The optical and electrical properties of Mg- and Si-implanted GaN were investigated using photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and Hall-effect measurements. Implantation of Mg, Si, Mg+Si, Mg+O, Mg+C, and Mg+P was made into undoped semi-insulating MBE-grown GaN at energies from 125 to 260 keV at room temperature and 800 oC with doses of 1x1014 to 5x1015 cm−2. The samples were capped with AlN and annealed at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1300 oC for 9 s to 20 min. The dominant luminescence peak in all Mg-implanted and annealed GaN is a broad green luminescence (GL) band at 2.36 eV, which may be related to a deep donor-deep acceptor complex transition resulting from the Mg implant, residual implant damage, and/or native defects. The relative intensities of this GL band and secondary peaks from 2.75-3.28 eV vary as a function of implantation temperature, ion dose, species, and anneal temperature. All Mg single and dual implantation resulted in extremely resistive GaN layers, except Mg+Si, which resulted in weakly n-type GaN. However, the Si-implanted GaN produced an electrical activation efficiency as high as 73% after annealing at 1200 oC for 5 min.