA process. Such a link is corroborated by a conceptual analysis of VJ using a speech-act philosophical approach grounded in the philosophy of language, since VJs are linked with normative speech-acts such as commands, recommendations and advices.
We propose an analysis of the published citations mentioning VJs, extracted from our systematic review on the challenges of integrating ethics in HTA. In order to do so, those quotes were categorized in a chart, the latter of which presents: (i) the different steps of decision-making in the HTA process, (ii) the description of the implicit VJ(s) and (iii) the criteria involved. This chart was elaborated with the participation of the HTA local evaluators involved as co-investigators in our research group. The final version was discussed, debated and validated by the entire research group.
The chart shows 18 decision-making steps in the HTA process in which twenty-three implicit VJs can be observed. The range of such VJs encompasses the whole HTA process from the initial mandate to the agency presenting the decisional issues, to the dissemination of the final report. The published citations gathered for each category compile different expectations on the elicitation of the implicit VJs, thus making the latter VJs more explicit.
This chart allows a better understanding of the expectations that are at the core of the appeal for more transparency in the HTA process, since stakeholders need to understand which value-judgments the final conclusion of a report is relying on.
Gene editors such as CRISPR could be used to create stronger, faster, or more resilient nonhuman animals. This is of keen interest to people who breed, train, race, and profit off the millions of animals used in sport that contribute billions of dollars to legal and illegal economies across the globe. People have tried for millennia to perfect sport animals; CRISPR proposes to do in one generation what might have taken decades previously. Moreover, gene editing may facilitate enhancing animals’ capacities beyond their typical limits. This paper describes the state of animal use and engineering for sport, examines the moral status of animals, and analyzes current and future ethical issues at the intersection of animal use, gene editing, and sports. We argue that animal sport enthusiasts and animal welfarists alike should be concerned about the inevitable use of CRISPR in sport animals. Though in principle CRISPR could be used to improve sport animals’ well-being, we think it is unlikely in practice to do so.
In Canada, viticulture has been practiced since the arrival of European settlers. After a period of low activity due to the prohibition in North America, viticulture enjoyed a renaissance in the 1970s such that it became a rapidly growing industry in Canada. It is currently practiced mainly in five provinces, i.e., British Columbia, Ontario, Québec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. In Eastern Canada, several species of wild vines (Vitis Linnaeus; Vitaceae) grew naturally before cultivation of domesticated cultivars and these had their entomofauna. In contrast, no wild vines grew in British Columbia. As a consequence, the insect fauna varies according to the provinces and the regions and the agroclimatic conditions. Here we review the literature relevant to viticultural entomology in Canada and discuss the main grape insects. It is noteworthy that certain insect pests of grapes were the subject of the first issues of The Canadian Entomologist. Selected milestones are provided to document the evolution of research in grape entomology in the context of dynamic evolving viticultural and oenological industries. In recent years, the arrival of several invasive species challenged the sustainability of integrated pest management programmes.