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Intercropping systems that include legumes can provide symbiotically fixed nitrogen (N) and potentially increase yield through improved resource use efficiency. The aims of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the effects of different legumes (species and varieties) and barley on grain yield, dry matter production and N uptake of the intercrop treatments compared with the associated cereal sole crop; (b) to assess the effects on the yields of the next grain crop and (c) to determine the accumulation of N in shoots of the crops in a low-input rotation. An experiment was established near Edinburgh, UK, consisting of 12 hydrologically isolated plots. Treatments were a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare cvar Westminster) sole crop and intercrops of barley/white clover (Trifolium repens cvar Alice) and barley/pea (Pisum sativum cvar Zero4 or cvar Nitouche) in 2006. All the plots were sown with spring oats (Avena sativa cvar Firth) in 2007 and perennial ryegrass in 2008. No fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides were used at any stage of the experiment. Above-ground biomass (barley, clover, pea, oat and ryegrass) and grain yields (barley, pea and oat) were measured at key stages during the growing seasons of 2006, 2007 and 2008; land equivalent ratio (LER) was measured only in 2006. At harvest, the total above-ground biomass of barley intercropped with clover (4·56 t biomass/ha) and barley intercropped with pea cvar Zero4 (4·49 t biomass/ha) were significantly different from the barley sole crop (3·05 t biomass/ha; P<0·05). The grain yield of the barley (2006) intercropped with clover (3·36 t grain/ha) was significantly greater than that in the other treatments (P<0·01). The accumulation of N in barley was low in 2006, but significantly higher (P<0·05) in the oat grown the following year on the same plots. The present study demonstrates for the first time that intercrops can affect the grain yield and N uptake of the following crop (spring oats) in a rotation. Differences were also linked to the contrasting legume species and cultivars present in the previous year's intercrop. Legume choice is essential to optimize the plant productivity in intercropping designs. Cultivars chosen for intercropping purposes must take into account the effects upon the growth of the partner crop/s as well as to the following crop, including environmental factors.
Data are presented on the development of tests of reading skill for primary school pupils in
rural Tanzania. Instruction in these schools is in Kiswahili, a regularly spelled language. Using a
translation of a standard reading test, children can read aloud all words once they have learned the
sound– letter correspondences, regardless of comprehension. In addition, children can pass
traditional comprehension tasks by decoding only some of the words. Three graded tests were
developed to test children who had only some letter knowledge, could read single words, or were
proficient readers. The tests required children both to decode and to understand the reading
material in order to achieve high scores. The tests correlated well with scores on other
educational achievement tests and showed age and school grade differences. It is suggested that
these tests are useful measures of reading development in a regularly spelled language. Their
adaptation to English and validation against standardized instruments are planned.
A generalization of Markov point processes is introduced in which interactions occur between connected components of the point pattern. A version of the Hammersley-Clifford characterization theorem is proved which states that a point process is a Markov interacting component process if and only if its density function is a product of interaction terms associated with cliques of connected components. Integrability and superpositional properties of the processes are shown and a pairwise interaction example is used for detailed exploration.
Measuring recovery of function may mean testing
the same individual many times, a procedure that is inevitably
open to improvement due to learning on the specific tests
rather than recovery per se. This is particularly
likely to be an issue with measures of memory performance.
We therefore studied the performance of normal and brain-injured
people across 20 successive test sessions on measures of
orientation, simple reaction time, forward and backward
digit span, visual and verbal recognition, word list learning
and forgetting, and on three semantic memory measures,
namely, letter and category fluency and speed of semantic
processing. Differences in overall performances between
the two groups occurred for all tests other than orientation,
digit span forward, and simple reaction time, although
the tests differed in their degree of sensitivity. The
tests varied in the presence or absence of practice effects
and in the extent to which these differed between the two
groups. Data are presented that should allow investigators
to select measures that are likely to optimize sensitivity
while minimizing possible confounding due to practice effects.
(JINS, 2000, 6, 469–479.)
We note some interesting properties of the class of point processes which are Markov with respect to the ‘connected component’ relation. Results in the literature imply that this class is closed under random translation and independent cluster generation with almost surely non-empty clusters. We further prove that it is closed under superposition. A wide range of examples is also given.
We consider a class of random point and germ-grain processes, obtained using a rather natural weighting procedure. Given a Poisson point process, on each point one places a grain, a (possibly random) compact convex set. Let Ξ be the union of all grains. One can now construct new processes whose density is derived from an exponential of a linear combination of quermass functionals of Ξ. If only the area functional is used, then the area-interaction point process is recovered. New point processes arise if we include the perimeter length functional, or the Euler functional (number of components minus number of holes). The main question addressed by the paper is that of when the resulting point process is well-defined: geometric arguments are used to establish conditions for the point process to be stable in the sense of Ruelle.
For applications in spatial statistics, an important property of a random set X in ℝk is its first contact distribution. This is the distribution of the distance from a fixed point 0 to the nearest point of X, where distance is measured using scalar dilations of a fixed test set B. We show that, if B is convex and contains a neighbourhood of 0, the first contact distribution function FB is absolutely continuous. We give two explicit representations of FB, and additional regularity conditions under which FB is continuously differentiable. A Kaplan-Meier estimator of FB is introduced and its basic properties examined.
The strength and range of interpoint interactions in a spatial point process can be quantified by the function J = (1 - G)/(1 - F), where G is the nearest-neighbour distance distribution function and F the empty space function of the process. J(r) is identically equal to 1 for a Poisson process; values of J(r) smaller or larger than 1 indicate clustering or regularity, respectively. We show that, for a very large class of point processes, J(r) is constant for distances r greater than the range of spatial interaction. Hence both the range and type of interpoint interaction may be inferred from J without parametric model assumptions. We evaluate J(r) explicitly for a variety of point processes. The J function of the superposition of independent point processes is a weighted mean of the J functions of the individual processes.
We show that a Poisson cluster point process is a nearest-neighbour Markov point process  if the clusters have uniformly bounded diameter. It is typically not a finite-range Markov point process in the sense of Ripley and Kelly . Furthermore, when the parent Poisson process is replaced by a Markov or nearest-neighbour Markov point process, the resulting cluster process is also nearest-neighbour Markov, provided all clusters are non-empty. In particular, the nearest-neighbour Markov property is preserved when points of the process are independently randomly translated, but not when they are randomly thinned.
We define the ‘linear scan transform' G of a set in ℝd using information observable on its one-dimensional linear transects. This transform determines the set covariance function, interpoint distance distribution, and (for convex sets) the chord length distribution. Many basic integral-geometric formulae used in stereology can be expressed as identities for G. We modify a construction of Waksman (1987) to construct a metric η for ‘regular' subsets of ℝd defined as the L1 distance between their linear scan transforms. For convex sets only, η is topologically equivalent to the Hausdorff metric. The set covariance function (of a generally non-convex set) depends continuously on its set argument, with respect to η and the uniform metric on covariance functions.
A version of the Rao–Blackwell theorem is shown to apply to most, but not all, stereological sampling designs. Estimators based on random test grids typically have larger variance than quadrat estimators; random s-dimensional samples are worse than random r-dimensional samples for s < r. Furthermore, the standard stereological ratio estimators of different dimensions are canonically related to each other by the Rao–Blackwell process. However, there are realistic cases where sampling with a lower-dimensional probe increases efficiency. For example, estimators based on (conditionally) non-randomised test point grids may have smaller variance than quadrat estimators. Relative efficiency is related to issues in geostatistics and the theory of wide-sense stationary random fields. A uniform minimum variance unbiased estimator typically does not exist in our context.
In a sample of 60 schizophrenic patients encompassing all grades of severity and chronicity memory impairment was found to be prevalent, often substantial, and disproportionate to the overall level of intellectual impairment. The deficits were not easily attributable to poor cooperation, attention or motivation; nor were they related to neuroleptic or anticholinergic medication. Memory impairment was significantly associated with severity and chronicity of illness and also with negative symptoms and formal thought disorder. There was evidence from the sample as a whole, and from a more detailed examination of five patients with relatively isolated deficits, that schizophrenic memory impairment conformed to the pattern seen in the classical amnesic syndrome. Additionally, there was preliminary evidence for a marked deficit in semantic memory.
Ligand-stabilized bimetallic Au/Pd colloids may be prepared from 180–200Å Au colloids which can be covered by Pd shells of varying thickness. They can be isolated as solid materials without agglomeration. HREM observations indicate a narrow particle size distribution and reveal a well-defined Au(core)/Pd(shell) structure. This is convincingly confirmed by EXAFS data. Thermal treatment leads to Au/Pd alloy formation at ≥ 500 K, as evidenced by the appearance of characteristic Au-Pd distances in the EXAFS.
We consider two random sequential packing processes in which spheres of unit radius are randomly attached to the surface of a fixed unit sphere. Independent random spheres are generated and added successively, provided there is no overlap with previous spheres. In model 1, the process stops when a trial sphere intersects one of the previously-accepted spheres. In model 2, random sequential packing, any such overlapping trial sphere is discarded and the next random sphere is tried, until it is impossible to add any further spheres.
Previous workers have conjectured convincingly that no exact analytical solution is possible for this type of problem. We use Monte Carlo simulation methods to estimate transition probabilities for the two models. Because some probabilities are extremely small, a simulation using independent repetitions of the model would be inefficient. We designed a branching process of conditionally binomial trials, and performed over 108 trials on a supercomputer.
Memory impairment is not usually considered to form part of the clinical picture of schizophrenia, except perhaps in severely deteriorated patients. In a survey of 60 patients encompassing all grades of severity and chronicity poor memory performance was found to be common, sometimes substantial, and disproportionately pronounced compared to the degree of general intellectual impairment. Although associated with severity and chronicity of illness, impaired memory was by no means confined to old, institutionalized, or markedly deteriorated patients. The pattern of deficit appeared to resemble that of the classic amnesic syndrome rather than that seen in Alzheimer-type dementia.
Surface integrals of curvature arise naturally in integral geometry and geometrical probability, most often in connection with the Quermassintegrale or cross-section integrals of convex bodies. They enjoy many desirable properties, such as the ability to be determined by summing or averaging over lower-dimensional sections or projections. In fact the Quermassintegrale are the only functionals of convex bodies to meet certain, quite reasonable, requirements. The conclusion has often been drawn, especially in practical applications, that the Quermassintegrale and their associated curvature integrals have a canonical status to the exclusion of all other quantities.