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The drum kit is ubiquitous in global popular music and culture, and modern kit drumming profoundly defined the sound of twentieth-century popular music. The Cambridge Companion to the Drum Kit highlights emerging scholarship on the drum kit, drummers and key debates related to the instrument and its players. Interdisciplinary in scope, this volume draws on research from across the humanities, sciences, and social sciences to showcase the drum kit, a relatively recent historical phenomenon, as a site worthy of analysis, critique, and reflection. Providing readers with an array of perspectives on the social, material, and performative dimensions of the instrument, this book will be a valuable resource for students, drum kit studies scholars, and all those who want a deeper understanding of the drum kit, drummers, and drumming.
A common feature of successful ancient states was the role of elites in maintaining and regulating socioeconomic structures and, in particular, emphasising their own social difference. The Wari (AD 600–1000) are considered the earliest expansive state in South America, and excavations have demonstrated the rich variety of exotic goods imported from across the region into the polity's heartland. Here, the authors argue that the importation of raw materials, plants, animals and people from distant regions was crucial for defining and sustaining Wari social differentiation and ideology. They emphasise the importance of studying material provenance and their archaeological contexts in order to understand the role of exotic goods in legitimising ruling groups in ancient states.
An early economic evaluation to inform the translation into clinical practice of a spectroscopic liquid biopsy for the detection of brain cancer. Two specific aims are (1) to update an existing economic model with results from a prospective study of diagnostic accuracy and (2) to explore the potential of brain tumor-type predictions to affect patient outcomes and healthcare costs.
A cost-effectiveness analysis from a UK NHS perspective of the use of spectroscopic liquid biopsy in primary and secondary care settings, as well as a cost–consequence analysis of the addition of tumor-type predictions was conducted. Decision tree models were constructed to represent simplified diagnostic pathways. Test diagnostic accuracy parameters were based on a prospective validation study. Four price points (GBP 50-200, EUR 57-228) for the test were considered.
In both settings, the use of liquid biopsy produced QALY gains. In primary care, at test costs below GBP 100 (EUR 114), testing was cost saving. At GBP 100 (EUR 114) per test, the ICER was GBP 13,279 (EUR 15,145), whereas at GBP 200 (EUR 228), the ICER was GBP 78,300 (EUR 89,301). In secondary care, the ICER ranged from GBP 11,360 (EUR 12,956) to GBP 43,870 (EUR 50,034) across the range of test costs.
The results demonstrate the potential for the technology to be cost-effective in both primary and secondary care settings. Additional studies of test use in routine primary care practice are needed to resolve the remaining issues of uncertainty—prevalence in this patient population and referral behavior.
Instability to Tollmien–Schlichting waves is one of the primary routes to transition to turbulence for two-dimensional boundary layers in quiet disturbance environments. Cancellation of Tollmien–Schlichting waves using surface heating was first demonstrated in the experiments of Liepmann et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 118, 1982, pp. 187–200) and Liepmann & Nosenchuck (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 118, 1982, pp. 201–204). Here we consider a similar theoretical formulation that includes the effects of localised (unsteady) wall heating/cooling. The resulting problem is closely related to that of Terent'ev (Prikl. Mat. Mekh., vol. 45, 1981, pp. 1049–1055; Prikl. Mat. Mekh., vol. 48, 1984, pp. 264–272) on the generation of Tollmien–Schlichting waves by a vibrating ribbon, but with thermal effects. The nonlinear receptivity problem based on triple-deck scales is formulated and the linearised version solved both analytically as well as numerically. The most significant result is that the wall heating/cooling function can be chosen such that there is no pressure response to the disturbance, meaning there is no generation of Tollmien–Schlichting waves. Numerical calculations substantiate this with an approximation based on the exact analytical result. Previous numerical studies of the unsteady triple-deck equations have shown difficulties in capturing the convective wave packet that develops in the initial-value problem and we show that these arise from the choice of time steps as well as the range of the Fourier modes taken.
Candida auris is an emerging and often multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen with an exceptional ability to persist on hospital surfaces. These surfaces can act as a potential source of transmission. Therefore, effective disinfection strategies are urgently needed. We investigated the efficacy of ultraviolet C light (UV-C) disinfection for C. auris isolates belonging to 4 different clades.
In vitro testing of C. auris isolates was conducted using 106 colony-forming units (CFU) spread on 20-mm diameter steel carriers and exposed to a broad-spectrum UV-C light source for 10, 20, and 30 minutes at a 1.5 m (5 feet) distance. Post-UV survivors on the coupons were subsequently plated. Colony counts and log reductions were recorded, calculated, and compared to untreated control carriers. Identification of all isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF and morphology was visualized by microscopy.
We observed an increased susceptibility of C. auris to UV-C in 8 isolates belonging to clades I, II and IV with increasing UV exposure time. The range of log kill (0.8–1.19) was highest for these isolates at 30 minutes. But relatively no change in log kill (0.04–0.35) with increasing time in isolates belonging to clade III were noted. Interestingly, C. auris isolates susceptible to UV-C were mostly nonaggregating, but the isolates that were more resistant to UV exposure formed aggregates.
Our study suggests variability in susceptibility to UV-C of C. auris isolates belonging to different clades. More studies are needed to assess whether a cumulative impact of prolonged UV-C exposure provides additional benefit.
This paper is based on a collaborative research study undertaken by the Irish Association of Social Workers, Age Action Ireland, The Alzheimer Society of Ireland and the School of Social policy, Social Work and Social Justice, University College Dublin. The study explored the experiences and views of social workers working with older people, including people with dementia. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the health and social care system in Ireland was responding to the care needs, required supports and preferences of older people. This paper will mainly focus on reported experiences related to older people with dementia in decision-making about their care.
Data collection included a mixed method approach, that is, (i) an on-line survey of social workers across Ireland reporting on their open caseload over a period of one month (N = 38)) and (ii) semi-structured telephone interviews with social workers (N = 21).
The Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS statistical software to produce descriptive and bivariate results. For the qualitative data an iterative data reduction process was used.
Findings echoed that of other Irish research demonstrating (i) that the preference of older people is to remain living at home and receiving care in this setting as needed, and (ii) that this preference is not being realized. The study further highlighted variations in participation levels of people with dementia in the decision-making process, the barriers to participation and the place of family relationships in the decision-making process. The study made recommendations as to how to address these issues. The findings will also be considered within the context of social justice for older people.
Background: Scabies is a contagious dermatosis caused by human mites, (Sarcoptes scabei, variant hominis). In crusted (Norwegian) scabies, the burden of mite infestation is higher and up to 2 million per person, facilitating easy skin-to-skin transmission and nosocomial transmission. We describe a case of undiagnosed crusted scabies and subsequent transmission to employees in our hospital. Methods: A 90-year-old female was admitted to our 636-bed, nonprofit, academic hospital for 22 days prior to diagnosis of crusted scabies by skin scraping. The patient was admitted to 2 different medical-surgical wards and the medical intensive care unit. We collected healthcare worker (HCW) demographics, including department of service, age, sex, pregnancy, and breastfeeding status in those who were at risk of exposure. We interviewed HCWs at 2 time points and collected information related to infestation, allergies to treatment, acceptance of empiric treatment, and whether employee was furloughed. Results: On initial screening, 20 of 124 at-risk HCWs had symptoms (Fig.). Most had a “new onset raised red rash or new pimple like rash (not on face), or linear rash” and 4 had “new onset uncontrollable itching.” All 124 HCWs were contacted 28 days later. One HCW that had not been compliant with prophylaxis became symptomatic and was diagnosed with scabies by dermatology. Of the remaining 20 HCWs, 3 were still having symptoms (2 had itching and 1 had a rash and a scrape performed by dermatology with confirmation of mites). All 3 were retreated with ivermectin. Overall, 21 of 124 exposed HCWs were ultimately symptomatic. Conclusions: During a 22-day admission of an undiagnosed and unisolated elderly patient with crusted scabies, the scabies mite was transmitted to 21 HCWs for an acquisition rate of 17%. Persistence of symptoms after treatment with permethrin occurred in 14%. The infectivity of this disease necessitates early recognition and infection control measures.
The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) investigated a hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak to identify risk factors for infection and make prevention recommendations.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) or patients with laboratory-confirmed acute HAV infection during October 1, 2018–January 10, 2019.
HCWs with suspected or confirmed hepatitis A infections were interviewed to assess their exposures and activities. Patient medical records and hospital administrative records were reviewed to identify common exposures. We conducted a site investigation to assess knowledge of infection control practices among HCWs. Serum specimens from ill persons were tested for HAV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped.
We identified 6 HCWs and 2 patients with laboratory-confirmed HAV infection. All cases likely resulted from exposure to a homeless patient with a history of recreational substance use and undiagnosed HAV infection. Breaches in hand hygiene and use of standard precautions were identified. HAV RNA was detected in 7 serum specimens and all belonged to an identical strain of HAV genotype 1b.
A hepatitis A outbreak among hospital patients and HCWs resulted from exposure to a single patient with undiagnosed HAV infection. Breakdowns in infection control practices contributed to the outbreak. The likelihood of nosocomial transmission can be reduced with proper hand hygiene, standard precautions, and routine disinfection. During community outbreaks, medical providers can better prevent ongoing transmission by including hepatitis A in the differential diagnosis among patients with a history of recreational substance use and homelessness.
Markets without Limits defends the claim that there are no inherent limits to markets, in the sense that if something may permissibly be given away or exchanged outside of market or for free, then there is some realistic and plausible way of structuring a market that makes it morally permissible to exchange it for money. This paper reviews the basic strategy of the book, and then responds to criticisms from Geoffrey Hodgson's recent review. Hodgson claims to have identified counterexamples to our main thesis, which we dispute.
In December 2019, in Wuhan, China, the novel coronavirus ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome 2’ (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered as the cause of a pneumonia-like illness and subsequently named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 spread and is now a global pandemic. With few exceptions, countries in the Northern hemisphere have higher mortality rates from COVID-19. This may be due to an increased prevalence of older people in Northern Europe at higher risk of having cardio-pulmonary and metabolic comorbidities as well as hypovitaminosis D. With increasing age, immunosenescence and ‘inflammaging’ lead to impaired and maladaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections, contributing to the enhanced prevalence of severe COVID-19 in older patients. The association of ageing with increased vitamin D deficiency, which is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and disease and worse prognosis in COVID-19 infection, is discussed. Considerable experimental evidence demonstrates the immuno-modulatory properties of vitamin D, in particular, its role in regulating and suppressing the inflammatory cytokine response to viral respiratory infections links the importance of vitamin D sufficiency as a potential protective factor in COVID-19. There is an urgent need for prospective randomised studies to examine whether hypovitaminosis D correlates with severity of COVID-19 disease and the actual benefit of repletion. Moreover, given what has been described as a ‘pandemic of vitamin D deficiency’, especially in Europe, and in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 contagion, the authors support the call for public health doctors and physicians, with support from Governments, to prioritise and strengthen recommendations on vitamin D intake and supplementation.
The medium- to long-term consequences of COVID-19 are not yet known, though an increase in mental health problems are predicted. Multidisciplinary strategies across socio-economic and psychological levels may be needed to mitigate the mental health burden of COVID-19. Preliminary evidence from the rapidly progressing field of psychedelic science shows that psilocybin therapy offers a promising transdiagnostic treatment strategy for a range of disorders with restricted and maladaptive habitual patterns of cognition and behaviour, notably depression, addiction and obsessive compulsive disorder. The COMPASS Pathways (COMPASS) phase 2b double-blind trial of psilocybin therapy in antidepressant-free, treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is underway to determine the safety, efficacy and optimal dose of psilocybin. Results from the Imperial College London Psilodep-RCT comparing the efficacy and mechanisms of action of psilocybin therapy to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram will soon be published. However, the efficacy and safety of psilocybin therapy in conjunction with SSRIs in TRD is not yet known. An additional COMPASS study, with a centre in Dublin, will begin to address this question, with potential implications for the future delivery of psilocybin therapy. While at a relatively early stage of clinical development, and notwithstanding the immense challenges of COVID-19, psilocybin therapy has the potential to play an important therapeutic role for various psychiatric disorders in post-COVID-19 clinical psychiatry.
Magnetic field-assisted freeze-casting of porous alumina structures is reported. Different freeze-casting parameters were investigated and include the composition of the original slurry (Fe3O4 and PVA content) and the control of temperature during the free casting process. The optimum content of the additives in the slurry were 3 and 6 wt% for PVA and Fe3O4, respectively. These conditions provided the most unidirectional porous structures throughout the length of the sample. The sintering temperature was maintained at 1500 °C for 3 h. The application of a vertical magnetic field (parallel to ice growth direction) with using a cooling rate mode technique was found to enhance the homogeneity of the porous structure across the sample. The current study suggests that magnetic field-assisted freeze-casting is a viable method to create highly anisotropic porous ceramic structures.