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Here we present direct dates of food grains and insights into agricultural strategies adopted by Harappans from a newly excavated Indus site 4MSR (Binjor) in northwestern India. The site revealed Early and Mature Harappan phases delimited by a Transitional phase based on ceramics and archaeological artifacts. The macro-botanical remains revealed that the site was occupied by an agricultural society during the Early phase (~2900−2600 BCE), whereas diversification of the economy including more craft specialization, along with an agricultural advancement was witnessed during the Mature phase (~2500−1800 BCE). The advent of summer crops during the Transitional phase (~2600−2500 BCE) indicates climate amelioration attributed to inception of strong Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). By the end of Mature phase, millet was recorded due to a change in climatic (relatively lower moisture) conditions or drying of the river channel, which forced the settlers to shift the cropping (agricultural) strategy in the region. Plausibly, this unavailability of water during the end of Mature phase led the settlers to abandon the site in order to migrate somewhere else. The subsistence pattern indicates continuity and change in temporal domain likely owing to changing climatic/environmental conditions, resources and knowledge gained by exchange/trade of cultures over a time period between ~2900 BCE to 1800 BCE.
Introduction: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are first-line analgesics for emergency department (ED) patients with renal colic. Lower doses of intravenous (IV) ketorolac may provide similar pain relief to standard dosing in patients with acute pain. Patients with renal colic may be at increased risk of acute kidney injury; exposing them to lower doses of NSAIDs may put them at lower risk while providing equally effective analgesia. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of a randomized trial comparing the effectiveness and safety of low with standard ketorolac dosing in ED patients with suspected renal colic. The primary objective was to demonstrate the ability to achieve an enrolment target of 2 patients per week. Methods: We enrolled a convenience sample of adults presenting to an academic urban ED with unilateral flank pain suspected to be renal colic. We randomized patients to 10 mg (low dose, intervention) or 30 mg (standard dose, control). Participants, treating physicians and nurses, and researchers were blinded to treatment allocation. Our main feasibility outcome was the recruitment rate. Secondary outcomes were changes in pain scores (0-10) at 30 and 120 minutes post-ketorolac administration, vital signs, adverse events and ED length of stay. Results: We approached 82 patients, of whom 47 (57.3%) were eligible. Of these, 36 consented to participating and 30 were randomized. The proportion of screened patients who were enrolled was 36.6% (30/82). We completed enrolment over a 21-week period, with an average recruitment rate of 1.5 patients/week (range 0-4). The average baseline pain score for all participants was 6.9 (SD = 2.1). At 30 minutes post-ketorolac administration, the low dose group had a mean pain reduction of 2.0 points compared to a pain reduction of 1.7 in standard dose group (difference = 0.3, 90% CI: -0.7 to 1.4). Conclusion: These preliminary results support the possibility that low dose ketorolac may be efficacious in this patient population. We did not meet our target recruitment of 2 patients per week as this was primarily due to restricted recruitment hours. To successfully conduct a larger trial, we would need to expand both recruitment hours and the number of sites.
This paper reports an integration of dual band microstrip antenna with thin film amorphous silicon solar cell which creates a wearable system to harvest microwave energy. The multiple layers in the encapsulation of the thin film solar cell are used as a substrate for microstrip antenna. The rectifier and matching circuit are designed on cotton jeans material and the whole system is mechanically supported by the foam of 5 mm thick. The performance of the antenna is studied for the mechanical bending condition. The device has maintained good power conversion efficiency. The efficiency of the voltage doubler is tested by varying radio frequency power levels from −30 to10 dBm. The voltage doubler conversion efficiency at 1.85 and 2.45 GHz are 58 and 43%, respectively, for a load of 7.5 kΩ for an input power level of −5 dBm.
The study attempts to delineate the clinical correlates (suicidal risk, manic, depressive and psychotic symptom severity) and course characteristics (age of onset and details of past affective episodes) of bipolar mixed state and compare with bipolar manic and bipolar depressed state diagnosed according to ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research(ICD-10 DCR).
The study was carried out in inpatient psychiatry setting of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India over a period of 10 months. It was an Open, Non-randomised, Naturalistic study with sequential sampling. The rating scales used were Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) and Beck Scale for suicidal ideation.
A total of 70 subjects were included in the study meeting the criteria of bipolar disorder currently manic, depressed and mixed state according to ICD-10 DCR.
Manic group constituted the majority (n1 = 47) followed by depressed (n2 = 17) and mixed groups (n3 = 6). Mixed group was characterized by preponderance of females, high suicidal intent, high frequency of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms, illness severity and significant family history.
The study was able to establish some core features that were specific to mixed states. A larger sample size and a prospective follow up study would throw light on the existence of this group as an independent entity.
Bioactive dressings which can treat any kind of chronic or acute wounds and can fully replace the conventional gauzes and superabsorbent dressings have proven to be a future market of wound care products in recent times. These dressings are multifunctional, which can effectively combat the wound infection, remove the exudate, promote angiogenesis, and protect the wound from external trauma. Proper selection of bioactive and polymer defines its efficiency. Current research unveils the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin–honey-loaded multilayered polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous mats as an interactive bioactive wound dressing material. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis infers uniform encapsulation and chemical compatibility of herbal actives and polymer, inside the nanofibrous layers. The as-spun mat shows potential resistance towards Escherichia coli and ∼90% antioxidant activity against diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)–free radical. Additionally, water absorbency, water vapor transmission rate, and wettability analysis show quick and excellent absorption with controlled transmission of wound exudate.
Deinotheriidae Bonaparte, 1845 is a family of browsing proboscideans that were widespread in the Old World during the Neogene. From Miocene deposits in the Indian subcontinent, deinotheres are known largely from dental remains. Both large and small species have been described from the region. Previously, only small deinothere species have been identified from Kutch in western India. In the fossiliferous Tapar beds in Kutch, dental remains have been referred to the small species Deinotherium sindiense Lydekker, 1880, but the specimens are too fragmentary to be systematically diagnostic. Here, we describe a large p4 of a deinothere from the Tapar beds and demonstrate that it is morphologically most similar to Deinotherium indicum Falconer, 1845, a large species of deinothere, thereby confirming the identity of deinotheres at Tapar. Deinotherium indicum from Tapar is larger than other deinotheres identified from Kutch and is the first occurrence of the species in the region. This new specimen helps constrain the age of the Tapar beds to the Tortonian and increases the biogeographic range of this species—hitherto only known from two localities on the subcontinent. This specimen also highlights the morphological diversity of South Asian deinothere p4s and allows us to reassess dental apomorphies used to delimit Indian deinothere species. Lastly, we argue that by the late Miocene, small deinotheres in Kutch were replaced by the large Deinotherium indicum.
− ESG-Agency scholarship most commonly focuses on the global arena as well as Asia and Europe, with critical geographic gaps in Africa and the Middle East.− Climate change is the dominant issue studied in ESG-Agency research, followed by forests and fresh water. − To address the geographic imbalance in ESG-Agency research, scholars need to develop research projects and collaborations in understudied regions while also recruiting and supporting scholars in those regions to engage with this research agenda.
While the burden of dementia is increasing in low- and middle-income countries, there is a low rate of diagnosis and paucity of research in these regions. A major challenge to study dementia is the limited availability of standardised diagnostic tools for use in populations with linguistic and educational diversity. The objectives of the study were to develop a standardised and comprehensive neurocognitive test battery to diagnose dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to varied etiologies, across different languages and educational levels in India, to facilitate research efforts in diverse settings.
A multidisciplinary expert group formed by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) collaborated towards adapting and validating a neurocognitive test battery, that is, the ICMR Neurocognitive Tool Box (ICMR-NCTB) in five Indian languages (Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam), for illiterates and literates, to standardise diagnosis of dementia and MCI in India.
Following a review of existing international and national efforts at standardising dementia diagnosis, the ICMR-NCTB was developed and adapted to the Indian setting of sociolinguistic diversity. The battery consisted of tests of cognition, behaviour, and functional activities. A uniform protocol for diagnosis of normal cognition, MCI, and dementia due to neurodegenerative diseases and stroke was followed in six centres. A systematic plan for validating the ICMR-NCTB and establishing cut-off values in a diverse multicentric cohort was developed.
A key outcome was the development of a comprehensive diagnostic tool for diagnosis of dementia and MCI due to varied etiologies, in the diverse socio-demographic setting of India.
Disorders of voice can limit an individual's participation and impair social interaction, thus affecting overall quality of life. Perceptual and objective evaluations can provide the clinician with detailed information regarding voice disorders.
This study comprised 40 subjects aged 34–46 years, 20 of whom (10 male, 10 female) had unilateral vocal fold palsy. Data were obtained for all participants from: the Voice Handicap Index, the grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain (‘GRBAS’) scale, acoustic voice analysis, electroglottography, and voice range profiles.
The voice evaluations revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences between the controls and study group, both in males and females, pre- and post-therapy.
Despite the normalisation of vocal parameters, acoustic, perceptual and self-rated assessments revealed statistically significant differences after therapy. Hence, acoustic measures, namely electroglottographic perturbation, and voice frequency and intensity range, are recommended prior to termination of therapy.
This chapter describes the phenomenon of Raman scattering from the point of view of classical electrodynamics and quantum mechanics. Raman scattering is a type of inelastic scattering of light by molecules that changes the energy of a photon by the energy equal to a vibrational transition of that molecule. The symmetry of vibrational modes and the activity of vibrational modes in Raman spectra is discussed via group theory for molecules and minerals. The chapter describes how the information gleaned from Raman spectra can be used to identify structural information about a given sample and how this information can be useful to Earth and planetary scientists. The principal components of laboratory and remote Raman instrumentation are defined, including excitation sources, spectrographs, and detectors, and the ways in which recent advances in technology have facilitated the application of Raman spectroscopy for Earth and planetary science are discussed. Some technological advances include the development of reliable continuous wave (CW) and pulsed lasers at a variety of wavelengths, the advancement of multichannel detectors such as two-dimensional charge-coupled devices and photodiode arrays, and the coupling of optical accessories such as microscopes and telescopes. The applications of these advanced Raman systems in the fields of Earth and planetary science are highlighted.
To assess the effect of tranexamic acid in head and neck surgical procedures.
A prospective, double-blind and randomised, parallel group, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-two patients undergoing various head and neck surgical procedures were randomised. Subjects received seven infusions of coded drugs (tranexamic acid or normal saline) starting at the time of skin closure. Haematological, biochemical, blood loss and other parameters were observed by the staff, who were blinded to patients’ group allocation (case or control).
Patients were analysed on the basis of type of surgery. Fifty patients who had undergone surgical procedures, including total thyroidectomy, total parotidectomy, and various neck dissections with or without primary tumour excision, were included in the first group. The second group comprised 41 patients who had undergone hemithyroidectomy, lobectomy or superficial parotidectomy. There was no statistical difference in blood parameters between both groups. There was a reduction in post-operative drain volume, but this was not significant.
Although this prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial found a reduction in post-operative drain volume in tranexamic acid groups, the difference was not statistically significant between the various head and neck surgical procedure groups.
The design of high energy Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by coupling high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode ensures effective and safe energy-storage. LTO–LNMO full-cells (FCs) with difference in electrode grain sizes and presence of excess Mn3+ in cathode were studied using micron-sized commercial LTO, nanostructured LTO donuts (LTOd), P4332 LNMO nanopowders, and nanostructured Fd3m LNMO caterpillars (LNMOcplr). Among the studied FCs, LTOd–LNMOcplr was detected with a stable capacity of 69 mA h/g (1C rate), 99% coulombic efficiency, and 87% capacity retention under 200 cycles of continuous charge–discharge studies. The superior electrochemical performance observed in LTOd–LNMOcplr FC was due to the low charge transfer resistance, which is corroborated to the effect of grain sizes and the longer retention of Mn3+ in the electrodes. An effective and simple FC design incorporating both nanostructuring and in situ conductivity in electrode materials would aid in developing future high-performance LIBs.
To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
GaN films have been grown on SiC substrates with an AlN nucleation layer by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Micro-cracking of the GaN films has been observed in some of the grown samples. In order to investigate the micro-cracking and microstructure, the samples have been studied using various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the AlN nucleation layer is related to the stress evolution in subsequent overgrown GaN epilayers. It is determined via TEM evidence that, if the AlN nucleation layer has a rough surface morphology, this leads to tensile stresses in the GaN films, which finally results in cracking. Raman spectroscopy results also suggest this, by showing the existence of considerable tensile residual stress in the AlN nucleation layer. Based on these various observations and results, conclusions or propositions relating to the microstructure are presented.
In this paper, we present and implement a novel approach for position-based visual servoing. The challenge of controlling the mobile robot while simultaneously estimating the camera to mobile robot transformation is solved. This is achieved using gradient descent (GD)-based estimation and the sliding-mode approach. The GD approach allows online parameter estimation for controlling the robot to achieve a desired position and orientation. The adaptive nature of the parameters demonstrates the robustness of the system. In contrast to existing work, the proposed technique achieves both estimation and control tasks in a single experiment. Simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the performance of the proposed scheme.
The evidence base for the use of ECT in children and adolescents aged under 18 years (hereafter referred to as ‘paediatric ECT’) consists of individual case reports, case series and retrospective chart reviews, but no Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs). This limited evidence base alongside concerns about the effects of ECT on the developing brain may help explain the infrequent use of ECT by child and adolescent psychiatrists. This chapter provides a summary of the issues and considerations pertaining to use of paediatric ECT within the British Isles (United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland). Although legal aspects relating to ECT are covered in Chapter 28, some reference specific to paediatric use is made here.
Biochar has received attention due to its potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration in soil and improving soil quality and crop productivity. This study evaluated the effects of rice straw biochar (RSB) and rice husk ash (RHA) each applied at 5 Mg ha−1 and four N levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha−1) on soil fertility, growth, and yield of rice and wheat for three consecutive rice–wheat rotations. RSB significantly increased electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, and P and K contents when compared to control (no amendment) up to 7.5 cm soil depth. Both RSB and RHA did not influence shoot N concentration in wheat plant but significantly increased P and K concentrations at 60 days after sowing. Grain yields of both rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB as compared to control (no amendment) and RHA treatments. While the highest grain yields of rice and wheat were observed at 120 kg N ha−1 in RHA and no biochar-treated plots, a significant increase in grain yields was observed at 80 kg N ha−1 in RSB treatment, thereby saving 40 kg N ha−1 in each crop. Both agronomic and recovery N efficiencies in rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB-amended soil compared to control. Significant positive correlations were observed between soil N, P, and K concentrations and total N, P, and K concentrations in aboveground biomass of wheat at 60 days after sowing. This study showed the potential benefits of applying RSB for improving soil fertility and yields of rice and wheat in a rice–wheat system.