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Equality of opportunity is a central aim in the political agenda of many nations, and political leaders consequently speak about the importance of reducing differences in educational attainment between young persons from differing social origins. Such differences are apparent at two educational steps – the transition from compulsory school to upper secondary and at the transition from upper secondary school to tertiary institutions. Both steps have to be considered if the interest lies in attainment of university degrees, since the outcome at the first transition affects that at the second. Differences in educational attainment by parental origin appear through two separate mechanisms. Children from higher origins tend to perform better at school than other children, and consequently they more than others continue to higher educational levels. However, also among children who did perform equally well, children from more advantaged origins more often than other children choose to continue to higher and more academically oriented tracks. Children of immigrants tend to perform less well at school than native-born children, but given performance, they tend more than the native-born to choose to continue in academically oriented school tracks.
The first psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) opened in the early 1970's in New York. This ward was designed to manage patient that did not respond to treatment in open psychiatric wards. There are about 15 PICUs in Sweden but the concept has not been specified by any public organs. In many county hospitals, both acute and intensive care units exists parallel.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the core characteristics of PICU in Sweden and to describe the care activities provided for patients admitted to PICU.
Critical incident technique was used. In the study, eighteen caregivers at a PICU participated by completing a semi-structured questionnaire. Additional, in-depth interviews with three nurses and two assistant nurses also constitute the data.
Four categories were identified that characterise the core of PICU: the dramatic admission, protests and refusal of treatment, escalating behaviours and temporarily coercive measure. Care activities for PICU were also analysed and identified as controlling - establishing boundaries, protecting - warding off, supporting - giving intensive assistance and structuring the environment.
PICU were interpreted as a level of care as it is composed by limited structures and closeness in care.
Psychiatric intensive care units (PICU) are rarely described since it is secluded from external insight. At the same time, it is highly intensive since staff and patients interact around the clock in the most acute phase of psychiatric illness. the PICUs admit patients who are considered extremely unmanageable within psychosis units or acute psychiatric wards, and who often demonstrate aggressive or other forms of severe behaviors.
This raises the question: What is going on in these units and what constitutes nursing care?
Spradley's 12-step ethnographic methodology was applied. Data was collected through more than 200 hours of field work on three PICUs including 16 hours of formal interviewing and numerous of informal interviews; data also consisted of writing memos and field notes. the field work aimed to understand the staff member's way of interact with the patients and what they did to care for these patients who was considered as unmanageable.
The findings presented here describe how and when nursing care is provided in PICUs. the findings are presented in relation to themes, as these emerged within the psychiatric intensive nursing care. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing.
These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. as the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest.
We analyze patterns of informal information exchange by the English East India Company’s captains to assess the role of relational and institutional governance systems and uncertainty in encouraging information exchange. Using archival data from the emerging early-modern global trade network, we show that uncertainty drove information exchange. Relational-based contract enforcement mechanisms such as small group exchange were largely absent, and increasing institutional strength was associated with decreasing rates of information exchange. The results suggest that opportunity and demand were more important determinants of information exchange than the emergence of formal and informal governance systems.
This paper reports on: (1) an evaluation of a common elements treatment approach (CETA) developed for comorbid presentations of depression, anxiety, traumatic stress, and/or externalizing symptoms among children in three Somali refugee camps on the Ethiopian/Somali border, and (2) an evaluation of implementation factors from the perspective of staff, lay providers, and families who engaged in the intervention.
This project was conducted in three refugee camps and utilized locally validated mental health instruments for internalizing, externalizing, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Participants were recruited from either a validity study or from referrals from social workers within International Rescue Committee Programs. Lay providers delivered CETA to youth (CETA-Youth) and families, and symptoms were re-assessed post-treatment. Providers and families responded to a semi-structured interview to assess implementation factors.
Children who participated in the CETA-Youth open trial reported significant decreases in symptoms of internalizing (d = 1.37), externalizing (d = 0.85), and posttraumatic stress (d = 1.71), and improvements in well-being (d = 0.75). Caregivers also reported significant decreases in child symptoms. Qualitative results were positive toward the acceptability and appropriateness of treatment, and its feasibility.
This project is the first to examine a common elements approach (CETA: defined as flexible delivery of elements, order, and dosing) with children and caregivers in a low-resource setting with delivery by lay providers. CETA-Youth may offer an effective treatment that is easier to implement and scale-up versus multiple focal interventions. A fullscale randomized clinical trial is warranted.
An influential paper by Caughey and Sekhon (2011a) suggests that the outcomes of very close US House elections in the postwar era may not be as-if random, thus calling into question this application of regression discontinuity for causal inference. We show that while incumbent party candidates are more likely to win close House elections, those who win are no different on observable characteristics from those who lose. Further, all differences in observable characteristics between barely winning Democrats and barely winning Republicans vanish conditional on which party is the incumbent. Any source of a special incumbent party advantage in close elections must be due to variables that cannot be observed. This finding supports the conclusion of Eggers et al. (2015) that Caughey and Sekhon’s discovery of lopsided wins by incumbents in close races is a mere statistical fluke.
International relations scholars frequently rely on data sets with country pairs, or dyads, as the unit of analysis. Dyadic data, with its thousands and sometimes hundreds of thousands of observations, may seem ideal for hypothesis testing. However, dyadic observations are not independent events. Failure to account for this dependence in the data dramatically understates the size of standard errors and overstates the power of hypothesis tests. We illustrate this problem by analyzing a central proposition among IR scholars, the democratic trade hypothesis, which claims that democracies seek out other democracies as trading partners. We employ randomization tests to infer the correct p-values associated with the trade hypotheses. Our results show that typical statistical tests for significance are severely overconfident when applied to dyadic data.
Individuals engaged in overseas trade in the early modern period often faced high levels of uncertainty regarding their prospects for trade. One way of managing uncertainty is to gather information from others through social interactions, that is, through social networks. Here we consider how social ties impacted trade patterns by analyzing the relationship between port traffic and early modern ship captains’ exposure to information about ports using informal relations. We consider the possible impact of strong and weak ties and the use of ties under different types of uncertainty. The analysis suggests that social networks encouraged trade at port cities with already high rates of traffic, though this effect is less pronounced than for other means through which information was distributed throughout the trade system.