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This study was designed to elucidate the biological variation in expression of many metabolites due to environment, genotype, or both, and to investigate the potential utility of metabolomics to supplement compositional analysis for the design of a new resilient cultivar of Brassica napus that can be steady in phytochemicals in different regions in France. Eight rapeseed varieties, grown in eight regions of France, were compared using a non-targeted metabolomics approach. The statistical analysis highlighted the distance and closeness between the samples in terms of both genotypes and geographical regions. A major environmental impact was observed on the polar metabolome, with different trends, depending on the varieties. Some varieties were very sensitive to the environment, while others were quite resilient. The identified secondary metabolites were mapped into the KEGG pathway database to reveal the most sensitive target proteins susceptible to environmental influences. A glucosyl-transferase encoded by the UGT84A1 gene involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid was identified. This protein could be rate limiting/promoting in this pathway depending on environmental conditions. The metabolomics approach used in this study demonstrated its efficiency to characterize the environmental influence on various cultivars of Brassica napus seeds and may help identify targets for crop improvement.
This chapter explores rituals of communal flag-raising in the late years of the Weimar Republic and the early years of the Nazi regime, challenging the prevailing view that such events merely demonstrate a growing mass conformity after 1933 to Nazi dictates. Instead, it is argued that, paradoxically, these mass rituals allowed scope for individuals to express private political views and even a degree of distance from the regime. Conversely, individuals who did conform to the mass flag-raising could also protect their private sphere from intrusive Party scrutiny. However, between 1933 and 1936–7 the room for individual manoeuvre was increasingly squeezed out as the Party sought to stop individuals expressing political preferences through a particular configuration of flags; moreover, the regulations concerning the ritual also evolved in order to visibly exclude German Jews from the national community.
In 2015, French writer Michel Houellebecq’s novel Submission, which depicts a future France with a Muslim president, was repeatedly cited in political discourse about Islam, French identity, and terrorism. In the year of the novel’s publication, several Islamist terrorist attacks targeted France, and Houellebecq was often named in the debate on multiculturalism, immigration and the French secularist principle of laïcité. The reception of the novel is analysed in this article, focusing on ideological argumentation and political debate. Two opposite camps can be identified in this reception structure. Interestingly, the arguments of these camps are analogous to the arguments of the prosecutor and defence lawyer in the 1857 trial of Gustave Flaubert concerning his novel Madame Bovary. One and a half centuries after that trial, questions about the reader’s moral capacity and the author’s responsibility remain at the heart of the debate. While some liberal critics praise the ambiguities of the novel, trusting the reader’s ethical faculties, other critics condemn the novel and accuse the writer of expressing dubious values. As for the ideological homes of these critics, the liberal group represents left-wing, right-wing, and uncertain ideologies, whereas the gatekeeping group largely consists of left-leaning agents. The division into two reception groups and their respective discursive patterns and practices are analysed using the Bovary trial as a basis for comparison. It is concluded that in the anxious political climate of 2015 when terror, migration, and Islam were attracting considerable attention and when the populist right was on the rise, Houellebecq’s novel functioned as a political vehicle in government-sympathetic opinion making and as a practical tool for critics who positioned themselves as safeguarding generous migration and integration policies.
Prematurity impacts myocardial development and may determine long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that preterm neonates develop right ventricle dysfunction and adaptive remodelling by 32 weeks post-menstrual age that persists through 1 year corrected age.
Materials and Methods:
A subset of 80 preterm infants (born <29 weeks) was selected retrospectively from a prospectively enrolled cohort and measures of right ventricle systolic function and morphology by two-dimensional echocardiography were assessed at 32 weeks post-menstrual age and at 1 year of corrected age. Comparisons were made to 50 term infants at 1 month and 1 year of age. Sub-analyses were performed in preterm-born infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension.
In both term and preterm infants, right ventricle function and morphology increased over the first year (p < 0.01). The magnitudes of right ventricle function measures were lower in preterm-born infants at each time period (p < 0.01 for all) and right ventricle morphology indices were wider in all preterm infants by 1 year corrected age, irrespective of lung disease. Measures of a) right ventricle function were further decreased and b) morphology increased through 1 year in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension (p < 0.01).
Preterm infants exhibit abnormal right ventricle performance with remodelling at 32 weeks post-menstrual age that persists through 1 year corrected age, suggesting a less developed intrinsic myocardial function response following preterm birth. The development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension leave a further negative impact on right ventricle mechanics over the first year of age.
The Northern Bald Ibis (NBI) Geronticus eremita, is an ‘Endangered’ bird species of which only very few wild breeding colonies have survived along the Atlantic coast of south-west Morocco. This paper analyses ecological conditions of the 72 breeding sites of the NBI that have been known since 1900 in Morocco. Characterisation of breeding sites is based on physical criteria (elevation above sea level, geomorphology, mean annual precipitation and types of landscape) as well as land use, vegetation cover, infrastructure and types of settlement within three perimeters (0–1 km, > 1–5 km and > 5–10(20) km) using Google Earth satellite images. Statistical analyses of the number of breeding pairs, fledglings and rainfall during different quarters of the year from 1994 to 2016 in the two remaining breeding sites in Souss-Massa National Park and Tamri showed expected patterns as well as unexpected differences between the two localities. Based on our findings and indications in the literature, we suggest general and specific recommendations for potential future translocation projects of the NBI. Based on the analysis of the 28 breeding colonies existing after 1977, two elements emerge as the most important prerequisites: a low level of disturbances at the breeding sites and adequate feeding areas at a reasonable distance of 5–15 km.
By applying data analytics to product usage information (PUI) from combinations of different channels, companies can get a more complete picture of their products’ and services’ Mid-Of-Life. All data, which is gathered within the usage phase of a product and which relates to a more comprehensive understanding of the usability of the product itself, can become valuable input. Nevertheless, an efficient use of such knowledge requires to setup related analysis capabilities enabling users not only to visualize relevant data, but providing development related knowledge e.g. to predict product behaviours not yet reflected by initial requirements.
The paper elaborates on explorations to support product development with analytics to improve anticipation of future usage of products and related services. The discussed descriptive, predictive and prescriptive analytics in given research context share the idea and overarching process of getting knowledge out of PUI data. By implementation of corresponding features into an open software platform, the application of advanced analytics for white goods product development has been explored as a reference scenario for PUI exploitation.
Danish energy policy has reached a phase where the effects of the paradigmatic change from stored fossil fuels to very large shares of fluctuating renewable energy requires fundamentally new technical, political and economic solutions. Two archetypal technical scenarios are the locally and regionally integrated Smart Energy System scenario and a centralized export/import transmission line scenario. In analyzing the competition between these scenarios we applied a social anthropological method of GOING CLOSE to the situation of the actors and the ecological, technological and institutional context. We concluded that a smart energy scenario that can integrate large amounts of fluctuating wind power is optimal, but that the transmission line scenario has the politically strongest supporters and consequently, an advantage for being implemented. With respect to institutional factors, our conclusion is that if a country should be able to change its path against the will of politically strong actors, it is a must to have innovative democracy where the parliament, educational institutions and other institutions are independent of these political actors. In the present phase of the transition to 100% renewable energy we recommend concrete and specific institutional changes both at the EU and national levels.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Surface morphology modification by low-energy ion bombardment is widely used in many thin film techniques such as sputter deposition, ion-beam-assisted growth and ion polishing, in order to obtain smooth surfaces desirable for device applications. Under certain circumstances, ion bombardment on surfaces is also known to produce 2-D (ripples or wires) and 1-D (dot) structures by a self-organization process that arises from a competition of a roughing instability mechanism and surface relaxation. Knowledge of the mechanisms which govern those surface processes is very crucial to engineer technologically significant surface morphologies at the submicron or nano-scale in a more controlled way. Recently, the fast-growing advances in synchrotron x-ray scattering and detector techniques have enabled detailed investigations into the surface kinetics during ion bombardment. In this work, a study of surface smoothing on nanocorrugated sapphire surfaces by low-energy ion bombardment at normal incidence will be presented. Real time characterization by synchrotron grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering for the dependence of smoothing rate on ion energy and wavelength of sapphire ripples is performed. A ripple amplitude displays a classic behavior of profile-preserving exponential decay with time upon ion irradiation. The dependence of smoothing rate on ion energy and wavelength is discussed with existing surface smoothing mechanisms. The wavelength dependence exhibits a power law behavior with exponential close to 2 instead of 4, which suggests a dominant smoothing mechanism related to ion impact induced lateral mass redistribution for near normal incidence condition. The appearance of multiple smoothing rate constants at high temperature is thought to be relative with emerging atomic steps after surface recrystallization.
Radiocarbon dating is paramount for chronologically defining the rise of polities in the Middle Bronze Age Carpathian Basin. This article presents a suite of new radiocarbon dates obtained from sites associated with the Early and Middle Bronze Age Maros Group, and its Late Bronze Age successors in the Tisza-Maros region of south-east Hungary, western Romania and northern Serbia. The results indicate tight chronological synchronisation of Middle Bronze Age settlements and cemeteries in the Maros region, while confirming the accuracy of ceramic-based relative chronology for the Szőreg cemetery.
Donjek Glacier has an unusually short and regular surge cycle, with eight surges identified since 1935 from aerial photographs and satellite imagery with a ~12 year repeat interval and ~2 year active phase. Recent surges occurred during a period of long-term negative mass balance and cumulative terminus retreat of 2.5 km since 1874. In contrast to previous work, we find that the constriction where the valley narrows and bedrock lithology changes, 21 km from the terminus, represents the upper limit of surging, with negligible surface speed or elevation change up-glacier from this location. This positions the entire surge-type portion of the glacier in the ablation zone. The constriction geometry does not act as the dynamic balance line, which we consistently find at 8 km from the glacier terminus. During the 2012–2014 surge event, the average lowering rate in the lowest 21 km of the glacier was 9.6 m a−1, while during quiescence it was 1.0 m a−1. Due to reservoir zone refilling, the ablation zone has a positive geodetic balance in years immediately following a surge event. An active surge phase can result in a strongly negative geodetic mass balance over the surge-type portion of the glacier.
The processes underwriting the acquisition of culture remain unclear. How are shared habits, norms, and expectations learned and maintained with precision and reliability across large-scale sociocultural ensembles? Is there a unifying account of the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of culture? Notions such as ‘shared expectations’, the ‘selective patterning of attention and behaviour’, ‘cultural evolution’, ‘cultural inheritance’, and ‘implicit learning’ are the main candidates to underpin a unifying account of cognition and the acquisition of culture; however, their interactions require greater specification and clarification. In this paper, we integrate these candidates using the variational (free energy) approach to human cognition and culture in theoretical neuroscience. We describe the construction by humans of social niches that afford epistemic resources called cultural affordances. We argue that human agents learn the shared habits, norms, and expectations of their culture through immersive participation in patterned cultural practices that selectively pattern attention and behaviour. We call this process “Thinking through Other Minds” (TTOM) – in effect, the process of inferring other agents’ expectations about the world and how to behave in social context. We argue that for humans, information from and about other people's expectations constitutes the primary domain of statistical regularities that humans leverage to predict and organize behaviour. The integrative model we offer has implications that can advance theories of cognition, enculturation, adaptation, and psychopathology. Crucially, this formal (variational) treatment seeks to resolve key debates in current cognitive science, such as the distinction between internalist and externalist accounts of Theory of Mind abilities and the more fundamental distinction between dynamical and representational accounts of enactivism.
Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent moderation of postprandial glycaemic, glucoregulatory hormone, appetite and ex vivo oxidative stress responses. Twenty participants (eighteen males/two females; 24 (sd 5) years; BMI: 27 (sd 3) kg/m2) consumed one of five cereal bars (approximately 88 % carbohydrate) containing no fruit ingredients (reference), freeze-dried black raspberries (10 or 20 % total weight; LOW-Rasp and HIGH-Rasp, respectively) and cranberry extract (0·5 or 1 % total weight; LOW-Cran and HIGH-Cran), on trials separated by ≥5 d. Postprandial peak/nadir from baseline (Δmax) and incremental postprandial AUC over 60 and 180 min for glucose and other biochemistries were measured to examine the dose-dependent effects. Glucose AUC0–180 min trended towards being higher (43 %) after HIGH-Rasp v. LOW-Rasp (P=0·06), with no glucose differences between the raspberry and reference bars. Relative to reference, HIGH-Rasp resulted in a 17 % lower Δmax insulin, 3 % lower C-peptide (AUC0–60 min and 3 % lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (AUC0–180 min) P<0·05. No treatment effects were observed for the cranberry bars regarding glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, nor were there any treatment effects for either berry type regarding ex vivo oxidation, appetite-mediating hormones or appetite. Fortification with freeze-dried black raspberries (approximately 25 g, containing 1·2 g of polyphenols) seems to slightly improve the glucoregulatory hormone and glycaemic responses to a high-carbohydrate food item in young adults but did not affect appetite or oxidative stress responses at doses or with methods studied herein.