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Workplace violence (WPV) is a worldwide health problem with major individual and societal consequences. Previously identified predictors of WPV include working in psychiatry and work stress.
To investigate WPV trends during Norwegian doctors’ careers and assess individual long-term predictors in a longitudinal study.
Two nationwide medical student cohorts (n=1052) who graduated 6 years apart were surveyed at graduation (T1, 1993/94 and 1999) and 4 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 (T5) years after graduation (Figure 1). WPV was measured as multiple threats or acts of violence experienced at least twice. Individual predictors were obtained at T1 and work-related factors at T2–T5. WPV was analysed using repeated measures (Generalized Estimating Equations).
The prevalence of multiple threats and acts of violence declined at T2–T5 (p<0.001). Adjusted predictors of threats were male gender (odds ratio, OR 2.76, [95% confidence interval] 1.73–4.40; p<0.001), vulnerability traits (OR 0.90, [0.82–0.99]; p=0.031), older cohort (OR 1.63,[1.04–2.58], p=0.035) and working in psychiatry (OR 7.50, [4.42–12.71]; p<0.001). Adjusted predictors of acts were male gender (OR 3.37, [1.45–7.84]; p=0.005), older cohort (OR 6.08, [1.68–21.97]; p=0.006) and working in psychiatry (OR 12.34, [5.40–28.23]; p<0.001).
Higher rates of multiple threats and acts of violence were observed during early medical careers, with men at higher risk. Low levels of vulnerability traits (neuroticism) predicted independently the experience of violent threats. A cohort effect indicated a reduction in WPV (both threats and acts) in the younger cohort.
Alcohol abuse can be the cause for psychotic disorders. In the International Classification of Diseases (ICD10) they are coded F10.4-F10.9. One of the potentially life-threatening complications is the development of alcohol delirium. Mortality rates in patients with untreated alcohol delirium reach 15%. It is extremely important to identify the risk factors that contribute to the development of delirium in time to ensure the most effective treatment and to ensure the patient’s potential survival in the hospitalization and post-hospitalization phase.
To analyze and evaluate the risk factors that have coused alcohol withdrawal with the development of delirium in patients admitted at the department of Narcology of the Riga Psychiatry and Narcology Center in 2018.
This study is a retrospectively conducted cohort study based on data from inpatient medical records for patients diagnosed with alcohol-induced delirium at the Department of Narcology of the Riga Psychiatry and Narcology Center in Year 2018.
In the Riga Psychiatry and Narcology Center 113 patients were diagnosed alcohol caused delirium. That makes up to 8% of all inpatients in year 2018. Summary of the prevalence of the most significant risk factors in 2018 inpatients with alcohol delirium.
High levels of aspartate aminotransferase
High levels of alanine aminotransferase
Low platelet count
High systolic blood pressure
High diastolic blood pressure
Other somatic diseases
Previous history of detoxification
History of alcohol-induced seizures
The study indicated that some easily determined parameters are potential clinical predictors for the development of delirium tremens.
Previous studies about relationship between personality factors and stress related processes mainly focus on relation between these factors and application of coping strategies.
This study expanded previous research by examining the combined contribution of personality traits (NEO-FFI) and coping strategies (Brief COPE) in the prediction of stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms (DASS-21), and psychological well-being (WHO-5) among undergraduate nursing students.
This cross-sectional study was performed in 2017. Participants of this study were 75 nursing students (men=37, women=38) from one Portuguese School of Health Sciences. The students who agreed to participate filled out an informed consent. Then the questionnaires were administered in a random order to avoid order effects in the data.
Regarding personality, women reported higher conscientiousness and agreeableness than men. There were no gender differences in coping. Among men, openness and agreeableness (inversely) and neuroticism predicted stress. In women, neuroticism and venting predicted stress. Regarding depression, conscientiousness and extraversion (inversely) and neuroticism were predictors for men, whereas neuroticism, self-blame, and denial were predictors for women. Conscientiousness and extraversion (inversely) and venting and denial predicted anxiety in men, as did neuroticism and venting in women. For well-being, conscientiousness and extraversion were predictors among men; neuroticism and seeking instrumental support (inversely) and extraversion were predictors among women. Personality traits dominated the prediction of distress and well-being in men, while both personality and coping were predictors in women.
These findings indicate that it is not the degree of each personality trait or coping strategy but the pattern of relationship between these phenomena and psychological outcomes that is of relevance. The results could inform gendered preventive and treatment interventions for college students.
Anxiety disorders frequently recur in clinical populations, but the risk of recurrence of anxiety disorders is largely unknown in the general population. In this study, recurrence of anxiety and its predictors were studied in a large cohort of the adult general population.
Baseline, 3-year and 6-year follow-up data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). Respondents (N = 468) who had been in remission for at least a year prior to baseline were included. Recurrence was assessed at 3 and 6 years after baseline, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Cumulative recurrence rates were estimated using the number of years since remission of the last anxiety disorder. Furthermore, Cox regression analyses were conducted to investigate predictors of recurrence, using a broad range of putative predictors.
The estimated cumulative recurrence rate was 2.1% at 1 year, 6.6% at 5 years, 10.6% at 10 years, and 16.2% at 20 years. Univariate regression analyses predicted a shorter time to recurrence for several variables, of which younger age at interview, parental psychopathology, neuroticism and a current depressive disorder remained significant in the, age and gender-adjusted, multivariable regression analysis.
Recurrence of anxiety disorders in the general population is common and the risk of recurrence extends over a lengthy period of time. In clinical practice, alertness to recurrence, monitoring of symptoms, and quick access to health care in case of recurrence are needed.
In order to better understand the different grieving trajectories of the family caregivers (FCs), this study aims to examine the evolution of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) symptoms and the predictive role of the caregiving-related factors in the FCs' grieving trajectory from pre- to post-death.
A prospective cohort study was carried out with advanced cancer FCs evaluated before death (T1) and 6–12 months post-loss (T2).
Participants in T1 (n = 156) were mostly female, adult child, or spouse of the care recipient, with a mean age of 51.78 (SD = 13.29). At T2, 87 FCs participated in the survey. PGD prevalence was higher pre-death (38.6%) than in bereavement (33.7%). Of those who met the PGD criteria before death, most also met these criteria after death (n = 26, 61.9%). Psychological distress and caregiver burden were highly correlated with pre-death grief, which in turn played a critical role in mediating the link between psychological distress and bereavement outcome. Great emotional closeness in the relationship was predictive of PGD symptoms persistence. In contrast, the long-term consequences of caregiver burden were not confirmed.
Significance of results
This study provides evidence for the diversity of individual FC responses and the complex pattern of interactions between caregiving-related factors, relationship quality, and PGD symptoms evolution from pre- to post-death.
Skin picking disorder and trichotillomania, also characterized as body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), often lead to functional impairment. Some people with BFRBs, however, report little if any psychosocial dysfunction. There has been limited research as to which clinical aspects of BFRBs are associated with varying degrees of functional impairment.
Adults (n = 98), ages 18 to 65 with a current diagnosis of trichotillomania (n = 37), skin picking disorder (n = 32), trichotillomania plus skin picking disorder (n = 10), and controls (n = 19) were enrolled. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to identify variables associated with impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale.
PLS identified an optimal model accounting for 45.8% of variation in disability. Disability was significantly related to (in order of descending coefficient size): severity of picking, perceived stress, comorbid disorders (specifically, anxiety disorders / obsessive–compulsive disorder), trait impulsivity, family history of alcohol use disorder, atypical pulling/picking sites, and older age.
At present mental disorders are viewed as unitary entities; however, the extent of impairment varies markedly across patients with BFRBs. These data suggest that whereas symptom nature/severity is important in determining impairment, so too are other variables commonly unmeasured in clinical practice. Outcomes for patients may thus be maximized by rigorously addressing comorbid disorders; as well as integrating components designed to enhance top-down control and stress management. Interestingly, focused picking and emotional pulling were linked to worse disability, hinting at some differences between the two types of BFRBs, in terms of determinants of impairment.
Poor adherence to antipsychotic drugs is a major problem in schizophrenia management and one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization. To date, there is little evidence on persistence predictors with long-acting injectable antipsychotics, especially with aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM). This study (NCT03130478) aimed to describe the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on persistence with AOM treatment in real-world setting.
This was an observational, retrospective, non-interventional study that included adult patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on AOM during a schizophrenia-related hospitalization. Data were retrospectively collected from patients’ medical records. The primary variable was persistence with AOM, measured as the number of days from AOM initiation up to all-cause AOM discontinuation during the first six months after treatment index.
140 patients were enrolled and 91 fulfilled the selection criteria. Six months after AOM initiation, 65 (71.4%) patients were still receiving AOM treatment, whereas 26 (28.6%) were not. The mean (standard deviation) time to AOM treatment discontinuation in the first six months was 138.1 (6.8) days, with most of the patients discontinuing at the first 28 days. The risk of AOM discontinuation in the first six months increases 1.05-fold annually since schizophrenia diagnosis (p=0.003); moreover, this risk increases 2.86-fold in patients with concomitant schizophrenia medication at AOM initiation compared to patients without concomitant schizophrenia treatments (p=0.02).
Main factors predicting persistence with AOM treatment at six months in clinical practice are fewer years since schizophrenia diagnosis and not receiving concomitant schizophrenia treatments at AOM initiation.
Despite evidence for the general effectiveness of psychological therapies, there exists substantial heterogeneity in patient outcomes. We aimed to identify factors associated with baseline severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, rate of symptomatic change over the course of therapy, and symptomatic recovery in a primary mental health care setting.
Using data from a service evaluation involving 35 527 patients in England's psychological and wellbeing [Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT)] services, we applied latent growth models to explore which routinely-collected sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables were associated with baseline symptom severity and rate of symptomatic change. We used a multilevel logit model to determine variables associated with symptomatic recovery.
Being female, younger, more functionally impaired, and more socioeconomically disadvantaged was associated with higher baseline severity of both depression and anxiety symptoms. Being older, less functionally impaired, and having more severe baseline symptomatology was associated with more rapid improvement of both depression and anxiety symptoms (male gender and greater socioeconomic disadvantage were further associated with rate of change for depression only). Therapy intensity and appointment frequency seemed to have no correlation with rate of symptomatic improvement. Patients with lower baseline symptom severity, less functional impairment, and older age had a greater likelihood of achieving symptomatic recovery (as defined by IAPT criteria).
We must continue to investigate how best to tailor psychotherapeutic interventions to fit patients’ needs. Patients who begin therapy with more severe depression and/or anxiety symptoms and poorer functioning merit special attention, as these characteristics may negatively impact recovery.
To identify predictors of recovery in children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM).
This is a secondary data analysis from an individual randomised controlled trial, where children with uncomplicated SAM were randomised to three feeding regimens, namely ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) sourced from Compact India, locally prepared RUTF or augmented home-prepared foods, under two age strata (6–17 months and 18–59 months) for 16 weeks or until recovery. Three sets of predictors that could influence recovery, namely child, family and nutritional predictors, were analysed.
Rural and urban slum areas of three states of India, namely Rajasthan, Delhi and Tamil Nadu.
In total, 906 children (age: 6–59 months) were analysed to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) using the Cox proportional hazard ratio model to identify various predictors.
Being a female child (AHR: 1·269 (1·016, 1·584)), better employment status of the child’s father (AHR: 1·53 (1·197, 1·95)) and residence in a rental house (AHR: 1·485 (1·137, 1·94)) increased the chances of recovery. No hospitalisation (AHR: 1·778 (1·055, 2·997)), no fever, (AHR: 2·748 (2·161, 3·494)) and ≤ 2 episodes of diarrhoea (AHR: 1·579 (1·035, 2·412)) during the treatment phase; availability of community-based peer support to mothers for feeding (AHR: 1·61 (1·237, 2·097)) and a better weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) at enrolment (AHR: 1·811 (1·297, 2·529)) predicted higher chances of recovery from SAM.
The probability of recovery increases in children with better WHZ and with the initiation of treatment for acute illnesses to avoid hospitalisation, availability of peer support and better employment status of the father.
Neuroimaging studies have shown variance in brain response to emotional faces predicts cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) outcome. An important next step is to determine if individual differences in neural predictors of CBT response represent distinct patient groups.
In total, 90 patients with internalizing disorders completed a face-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after 12 weeks of CBT and 45 healthy controls completed the task before and after 12 weeks. Patients exhibiting a pre-to-post CBT >50% reduction in symptom severity on two measures were considered treatment responders. Regions of interest (ROIs) for angry, fearful, and happy faces were submitted to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Significant ROIs were then submitted to decision tree analysis to classify responder/non-responder subgroups. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) were used to explore functional connectivity in the region(s) that delineated subgroups.
A total of 51 patients were treatment responders and ROC curve results were significant for all face types though specific regions varied. Decision tree results revealed superior occipital response to angry faces identified patient subgroups such that the subgroup with ‘high’ occipital activity had more responders than the ‘low’ occipital subgroup. Following CBT, the high, relative to low, occipital subgroup was less symptomatic. Controls exhibited stable superior occipital activation over time. Whole-brain PPI showed reduced baseline superior occipital-postcentral gyrus functional connectivity in responders compared to non-responders.
Preliminary findings indicate patients characterized by relatively more pre-treatment superior occipital gyrus engagement to angry faces and reduced superior occipital-postcentral gyrus connectivity, relative to non-responders, may represent a phenotype likely to benefit from CBT.
The burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) related to mortality in resource-poor countries remains high. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and predictors of death among MDR-TB patients in central Ethiopia. A retrospective follow-up study was conducted at three hospitals in the Amhara region on 451 patients receiving treatment for MDR-TB from September 2010 to January 2017. Data were collected from patient registration books, charts and computer databases. Data were fitted to a parametric frailty model and survival was expressed as an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The median follow-up time of participants was 20 months (interquartile range: 12, 22) and 46 (10.20%) of patients died during this period. The incidence rate of mortality was 7.42 (95% CI 5.56–9.91)/100 person-years. Older age (AHR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.08), inability to self-care (AHR = 13.71, 95% CI 5.46–34.40), co-morbidity (AHR = 5.74, 95% CI 2.19–15.08), low body mass index (AHR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.02–16.64), acute lung complications (AHR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.66–10.70) and lung consolidation at baseline (AHR = 5.27, 95% CI 1.06–26.18) were independent predictors of mortality. Most of the identified predictor factors of death in this study were considered to be avoidable if the TB programme had provided nutritional support for malnourished patients and ensured a close follow-up of the elderly, and patients with co-morbidities.
While serious concerns are often raised when patients abscond or leave unauthorized from psychiatric services, there is limited knowledge about absconsion in forensic psychiatric services. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guideline, we searched Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science through May 2020 for eligible reports on absconsion in forensic patients with no language limits. The search string combined terms for absconsion, forensic patients, and psychiatry in various permutations. This was supplemented by snowball searching for additional studies. Of the 565 articles screened, 25 eligible studies, including two interventional, seven cross-sectional, and 16 case-controlled studies spanning five decades were included. Absconsion and re-absconsion rates ranged from 0.2% to 54.4% and 15% to 71%, respectively, albeit higher rates trended with less secure psychiatric units. Previous absconsion, aggression, substance use, high Historical Clinical Risk Management-20 score, anti-sociality, psychiatric symptoms, sexual offending, and poor treatment adherence were the factors reported with a degree of predictive value for absconsion. However, the construct of absconsion was heterogeneous in the included studies and the quality of evidence on the predictors of absconsion was limited. Serious risky behaviors including re-offending, violence, self-harm, suicide, rape, and manslaughter were perpetrated by patients during unauthorized leave. Nevertheless, the rates of re-offending were generally low in the included studies (highest recidivism rate = 0.11). There is need for standardized assessment and documentation of absconsion to improve risk analysis and management. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop a structured guideline for defining absconsion, and to create a protocol that operationalizes all absconsion-related behaviors/events to promote reliable assessment and comparative analysis in future studies.
The study adopted an ex post facto design to investigate background variables as predictors of utilisation of Web 2.0 applications in counsellor education. The population included 28 counsellor educators in the Department of Guidance and Counselling of the sampled university. Background variables and the Web 2.0 Utilisation Questionnaire (BVW2.0UQ) was used to gather data, which were analysed using means, standard deviations and multiple regression analysis. Findings of the study indicated, among others, that the extent of utilisation of Web 2.0 applications in counsellor education was low, and that the joint influence of the background variables on the extent of utilisation of Web 2.0 applications in counsellor education was not statistically significant.
To determine the prevalence and predictors of hypocalcaemia in under-five children (1–59 months) hospitalised with severe acute malnutrition (SAM).
A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypocalcaemia among children hospitalised with SAM. Serum Ca and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH)D) were estimated. Hypocalcaemia was defined as serum Ca (albumin-adjusted) <2·12 mmol/l. To identify the clinical predictors of hypocalcaemia, a logistic regression model was constructed taking hypocalcaemia as a dependent variable, and sociodemographic and clinical variables as independent variables.
A tertiary care hospital in Delhi, between November 2017 and April 2019.
One-hundred and fifty children (1–59 months) hospitalised with SAM were enrolled.
Hypocalcaemia was documented in thirty-nine (26 %) children hospitalised with SAM, the prevalence being comparable between children aged <6 months (11/41, 26·8 %) and those between 6 and 59 months (28/109, 25·7 %) (P = 0·887). Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-(OH)D <30 nmol/l) and clinical rickets were observed in ninety-eight (65·3 %) and sixty-three (42 %) children, respectively. Hypocalcaemia occurred more frequently in severely malnourished children with clinical rickets (OR 6·6, 95 % CI 2·54, 17·15, P < 0·001), abdominal distension (OR 4·5, 95 % CI 1·39, 14·54, P = 0·012) and sepsis (OR 2·6, 95 % CI 1·00, 6·57, P = 0·050).
Rickets and hypocalcaemia are common in children with SAM. Routine supplementation of vitamin D should be considered for severely malnourished children. Ca may be empirically prescribed to severely malnourished children with clinical rickets, abdominal distension and/or sepsis.
Adults with CHD have reduced work participation rates compared to adults without CHD. We aimed to quantify employment rate among adult CHD patients in a population-based registry and to describe factors and barriers associated with work participation.
We retrospectively identified adults with employment information in the North Carolina Congenital Heart Defects Surveillance Network. Employment was defined as any paid work in a given year. Logistic regression was used to examine patients’ employment status during each year.
The registry included 1,208 adult CHD patients with a health care encounter between 2009 and 2013, of whom 1,078 had ≥1 year of data with known employment status. Overall, 401 patients (37%) were employed in their most recent registry year. On multivariable analysis, the odds of employment decreased with older age and were lower for Black as compared to White patients (odds ratio = 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.98; p = 0.030), and single as compared to married patients (odds ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval: 0.39, 0.63; p < 0.001).
In a registry where employment status was routinely captured, only 37% of adult CHD patients aged 18–64 years were employed, with older patients, Black patients, and single patients being less likely to be employed. Further work is needed to consider how enhancing cardiology follow-up for adults with CHD can integrate support for employment.
Background: Chest tube thoracostomy is frequently performed in the emergency department (ED) for patients with traumatic thoracic injuries. However, this procedure is associated with a high complication rate. Aim Statement: The aim of this study was to describe and assess predictors of complications following chest tube thoracostomy. Measures & Design: A retrospective chart review was conducted in a level 1 trauma center. Patients aged ≥16 who required a chest tube for a traumatic injury between 2016 and 2019 were identified. Variables including demographic data, Charlson Comorbidity Index, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), chest tube insertion and technique (i.e. position, dislodgement, obstruction, organ perforation), complications and interventions were collected using a standardized data collection form. A second reviewer assessed all ambiguous files. Descriptive statistics and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Evaluation/Results: 179 patients were included in the study, of which 141 were male (79%). Mean age was 54 18 and median ISS was 17 (Q1-Q3: 9-27). 207 chest tube thoracostomies were performed for pneumothorax (81%) or a hemothorax (38%) mainly after a blunt injury (92%). 183 standard chest tube (88%) and 24 pigtail catheters (12%) were installed. Overall, emergency medicine physicians/residents performed 70% of these procedures and 54% were performed by residents. Sixty-one patients (34%) suffered a total of 73 complications: 45 were infectious (62%) and 28 were technique-related (38%). Pneumonia was the most frequent complication (19%) followed by reintroduced or replaced chest tube (12%). After adjusting for the ISS, there was no statistically significant association between the type of tube (OR 0.36 95% CI: 0.08-1.68), the medical specialty (OR 1.19 95% CI: 0.55-2.58) or the level of training (OR 1.29 95% CI: 0.63-2.64) of the clinician and the incidence of at least one complication. Discussion/Impact: Our results show that one out of three patients experienced at least one complication following a chest tube thoracostomy in the ED, which confirmed existing literature (5%- 38%). After adjustment, the type of tube used, the specialty and level of training of the health professional who performed the procedure was not associated with the incidence of at least one complication.
The goal of this study is to assess prevalence and incidence of psychiatric sequelae in a sample of inpatient accident survivors. Such an attempt to assess psychiatric conditions that originate due to an accident seems to be important; this does not include psychiatric conditions already present prior to the accident.
208 accident victims were consecutively examined over a period of 12 months using DSM-IV diagnostic assessment, CAPS, and self-evaluating questionnaires as well as ISS for injury severity. A predictor model for psychiatric disorders was set up.
Incidence of newly developed Axis I disorders in our sample was 14.2% (6 months) and 12.3% (12 months). Incidence of PTSD was 5.9% (6 months) and 2.5% (12 months). Comorbidity was a general phenomenon. The psychiatric condition prior to the accident could be identified as a predictor for the development of Axis I disorders. The subjectively evaluated intensity of experienced threat to life and female gender were the main predictors for the development of PTSD.
Accidents can lead to different psychiatric disorders. PTSD as a single diagnosis is rare. Without taking into account pre-existing disorders, the incidence may be overestimated. Two predictor models for the development of PTSD and other mental disorders are presented.
In order to identify clinical and demographic variables that predict response to antidepressants and to analyse prediction of outcome as a function of definition of outcome we analysed pooled data of two independent, multicentre, double blind parallel group studies. Study I compared the efficacy of mianserin with that of fluoxetine in 65, and study II compared mianserin with fluvoxamine in 60 patients with depression. Improvement was defined as at least 20% decrease in MADRS by day 14. Patients were considered as responders if they had greater than 50% decrease and non-responders if they had ≤ 50% decrease from baseline in the MADRS at day 56. Complete remission was defined as MADRS score ≤ 6 at day 56. Patients' characteristics did not differ between mianserin and SSRI groups. Early improvement predicted response in 92% and complete remission in 55% of the patients improved at day 14. Multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that response to treatments at day 56 was significantly (P = 0.0003) associated with early improvement, age (responders had higher age than non-responders) and weight (responders weighted more than non-responders). Complete remission was only predicted by early improvement. Treatments could not be differentiated when data were analysed according to responder/nonresponder status or complete remission/no complete remission. However, when the same data were analysed by analysis of variance a significant treatment effect (P = 0.02, mianserin > SSRIs) and a quadratic type treatment by time interaction (P = 0.023) were found. The robustness of the analysis was further improved by inclusion of covariates (age, weight). Early clinical improvement seems to be the best predictor of 2 month response to antidepressants (mianserin, SSRIs). Younger age and lower weight may predict non-response. Quantitative analysis differentiates treatments better than analysis of responder status. As obtenation of complete remission is a realistic objective with current antidepressants, studies longer than 2 months are needed to assess effectiveness of these drugs in the obtenation of complete remission.
The aim of this study was to ascertain predictors of work insufficiency in patients with panic disorder (PD) with agoraphobia (AG).
Linear regression was used to identify predictors of work insufficiency in a sample of 72 consecutive outpatients with PD with AG. Intensity of work insufficiency was ascertained from modified National Institute of Mental Health Panic Questionnaire (NIMH PQ). That represented dependent variable. Independent variables were demographic data, duration of illness, presence of comorbid current major depression episode, presence of any personality disorder and scores on the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS) subscales: panic attacks, AG (avoidance behavior), anticipatory anxiety and worries about health.
Patients reported severe work insufficiency. The best predict variable for the work insufficiency in patients with PD with AG was high score on the PAS dimension of AG.
Patients generally reported severe effects of PD with AG on work efficacy and the results suggested that the impaired work efficacy was the most associated with avoidance behavior. These results recommend that the treatment of PD with AG patients should be related to decreasing avoidance behavior in order to establish adequate work performance in patients.
In a long-term follow-up of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, somatic, psychological and social variables at clinical presentation should be investigated using a multilevel approach.
This study isolated predictors known from the literature over longer time periods and carried out a separate investigation of predictors in a sample of 81 AN patients of the Heidelberg–Mannheim study over a mean period of 12 years (range 9–19 years). Separate hierarchic regression analyses on the basis of the course of the Morgan–Russell categories were calculated for four individually recorded areas: anamnestic, psychological, somatic and social data sets.
Age at the onset of the disease, purging behavior, low serum albumin, high glutamic-oxalo acetic transaminase (GOT) psychopathology (ANSS) and social pathology had the highest predictive value qualities. In survival analysis overall assessment of all six main predictors at clinical presentation could differentiate all patients who recovered from those who remained ill (log-rank test P = 0.019).
A small number of variables were important for detecting a good or poor long-term course of AN. At onset of the disease, it seems necessary to evaluate these psychological, somatic and social predictors.