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Monks writing at Saint-Clément, Metz, over roughly two hundred years produced conflicting images of Bishop Theodoric I (965–84). In earlier texts, he is the monks’ benefactor, in later sources, their foe. Historians have sought to flatten this contrast, partly because of their assumptions about monastic reform. This paper offers an alternative reading that questions those assumptions. It suggests that the evolution of Theodoric's image reflects changing ideas about monastic reform and the proper relationship between bishops and monks. It also cautions against accepting narratives – medieval or modern – that obscure the fluidity of such ideas and relationships.
The Arizona Department of Health Services identified unusually high levels of influenza activity and severe complications during the 2015–2016 influenza season leading to concerns about potential increased disease severity compared with prior seasons. We estimated state-level burden and severity to compare across three seasons using multiple data sources for community-level illness, hospitalisation and death. Severity ratios were calculated as the number of hospitalisations or deaths per community case. Community influenza-like illness rates, hospitalisation rates and mortality rates in 2015–2016 were higher than the previous two seasons. However, ratios of severe disease to community illness were similar. Arizona experienced overall increased disease burden in 2015–2016, but not increased severity compared with prior seasons. Timely estimates of state-specific burden and severity are potentially feasible and may provide important information during seemingly unusual influenza seasons or pandemic situations.
Differences in bottled v. tap water intake may provide insights into health disparities, like risk of dental caries and inadequate hydration. We examined differences in plain, tap and bottled water consumption among US adults by sociodemographic characteristics.
Cross-sectional analysis. We used 24 h dietary recall data to test differences in percentage consuming the water sources and mean intake between groups using Wald tests and multiple logistic and linear regression models.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2014.
A nationally representative sample of 20 676 adults aged ≥20 years.
In 2011–2014, 81·4 (se 0·6) % of adults drank plain water (sum of tap and bottled), 55·2 (se 1·4) % drank tap water and 33·4 (se 1·4) % drank bottled water on a given day. Adjusting for covariates, non-Hispanic (NH) Black and Hispanic adults had 0·44 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·53) and 0·55 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·66) times the odds of consuming tap water, and consumed B=−330 (se 45) ml and B=−180 (se 45) ml less tap water than NH White adults, respectively. NH Black, Hispanic and adults born outside the fifty US states or Washington, DC had 2·20 (95 % CI 1·79, 2·69), 2·37 (95 % CI 1·91, 2·94) and 1·46 (95 % CI 1·19, 1·79) times the odds of consuming bottled water than their NH White and US-born counterparts. In 2007–2010, water filtration was associated with higher odds of drinking plain and tap water.
While most US adults consumed plain water, the source (i.e. tap or bottled) and amount differed by race/Hispanic origin, nativity status and education. Water filters may increase tap water consumption.
While there is much research examining gender gaps in political attitudes, there is less examining how gender gaps differ within social groups. This article helps fill that void by examining gender gaps among American Indians. Using two surveys, the initial findings suggest that among American Indians, women have a stronger American Indian identity, are more likely to support women's/compassion issues, and are more likely to be Democrats. It further finds that the gender gap in party is more likely the result of the gender gap in compassion issues than in American Indian identity. Additional analysis finds that among American Indians who prioritize their American Indian identity, the partisan gender gap is reversed, with men being significantly more likely to be Democrats. Although this study finds some similarities between the gaps among American Indians and whites, it also finds some unique gaps among American Indians. This suggests the need to look at the intersectionality of gender and social groups to fully understand the gender gaps.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Women with GDM have a 7-fold higher risk of developing T2DM, and rates of GDM are higher among racial and ethnic minorities and women of lower socio-economic status. There are no data on postpartum diabetes screening after the first postpartum year or among women receiving care in FQHCs. We aim to address this gap in the literature by (1) defining the rates of follow-up screening for T2DM at 6–12 weeks and 1–3 years postpartum and (2) characterizing patient, provider, and healthcare system attributes that are associated with lack of follow-up screening for T2DM in a population of low-income women with GDM. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a retrospective cohort study of women with GDM during pregnancy receiving care in Missouri FQHCs from 2010 to 2015. Electronic health records (EHR) data from 26 FQHCs is housed in a central repository through the Missouri Primary Care Association (MPCA). This includes patient demographic, lab, and medication information as well as encounter level patient and provider data for the prenatal and postpartum period. EHR data does not include accurate delivery information, however. Pregnancies during the study time frame were identified using CPT and ICD9/10 codes. Deidentified data on individuals with a pregnancy was utilized to identify a subpopulation of “GDM candidates,” using a broad definition of glucose abnormalities as follows: ICD-9/ICD-10 codes for diabetes, medications and testing supplies used for diabetes, infant birth weight ≥4000 g or 8 lb or 13 oz, or abnormal glucose labs [defined as fasting glucose≥95, gestational glucose screen≥130, 1 h test≥130 (or ≥180 if 2 h test and 3 h test recorded on same day), 2 h test≥155, 3 h test≥140, A1C≥6, any glucose≥130, or any positive urine glucose]. This subpopulation was then linked to Medicaid administrative claims data [housed at the University of Missouri Office of Social and Economic Development Analysis (OSEDA)], providing detailed information on delivery, to further characterize patients with GDM in the time frame and provide all dates necessary to classify pregnancy and postpartum periods. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: From the de-identified pregnancy data set including 45,810 individuals, we identified 8008 “GDM candidates.” EHR data were linked to Medicaid claims data for these individuals from 2010 to 2015. Utilizing the enhanced data set, we are defining a pregnancy for each individual by the delivery date in the Medicaid record and an algorithm using lab and ultrasound record dates to define gestational age at delivery. This will result in a pregnancy level data set linked with individual encrypted identifiers with each record representing 1 pregnancy and postpartum period. GDM in pregnancy will be defined as having a baby with birth weight≥4000 g or 8 lb or 13 oz, ICD-9 or ICD-10 code for GDM during pregnancy or at delivery, or an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) 12–16 weeks before delivery with 2 or more abnormal results by Carpenter and Coustan criteria. We anticipate that our final GDM data set will include 2000–3000 individuals. We will then calculate the percentage of individuals receiving recommended screening tests at 6–12 weeks (fasting glucose or 2 h oGTT) and 1–3 years postpartum (fasting glucose, 2 h oGTT, HbA1C). We will use multivariable regression techniques to identify risk factors for lack of screening. We will be able to incorporate predictors not previously evaluated including distance from home to health center, access to public transport, specialty and training of the patient’s providers, pregnancy weight gain, postpartum appointment time of day, and number of various types of office visits. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The creation of a linked data set of pregnancies complicated by GDM in women receiving care in FQHCs in Missouri is the first step toward better characterizing follow-up diabetes screening rates in this population and understanding patient, provider, and healthcare system variables that affect postpartum screening. The ultimate goal is to translate evidence-based patient-centered sustainable interventions into practice for low-income women with a history of GDM and improve population outcomes with the ability to track progress prospectively over time.
Acknowledgements: The authors thank Susan Wilson (MPCA), Jill Lucht, and Bhawani Mishra (OSEDA).
Between 1934 and 1938, several million workers took part in the elections, strikes, and protests that made the popular front a pivotal moment in the recent history of France. Giant street demonstrations, the General Strike of November 1938, and above all the massive sit-down strikes of June 1936 made most workers at least momentary actors in the drama of national political life. Yet, for all that has been written about these events, little is known about how labor conflict during the popular front actually affected workers' views. The problem has been in large part one of sources: the speeches, newspapers, leaflets, and memoirs of the period reveal more about trade union leaders and local militants than about the ordinary men and women who made popular protest possible but whose opinions rarely found their way into print. As a result, a number of questions remain largely unanswered: How much of the ethos of the popular front, and how much of the ideology of the Socialist and Communist parties, did rank-and-file workers come to embrace? Which slogans spoke most poignantly to lathe operators at Renault, textile workers in Lille, or sales clerks at the Galeries Lafayette? Were the euphoria of June 1936 and the crushing defeat of the General Strike in November 1938 as important in the lives of these people as they were for labor leaders? How popular, in short, was the political experience of the popular front?
Declines in populations of the Critically Endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaeus have been rapid, with the breeding population now perhaps numbering fewer than 120 pairs. The reasons for this decline remain unresolved. Whilst there is evidence that hunting in wintering areas is an important factor, loss of suitable habitat on passage and wintering areas is also of concern. While some key sites for the species are already documented, many of their wintering locations are described here for the first time. Their wintering range primarily stretches from Bangladesh to China. Comprehensive surveys of potential Spoon-billed Sandpiper wintering sites from 2005 to 2013 showed a wide distribution with three key concentrations in Myanmar and Bangladesh, but also regular sites in China, Vietnam and Thailand. The identification of all important non-breeding sites remains of high priority for the conservation of the species. Here, we present the results of field surveys of wintering Spoon-billed Sandpipers that took place in six countries between 2005 and 2013 and present species distribution models which map the potential wintering areas. These include known and currently unrecognised wintering locations. Our maximum entropy model did not identify any new extensive candidate areas within the winter distribution, suggesting that most key sites are already known, but it did identify small sites on the coast of eastern Bangladesh, western Myanmar, and the Guangxi and Guangdong regions of China that may merit further investigation. As no extensive areas of new potential habitat were identified, we suggest that the priorities for the conservation of this species are habitat protection in important wintering and passage areas and reducing hunting pressure on birds at these sites.
Diabetes is a growing public health problem, and the environment in which people live and work may affect diabetes risk. The goal of the present study was to examine the association between multiple aspects of environment and diabetes risk in an employee population.
This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Home environment variables were derived using employees’ zip code. Descriptive statistics were run on all individual- and zip-code-level variables, stratified by diabetes risk and worksite. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was then conducted to determine the strongest associations with diabetes risk.
Data were collected from employee health fairs in a Midwestern health system, 2009–2012.
The data set contains 25 227 unique individuals across four years of data. From this group, using an individual’s first entry into the database, 15 522 individuals had complete data for analysis.
The prevalence of high diabetes risk in this population was 2·3 %. There was significant variability in individual- and zip-code-level variables across worksites. From the multivariable analysis, living in a zip code with higher percentage of poverty and higher walk score was positively associated with high diabetes risk, while living in a zip code with higher supermarket density was associated with a reduction in high diabetes risk.
Our study underscores the important relationship between poverty, home neighbourhood environment and diabetes risk, even in a relatively healthy employed population, and suggests a role for the employer in promoting health.
The author analyses the advantages of the use of the gaussian heliocentric gravitational constant. He proposes that a geocentric gravitational constant should be defined in an analogous way, that would present similar advantages.
In this work, we have reported the interface characterization of rf sputtered ZnO/HfO2 in thin film transistor structure by dc current-voltage and admittance spectroscopy. The interface state density (Dit) of 1013 eV−1cm−2 was extracted from the Gp/ω vs ω plot was comparable to value obtained from the subthreshold behavior. The grain boundary trap density (NGB) of 9.12×1012 cm−2 was estimated using Levinson’s model. The interface state density distribution below the conduction band edge shows a decreasing trend with energy below the conduction band edge. We also studied the impact of introducing MgO interfacial layer between ZnO and HfO2 interface as an approach towards decreasing the interface state density.
CZT is a semiconductor material that promises to be a good candidate for uncooled gamma radiation detectors. However, to date, technological difficulties in production of large size defect-free CZT crystals are yet to be overcome. The most common problem is accumulation of tellurium precipitates as microscopic inclusions. These inclusions influence the charge collection through charge trapping and electric field distortion. The common work-around solutions are to fabricate pixelated detectors by either grouping together many small volume CZT crystals to act as individual detectors, or to deposit a pixelated grid of electrical contacts on a larger, but defective, crystal, and selectively collect charge. These solutions are satisfactory in an R&D environment, but are unsuitable for mass production and commercial development. Our modeling effort is aimed at quantifying the various contributions of tellurium inclusions in CZT crystals to the charge generation, transport, and collection, as a function of inclusions size, position, and concentration. We model the energy deposition of gamma photons in the sensitive volume of the detector using LANL’s MCNP code. The electron-hole pairs produced at the energy deposition sites are then transported through the defective crystal and collected as integral charge at the electrical contact sites using CERN’s Garfield software package. The size and position distribution of tellurium inclusions is modeled by sampling experimentally measured distributions of such inclusions on a variety of commercially-grown CZT crystals using IR microscopy and image processing software packages.
The stability of green phosphorescent OLEDs with different structures was evaluated through constant-current stressing. Through the modifications of the ITO anode by different plasma treatments and the hole transport layer (HTL) by incorporating inorganic dopants, we proved that energy level misalignment at the ITO/HTL interface leads to localized joule heating, accelerating defect generation and luminescence decay. Pulsed current stressing was then employed to suppress the joule-heating effect so as to differentiate the thermal and nonthermal factors governing the device degradation. For OLEDs with a large energy barrier at the ITO/HTL interface, the effective lifetime was markedly increased under pulsed operation, whereas in OLEDs with an appropriate interfacial energy level alignment, pulsed stressing with 10% duty cycle only improved the effective half life by ∼15% as compared to continuous-wave stressing, indicating a minor role played by joule heating.
Pm-Si:H PIN and NIP solar cells structures grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique were analyzed during 400 hrs of light-soaking exposition. The evolution of the structural and optical properties was observed and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry. The effect observed is related to defects creation due to induced hydrogen diffusion, break of Si-H bonds and the generation of dangling bonds that causes less passivated films. The film microstructure, and therefore the optical properties varied with the exposition time. The crystalline fraction of these structures presents a slight decrease and it is observed to be between 15 to 24% for the PIN and 5 to 10% for the NIP. The optical gap increases from 1.66 to 1.68 eV for the PIN structure while for the NIP no significant change is observed during light-soaking. Hydrogen diffusion during lights soaking generates a decrease on the absorption properties of the films which in turn is expected to reduce the device efficiency during operation. In this work we show that long range motion of hydrogen during light-soaking causes a hydrogen rearrangement on the film and microstructure changes. We determined that there is not an pronounced change on the film structure during prolonged light exposition related to the stability of the pm-Si:H films. The PIN structure properties are more affected during light soaking in comparison to the NIP structure which is expected to cause less degradation of its optoelectronic properties under illumination, and a more stable device during operation.
A single-grained Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) was successfully grown for the gate dielectric of polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT). The total structure was MoW/PZT/HfO2/poly-Si/glass. The giant single-grained PZT was obtained by controlling the artificial nucleation formed by Pt dots in a desirable location and enlarging the nucleated seed until it covers the poly-Si channel. The single-grained diameter size was 40 μm with a (100) dominated texture. The poly-Si memory device with single-grained PZT showed an excellent ferroelectric, electrical and reliability properties comparing with poly-Si memory device with poly-grained PZT. Moreover, eliminating the grain boundary in PZT film showed the fatigue and retention characteristics with only 1.1 % after 1013 cycles and 22 % after 1 month, respectively.