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Studying birth-cohort differences in depression incidence and their explanatory factors may provide insight into the aetiology of depression and could help to optimise prevention strategies to reduce the worldwide burden of depression.
Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a nationally representative study among community dwelling older adults in the Netherlands. Cohort differences in depression incidence over a 10-year-period (score ⩾16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale) were tested using a cohort-sequential-longitudinal-design, comparing two identically measured cohorts of non-depressed 55–64-year-olds, born 10-years apart. Baseline measurements took place in 1992/93 (early cohort, n = 794), and 2002/03 (recent cohort, n = 771). As indicated by the dynamic equilibrium model of depression, potential explanatory factors were distinguished in risk and protective factors.
The incidence rates for depression in the early and recent cohort were 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59–2.27) and 1.60 (95% CI 1.31–1.94) per 100 person-years, respectively. A 29% risk reduction in depression incidence was observed in the recent cohort (HRcohort: 0.71, 95% CI 0.54–0.92, p = 0.011), as compared with the early cohort, even though average levels of risk factors such as chronic disease and functional limitations had increased. This reduction was primarily explained by increased levels of education, mastery and labour market participation.
These findings suggest that favourable developments of protective factors have counterbalanced unfavourable effects of risk factors on the incidence of depression, resulting in a net reduction of depression incidence among young-old adults. However, maintaining a good physical health must be a priority to further decrease depression rates.
Psychiatric patients are at increased risk to become victim of violence. It remains unknown whether subjects of the general population with mental disorders are at risk of victimisation as well. In addition, it remains unclear whether the risk of victimisation differs across specific disorders. This study aimed to determine whether a broad range of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders at baseline predict adult violent (physical and/or sexual) and psychological victimisation at 3-year follow-up, also after adjustment for childhood trauma. Furthermore, this study aimed to examine whether specific types of childhood trauma predict violent and psychological victimisation at follow-up, after adjustment for mental disorder. Finally, this study aimed to examine whether the co-occurrence of childhood trauma and any baseline mental disorder leads to an incrementally increased risk of future victimisation.
Data were derived from the first two waves of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2): a psychiatric epidemiological cohort study among a nationally representative adult population. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Longitudinal associations between 12 mental disorders at baseline and violent and psychological victimisation at 3-year follow-up (n = 5303) were studied using logistic regression analyses, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and childhood trauma. Furthermore, the moderating effect of childhood trauma on these associations was examined.
Associations with victimisation varied considerably across specific mental disorders. Only alcohol dependence predicted both violent and psychological victimisation after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and childhood trauma. Depression, panic disorder, social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence predicted subsequent psychological victimisation in the fully adjusted models. All types of childhood trauma independently predicted violent and psychological victimisation after adjustment for any mental disorder. The presence of any childhood trauma moderated the association between any anxiety disorder and psychological victimisation, whereas no interaction between mental disorder and childhood trauma on violent victimisation existed.
The current study shows that members of the general population with mental disorders are at increased risk of future victimisation. However, the associations with violent and psychological victimisation vary considerably across specific disorders. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of violent and psychological victimisation in individuals with these mental disorders – especially those with alcohol dependence – and individuals with a history of childhood trauma. Violence prevention programmes should be developed for people at risk. These programmes should not only address violent victimisation, but also psychological victimisation.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), represent a major source of risk for suicidality. However, knowledge about risk factors for future suicide attempts (SAs) within MDD is limited. The present longitudinal study examined a wide range of putative non-clinical risk factors (demographic, social, lifestyle, personality) and clinical risk factors (depressive and suicidal indicators) for future SAs among persons with MDD. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between a number of significant predictors and the incidence of a future SA.
Data are from 1713 persons (18–65 years) with a lifetime MDD at the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety who were subsequently followed up 2, 4 and 6 years. SAs were assessed in the face-to-face measurements. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine a wide range of possible non-clinical and clinical predictors for subsequent SAs during 6-year follow-up.
Over a period of 6 years, 3.4% of the respondents attempted suicide. Younger age, lower education, unemployment, insomnia, antidepressant use, a previous SA and current suicidal thoughts independently predicted a future SA. The number of significant risk factors (ranging from 0 to 7) linearly predicted the incidence of future SAs: in those with 0 predictors the SA incidence was 0%, which increased to 32% incidence in those with 6+ predictors.
Of the non-clinical factors, particularly socio-economic factors predicted a SA independently. Furthermore, preexisting suicidal ideation and insomnia appear to be important clinical risk factors for subsequent SA that are open to preventative intervention.
Although the importance and advantages of measurement-based care in mental healthcare are well established, implementation in daily practice is complex and far from optimal.
To accelerate the implementation of outcome measurement in routine clinical practice, a government-sponsored National Quality Improvement Collaborative was initiated in Dutch-specialised mental healthcare.
To investigate the effects of this initiative, we combined a matched-pair parallel group design (21 teams) with a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) (6 teams). At the beginning and end, the primary outcome ‘actual use and perceived clinical utility of outcome measurement’ was assessed.
In both designs, intervention teams demonstrated a significant higher level of implementation of outcome measurement than control teams. Overall effects were large (parallel group d=0.99; RCT d=1.25).
The National Collaborative successfully improved the use of outcome measurement in routine clinical practice.
Studying secular trends in the exposure to risk and protective factors of depression and whether these trends are associated with secular trends in the prevalence of depression is important to estimate future healthcare demands and to identify targets for prevention.
Three birth cohorts of 55–64-year olds from the population-based Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were examined using identical methods in 1992 (n = 944), 2002 (n = 964) and 2012 (n = 957). A two-stage screening design was used to identify subthreshold depression (SUBD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify secular trends in depression prevalence and to identify factors from the biopsychosocial domains of functioning that were associated with these trends.
Compared with 1992, MDD became more prevalent in 2002 (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.10–3.28, p = 0.022) and 2012 (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.03–3.14, p = 0.039). This was largely attributable to an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and functional limitations. Socioeconomic and psychosocial improvements, including an increase in labor market participation, social support and mastery, hampered MDD rates to rise more and were also associated with a 32% decline of SUBD-rates in 2012 as compared with 2002 (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48–0.96, p = 0.03).
Among late middle-aged adults, there is a substantial net increase of MDD, which is associated with deteriorating physical health. If morbidity and disability continue to increase, a further expansion of MDD rates may be expected. Improving socioeconomic and psychosocial conditions may benefit public health, as these factors were protective against a higher prevalence of both MDD and SUBD.
Given the multitude of risk factors for depression in modern society and given the negative consequences of depressive problems for successful ageing, investigating resilience in relation to depression may help identifying entry points for reducing the burden of morbidity. Research on resilience begins with the realisation that individuals may demonstrate good physical or psychological functioning despite being exposed to risk experiences that can have serious negative impact on functioning. Interest in investigating resilience within ageing research has been increasing. Among the approaches toward investigating resilience are so-called a priori approaches, where criteria for inferring resilience are established a priori. In this editorial, we highlight some of the advantages of taking a priori approaches to the study of resilience and we touch on the implications for a priori approaches for the topic of resilience and depression. We argue that depression should take a prominent role in resilience research, because depression is strongly associated with opportunities for successful ageing.
Cognitive impairment and depression often co-occur in older adults, but it is not clear whether depression is a risk factor for cognitive decline, a psychological reaction to cognitive decline, or whether changes in depressive symptoms correlate with changes in cognitive performance over time. The co-morbid manifestation of depression and cognitive impairment may reflect either a causal effect or a common cause, depending on the specific symptoms experienced and the cognitive functions affected.
The study sample comprised 1506 community-dwelling older adults aged ⩾65 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). We conducted cross-domain latent growth curve analyses to examine longitudinal associations between late-life depression dimensions (i.e. depressed affect, positive affect, and somatic symptoms) and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e. processing speed, inductive reasoning, immediate recall, and delayed recall).
Poorer delayed recall performance at baseline predicted a steeper increase in depressed affect over time. Steeper decline in processing speed correlated with a steeper increase in somatic symptoms of depression over time.
Our findings suggest a prospective association between memory function and depressed affect, whereby older adults may experience an increase in depressed affect in reaction to poor memory function. Somatic symptoms of depression increased concurrently with declining processing speed, which may reflect common neurodegenerative processes. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that depression symptoms may be a risk factor for cognitive decline in the general population. These findings have potential implications for the treatment of late-life depression and for the prognosis of cognitive outcomes.
The heterogeneous aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) might affect the presentation of depressive symptoms across the lifespan. We examined to what extent a range of mood, cognitive, and somatic/vegetative depressive symptoms were differentially present depending on patient's age.
Data came from 1404 participants with current MDD (aged 18–88 years) from two cohort studies: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO). Associations between age (per 10 years) and 30 depressive symptoms as well as three symptom clusters (mood, cognitive, somatic/vegetative) were assessed using logistic and linear regression analyses.
Depression severity was found to be stable with increasing age. Nevertheless, 20 (67%) out of 30 symptoms were associated with age. Most clearly, with ageing there was more often early morning awakening [odds ratio (OR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–1.60], reduced interest in sex (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.31–1.53), and problems sleeping during the night (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.24–1.43), whereas symptoms most strongly associated with younger age were interpersonal sensitivity (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66–0.79), feeling irritable (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67–0.79), and sleeping too much (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.68–0.83). The sum score of somatic/vegetative symptoms was associated with older age (B = 0.23, p < 0.001), whereas the mood and cognitive sum scores were associated with younger age (B = −0.20, p < 0.001; B = −0.04, p = 0.004).
Depression severity was found to be stable across the lifespan, yet depressive symptoms tend to shift with age from being predominantly mood-related to being more somatic/vegetative. Due to the increasing somatic presentation of depression with age, diagnoses may be missed.
Patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its variants following palliation surgery are at risk for thrombosis. This study examines variability of antithrombotic practice, the incidence of interstage shunt thrombosis, and other adverse events following Stage I and Stage II palliation within the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative registry.
We carried out a multicentre, retrospective review using the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative registry including patients from 2008 to 2013 across 52 surgical sites. Antithrombotic medications used at Stage I and Stage II discharge were evaluated. Variability of antithrombotics use at the individual patient level and intersite variability, incidence of shunt thrombosis, and other adverse events such as cardiac arrest, seizure, stroke, and need for cardiac catheterisation intervention in the interstage period were identified. Antithrombotic strategies for hybrid Stage I patients were evaluated but they were excluded from the variability and outcomes analysis.
A total of 932 Stage I and 923 Stage II patients were included in the study: 93.8% of Stage I patients were discharged on aspirin and 4% were discharged on no antithrombotics, and 77% of Stage II patients were discharged on aspirin and 17.5% were discharged on no antithrombotics. Only three patients (0.2%) presented with interstage shunt thrombosis. The majority of patients who died during interstage or required shunt dilation and/or stenting were discharged home on aspirin.
Aspirin is the most commonly used antithrombotic following Stage I and Stage II palliation. There is more variability in the choice of antithrombotics following Stage II compared with Stage I. The incidence of interstage shunt thrombosis and associated adverse events was rare.
Loneliness is highly prevalent among older people, has serious health consequences and is an important predictor of mortality. Loneliness and depression may unfavourably interact with each other over time but data on this topic are scarce.
To determine whether loneliness is associated with excess mortality after 19 years of follow-up and whether the joint effect with depression confers further excess mortality.
Different aspects of loneliness were measured with the De Jong Gierveld scale and depression with the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in a cohort of 2878 people aged 55–85 with 19 years of follow-up. Excess mortality hypotheses were tested with Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses controlling for potential confounders.
At follow-up loneliness and depression were associated with excess mortality in older men and women in bivariate analysis but not in multivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, severe depression was associated with excess mortality in men who were lonely but not in women.
Loneliness and depression are important predictors of early death in older adults. Severe depression has a strong association with excess mortality in older men who were lonely, indicating a lethal combination in this group.
Subthreshold depression (SUBD) in later life is common and important as prodromal state and prominent risk factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). Indicated prevention can reduce the incidence of MDD among people with SUBD substantially, but needs to be targeted to those that are truly at risk of developing MDD.
N = 341 eligible participants with SUBD were included from the first (1992/1993), second (1995/1996) and third (1998/1999) cycle from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) by using a two-stage screening design. LASA is an ongoing prospective cohort study in The Netherlands among the older population (55–85 years). At baseline (1992/1993) N = 3107 participants were interviewed and follow-up cycles were conducted every 3 years until 2008/2009, resulting in maximal 17 years of observational period. The proportion of people that developed MDD, remained SUBD, or recovered from SUBD was measured and Cox proportional regression analyses were performed to investigate 29 putative predictors of MDD and recovery from SUBD.
N = 153 (44.9%) recovered from SUBD, N = 138 (40.5%) remained chronically SUBD, and N = 50 (14.7%) developed MDD (incidence rate 15.1/1000 person-years). Women, high neuroticism, more chronic diseases, high body mass index, smoking and less social support predicted conversion to MDD. Men, low neuroticism and absence of pain predicted recovery from SUBD.
Although older people with SUBD are clearly at risk of developing MDD, the majority did not, even after a long and thorough follow-up. Given the risk factors that were uncovered, targeting and prevention of MDD in those at very high risk is feasible.
The Clio and Calliope evoked in the prohemia of Books II and III of Troilus and Criseyde are handily glossed in Chaucer editions as Muses of history and epic poetry respectively, but without citations of sources for these attributions. Stephen A. Barney's notes in The Riverside Chaucer suggest that in both evocations Chaucer is following Statius rather than Dante, and both he and B. A. Windeatt mention the marginal gloss ‘Cleo domina eloquentie’ in MS Harley 2392 of Troilus. Vincent J. DiMarco's note to the name Polymya in Anelida and Arcite identifies her as Muse of ‘sacred song,’ after her name-sense ‘she who is rich in hymns,’ but DiMarco does not elaborate on her pertinence to the context of the poem. There is little in current Chaucer criticism on schemes of attributes for the Muses; and yet without an idea of what values for the Muses Chaucer is drawing upon, it is difficult to appreciate their thematic force in Troilus.
In this paper it is shown that the ability to directly detect a daughter atom, using resonance ionization spectroscopy, in delayed time coincidence with the decay of a parent species promises to drastically reduce the background in low-level counting experiments. In addition, resonance ionization can also be used as an ion source for a mass spectrometer system that is capable of discriminating between isobars.
Clinical and aetiological heterogeneity have impeded our understanding of
To evaluate differences in psychiatric and somatic course between people
with depression subtypes that differed clinically (severity) and
aetiologically (melancholic v. atypical).
Data from baseline, 2-, 4- and 6-year follow-up of The Netherlands Study
of Depression and Anxiety were used, and included 600 controls and 648
people with major depressive disorder (subtypes: severe melancholic
n = 308; severe atypical n = 167;
moderate n = 173, established using latent class
Those with the moderate subtype had a significantly better psychiatric
clinical course than the severe melancholic and atypical subtype groups.
Suicidal thoughts and anxiety persisted longer in those with the
melancholic subtype. The atypical subtype group continued to have the
highest body mass index and highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome
during follow-up, although differences between groups became less
pronounced over time.
Course trajectories of depressive subtypes mostly ran parallel to each
other, with baseline severity being the most important differentiator in
course between groups.
Patients with a severe mental illness (SMI) are more likely to experience
victimisation than the general population.
To examine the prevalence of victimisation in people with SMI, and the
relationship between symptoms, treatment facility and indices of
substance use/misuse and perpetration, in comparison with the general
Victimisation was assessed among both randomly selected patients with SMI
(n = 216) and the general population
Compared with the general population, a high prevalence of violent
victimisation was found among the SMI group (22.7% v.
8.5%). Compared with out-patients and patients in a sheltered housing
facility, in-patients were most often victimised (violent crimes: 35.3%;
property crimes: 47.1%). Risk factors among the SMI group for violent
victimisation included young age and disorganisation, and risk factors
for property crimes included being an in-patient, disorganisation and
cannabis use. The SMI group were most often assaulted by someone they
Caregivers should be aware that patients with SMI are at risk of violent
victimisation. Interventions need to be developed to reduce this
The objective of this study was to report procedural characteristics and adverse events on the data collected in the IMproving Paediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment registry.
The IMproving Paediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment– registry is a catheterisation registry focussed on paediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease who are undergoing diagnostic catheterisations and catheter-based interventions. This study reports procedural characteristics and adverse events of patients who have undergone selected catheterisation procedures from January, 2011 to June, 2013.
Demographic, clinical, procedural, and institutional data elements were collected at participating centres and entered via either a web-based platform or software provided by the American College of Cardiology-certified vendors, and were collected in a secure, centralised database. For the purpose of this study, procedures that were not classified as one of the ‘core’ IMproving Paediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment procedures originally chosen for additional data collection were identified and selected for further data analysis.
During the time frame of data collection, a total of 8021 cases were classified as other procedures and/or multiple procedures. The most commonly performed case types – isolated or in combination with other procedures – were right ventricular biopsy in 3433 (42.8%), conduit/MPA interventions in 979 (12.3%), and systemic pulmonary artery collateral occlusion in 601 (7.5%). For the whole cohort, adverse events of any severity occurred in 957 (12.0%) cases, whereas major adverse events occurred in 113 (1.4%) cases; six patients (0.1%) died in the catheterisation laboratory.
The IMproving Paediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment registry has provided important data on the frequency and spectrum of cardiac catheterisation procedures performed in the present era. For many procedures, more data and work are needed to identify more subtle differences between case categories, especially as it relates to the incidence of major adverse events, and to further develop a risk-adjustment methodology to allow equitable comparisons among institutions.
Endothelial dysfunction (ED) and low-grade inflammation (LGI) have a role in the development of CVD. The two studies reported here explored the effects of dietary proteins and carbohydrates on markers of ED and LGI in overweight/obese individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure. In the first study, fifty-two participants consumed a protein mix or maltodextrin (3×20 g/d) for 4 weeks. Fasting levels and 12 h postprandial responses of markers of ED (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM), soluble endothelial selectin and von Willebrand factor) and markers of LGI (serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein and sICAM) were evaluated before and after intervention. Biomarkers were also combined into mean Z-scores of ED and LGI. The second study compared 4 h postprandial responses of ED and LGI markers in forty-eight participants after ingestion of 0·6 g/kg pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial responses after maltodextrin intake were compared with a protein mix and sucrose. The first study showed significantly lower fasting ED Z-scores and sICAM after 4 weeks on the high-protein diet (P≤0·02). The postprandial studies found no clear differences of ED and LGI between test meals. However, postprandial sVCAM decreased more after the protein mix compared with maltodextrin in both studies (P≤0·04). In conclusion, dietary protein is beneficial for fasting ED, but not for fasting LGI, after 4 weeks of supplementation. On the basis of Z-scores, postprandial ED and LGI were not differentially affected by protein sources or carbohydrates.
Psychosocial stress has been associated with an increased risk for mental and somatic health problems across the life span. Some studies in younger adults linked this to accelerated cellular aging, indexed by shortened telomere length (TL). In older adults, the impact of psychosocial stress on TL may be different due to the lifetime exposure to competing causes of TL-shortening. This study aims to assess whether early and recent psychosocial stressors (childhood abuse, childhood adverse events, recent negative life events, and loneliness) were associated with TL in older adults.
Data were from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) in which psychosocial stressors were measured in 496 persons aged 60 and older (mean age 70.6 (SD 7.4) years) during a face-to-face interview. Leukocyte TL was determined using fasting blood samples by performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and was expressed in base pairs (bp).
Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and chronic diseases, showed that childhood abuse, recent negative life events and loneliness were unrelated to TL. Only having experienced any childhood adverse event was weakly but significantly negatively associated with TL.
Our findings did not consistently confirm our hypothesis that psychosocial stress is associated with shorter TL in older adults. Healthy survivorship or other TL-damaging factors such as somatic health problems seem to dominate a potential effect of psychosocial stress on TL in older adults.
Anxiety is an adaptive human experience that may occur at all ages and serves to
help draw attention to, avoid or cope with immanent threat and danger. Given its
evolutionary importance, it has strong genetic and biological underpinnings, and
when it serves that adaptive function for the organism, anxiety may be viewed as
useful. However, complex adaptive systems, such as our adaptation to threat or
stress, by definition provide many and often interrelated points of breakdown or
dysregulation, which, if sustained, may lead to psychopathology. Anxiety has
been described as a common currency for psychopathology, indicating that it is a
first line and universal way for us to respond to stress and threat. It is more
or less prominent in patients diagnosed with practically all psychiatric or
neurodegenerative disorders. This has lead to the inclusion of anxiety as a
cross-cutting symptom measure in the development of DSM-5 (APA, 2013). Given
that they are rooted in a complex adaptive system that has many potential points
of impact to develop pathology, it is not surprising that anxiety disorders are
extremely heterogeneous. This heterogeneity of anxiety disorders pertains to
symptomatology, etiology and outcomes, and poses great challenges to both
research and clinical practice.