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As Medicare has focused more on hospital readmissions and care transitions over time, programs and movements aimed at providing geriatric-focused care have developed nationally. These programs aim to minimize and prevent hazards of hospitalization, decrease readmissions, provide safer transitions to the post-acute setting, and decrease length of stay while acknowledging and addressing specific care considerations of hospitalized older adults, such as dementia, sensory impairment, and mobility impairment. Inpatient geriatric assessments help providers tailor care plans to the specific needs of individual hospitalized older adults and determine their post-acute care needs, and also help with appropriate counseling of family and caregivers. Prevention measures are vital during hospitalization of older adults, who are at higher risk of delirium, pressure injury, falls, aspiration, malnutrition, sleep disturbances, and venous thromboembolism. Detailed transition plans and specialized discharge summaries are important to highlight the needs of older adults as they transition to post-acute care settings, and should allow for providers to resume the care plan seamlessly, including continuation of advanced care planning conversations.
As a frequent and serious problem in elderly people, malnutrition is a complex health issue. It requires comprehensive care through Interprofessional Collaborative Practice (IPCP) engaging five health professionals in primary care consisting of a physician, dentist, nurse, dietitian, and pharmacist. In Indonesia, the usual care involves monthly health screening in community programs named Posyandu. This study aimed to explore perceptions of elderly people with malnutrition and their families’ experiences with interprofessional teams compared with usual care in primary care. This qualitative study used the phenomenological approach based on Creswell. Interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people and their families in the intervention group and 14 elderly people with their families in the control group. Data were analyzed using the four steps of descriptive qualitative analysis described by Giorgi, including comparing the experiences of both groups. Elderly people with malnutrition in the intervention group had more valued experiences regarding two-way communication with the IPCP team and felt it involved more comprehensive care for malnutrition management. Participants in the control group experienced communication between the health care providers and elderly people; however, it was not clear enough. There were overlapping roles among health care providers in the usual care. However, both groups shared the experience that family members are partners in nutritional management. Elderly people and their families in the intervention group have more valuable experiences related to two-way communication and comprehensive care. Family as partners was experienced in both the intervention and control groups.
Nutritional assessment appears to be an essential component of the evaluation of children with CHD undergoing surgery because nutritional status may impact corrective surgery-associated morbidity.
A prospective single-centre cohort study with children between 6 and 24 months of age. Patients who had genetic syndromes or those who were premature or low birthweight at birth were excluded. Pre-operative nutritional parameters included anthropometric measurements and serum concentrations of total protein, vitamin D, iron, and ferritin. Outcome measures included ICU length of stay, mechanical ventilation, vasoactive-inotropic score, and duration of inotropes. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine whether pre-operative variables were associated with outcomes.
Analysis was performed on 120 patients (median age of 8 months), of whom 67 were male. Prior to surgery, 50.8% of patients had reduced (z ≤ −2.0) weight-for-age z score, 23.3% had reduced length-for-age z score, and 59.2% had reduced mid-upper arm circumference z score. Pre-operative serum total protein levels were 59.36 ± 9.16 g/L. Multiple regression analysis showed that low serum protein was associated with longer ICU length of stay and length of mechanical ventilation, while mid-upper arm circumference z score ≤ −2 was associated with longer ICU length of stay and mechanical ventilation and inotropes duration.
Pre-operative assessment of nutritional status by performing anthropometric and biochemical measurements including mid-upper arm circumference z score and serum protein concentrations in children undergoing CHD surgery appears to be predictors of some post-operative short-term outcomes and could be used as a guide to highlight patients needing appropriate perioperative nutritional interventions.
Childhood malnutrition is known as a public health concern globally. The present study aims to assess the anthropometry and blood biochemical status of rural primary schoolchildren in Malaysia. A total of 776 children (7–11 years old) from ten rural primary schools from five states were included in this study. Nutritional outcomes were assessed based on sex, age group and school categories among the children (median age: 9 years (P25:8, P75:10)). The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 53·4 %. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was recorded at 20·6 and 39·8 % based on retinol and retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels, respectively. Anaemia, iron deficiency (ID), iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) and elevated inflammation were found at 14·9, 17·9, 9·1 and 11·5 %, respectively. Malnutrition, VAD, anaemia, ID, IDA and elevated inflammation were more prevalent among Orang Asli (OA) schoolchildren compared with Non-Orang Asli schoolchildren. Higher occurrences of VAD and anaemia were also found among children aged <10 years. Retinol, RBP, α-carotene, ferritin and haemoglobin levels were lower among undernourished children. Besides, overweight/obese children exhibited a higher level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that OA school children (adjusted OR (AOR): 6·1; 95 % CI 4·1, 9·0) and IDA (AOR: 3·6; 95 % CI 1·9, 6·6) were associated with stunting among this population. The present study revealed that malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and anaemia are prevalent among rural primary schoolchildren in Malaysia, especially those from OA schools and younger age children (<10 years). Hence, more appropriate and targeted measures are needed to improve the nutritional status of these children.
Severe acute malnutrition may lead both concurrently and subsequently to malabsorption and impaired glucose metabolism from pancreatic dysfunction. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the associations of current and prior postnatal wasting malnutrition with pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions in humans. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and reference lists of retrieved articles, limited to articles in English published before 1 February 2022. We included sixty-eight articles, mostly cross-sectional or cohort studies from twenty-nine countries including 592 530 participants, of which 325 998 were from a single study. Many were small clinical studies from decades ago and rated poor quality. Exocrine pancreas function, indicated by duodenal fluid or serum enzymes, or faecal elastase, was generally impaired in malnutrition. Insulin production was usually low in malnourished children and adults. Glucose disappearance during oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests was variable. Upon treatment of malnutrition, most abnormalities improved but frequently not to control levels. Famine survivors studied decades later showed ongoing impaired glucose tolerance with some evidence of sex differences. The similar findings from anorexia nervosa, famine survivors and poverty- or infection-associated malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) lend credence to results being due to malnutrition itself. Research using large, well-documented cohorts and considering sexes separately, is needed to improve prevention and treatment of exocrine and endocrine pancreas abnormalities in LMIC with a high burden of malnutrition and diabetes.
Few studies have focused on nutrient-deficient diets and associated pathobiological dynamics of body composition and intestinal barrier function. This study evaluated the impact of a nutrient-deficient diet on physical development and intestinal morphofunctional barrier in mice. C57BL/6 (21 days of age) mice were fed a Northeastern Brazil regional basic diet (RBD) or a control diet for 21 days. The animals were subjected to bioimpedance analysis, lactulose test, morphometric analysis, and qRT-PCR to evaluate tight junctions and intestinal transporters. RBD feeding significantly reduced weight (p < 0.05) from day 5, weight gain from day 3, and tail length from day 14. The intake of RBD reduced total body water, extracellular fluid, fat mass, and fat-free mass from day 7 (p < 0.05). RBD induced changes in the jejunum, with an increase in the villus/crypt ratio on day 7, followed by reduction on days 14 and 21 (p < 0.05). Lactulose/mannitol ratio increased on day 14 (p < 0.05). Changes in intestinal barrier function on day 14 were associated with reductions in claudin-1 and occludin, and on day 21, there was a reduction in the levels of claudin-2 and occludin. SGLT-1 levels decreased on day 21. RBD compromises body composition and physical development with dynamic changes in intestinal barrier morphofunctional. RBD is associated with damage to intestinal permeability, reduced levels of claudin-1 and occludin transcripts, and return of bowel function in a chronic period.
Adults who had non-edematous severe acute malnutrition (SAM) during infancy (i.e., marasmus) have worse glucose tolerance and beta-cell function than survivors of edematous SAM (i.e., kwashiorkor). We hypothesized that wasting and/or stunting in SAM is associated with lower glucose disposal rate (M) and insulin clearance (MCR) in adulthood.
We recruited 40 nondiabetic adult SAM survivors (20 marasmus survivors (MS) and 20 kwashiorkor survivors (KS)) and 13 matched community controls. We performed 150-minute hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic clamps to estimate M and MCR. We also measured serum adiponectin, anthropometry, and body composition. Data on wasting (weight-for-height) and stunting (height-for-age) were abstracted from the hospital records.
Children with marasmus had lower weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) (−3.8 ± 0.9 vs. −2.2 ± 1.4; P < 0.001) and lower height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) (−4.6 ± 1.1 vs. −3.4 ± 1.5; P = 0.0092) than those with kwashiorkor. As adults, mean age (SD) of participants was 27.2 (8.1) years; BMI was 23.6 (5.0) kg/m2. SAM survivors and controls had similar body composition. MS and KS and controls had similar M (9.1 ± 3.2; 8.7 ± 4.6; 6.9 ± 2.5 mg.kg−1.min−1 respectively; P = 0.3) and MCR. WHZ and HAZ were not associated with M, MCR or adiponectin even after adjusting for body composition.
Wasting and stunting during infancy are not associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance in lean, young, adult survivors of SAM. These data are consistent with the finding that glucose intolerance in malnutrition survivors is mostly due to beta-cell dysfunction.
Identifying nutritional deficits and implementing appropriate interventions in patients requiring vascular surgery is challenging due to the paucity of appropriate screening and assessment tools in this group. This retrospective study aimed to determine the validity of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) in identifying protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) in inpatients admitted to a vascular surgery unit, using the PG-SGA as the comparator. Diagnostic accuracy and consistency were determined between the GLIM and the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) global rating. The GLIM determination was made retrospectively using the relevant parameters collected at baseline in the original study. Two hundred and twenty-four (70·1 % male) participants were included. The prevalence of PEM was 28·6 % on GLIM and 17 % via the PG-SGA. Compared with the PG-SGA, the GLIM achieved sensitivity of 73·7 % and specificity of 80·6 %; however positive predictive value was 43·7 % indicating that the GLIM over-diagnosed malnutrition compared with the PG-SGA. Kappa reached 0·427 indicating moderate diagnostic consistency. Due to the absence of an ideal instrument and the complexity of malnutrition often seen in this group which extends beyond PEM to significant micronutrient deficiencies, further work is required to determine the most appropriate instrument in this patient group, and how micronutrient status can also be included in the overall assessment given the critical role of micronutrients in this group.
In Brazil, national estimates of childhood malnutrition have not been updated since 2006. The use of health information systems is an important complementary data source for analysing time trends on health and nutrition. This study aimed to examine temporal trends and socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence of malnutrition in children attending primary health care services between 2009 and 2017.
Time trends study based on data from Brazil’s Food and Nutrition Surveillance System. Malnutrition prevalence (stunting, wasting, overweight and double burden) was annually estimated by socio-demographic variables. Prais–Winsten regression models were used to analyse time trends. Annual percent change (APC) and 95 % CI were calculated.
Primary health care services, Brazil.
Children under 5 years old.
In total, 15,239,753 children were included. An increase in the prevalence of overweight (APC = 3·4 %; P = 0·015) and a decline in the prevalence of wasting (–6·2 %; P = 0·002) were observed. The prevalence of stunting (–3·2 %, P = 0·359) and double burden (–1·4 %, P = 0·630) had discrete and non-significant reductions. Despite the significant reduction in the prevalence of undernutrition among children in the most vulnerable subgroups (black, conditional cash transfer’s recipients and residents of poorest and less developed areas), high prevalence of stunting and wasting persist alongside a disproportionate increase in the prevalence of overweight in these groups.
The observed pattern in stunting (high and persistent prevalence) and increase in overweight elucidate setbacks in advances already observed in previous periods and stresses the need for social and political strategies to address multiple forms of malnutrition.
Acute and chronic stress after severe earthquakes can contribute to cardiovascular events, including heart failure (HF). On April 14, 2016, magnitude 7 earthquakes occurred in the Aso region in the western part of Japan. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of HF in this area after these earthquakes.
We investigated the clinical characteristics and 1-y mortality rate of patients with HF. Nutritional status was evaluated with the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and the Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI).
Among a total of 58 cardiovascular events, HF was the most frequently observed (n = 28). The mean age of individuals with HF was 85.5 y. The total incidence of HF was significantly higher compared with the average of the prior 2 y. Disaster influence on mental health was suggested by patient history in 20 patients (71%). The 1-y mortality rate among patients with HF was 50%. Among those who died, 93% had malnutrition status (GNRI <92 and /or PNI ≤38).
Our results demonstrated the poor prognosis of patients with HF following the disaster. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in those patients. Careful follow-up is necessary, especially for older people with frailty.
To explore mothers’ perceptions of malnutrition and its causes in U-5’s in Mozambique, as well as their ability to recognise, prevent and act on signs of malnutrition.
A qualitative exploratory inquiry using focus group discussions and individual interviews analysed using Nutbeam’s health literacy themes.
Manhiça District Hospital in Manhiça, Mozambique.
Mothers of U-5’s (n 53) attending the in- and out-patient paediatric wards.
Different malnutrition literacy levels were identified in mothers’ responses. Mothers’ reflections on the causes of malnutrition in U-5’s were more elaborate compared to those of recognition, prevention and treatment strategies. Only severe forms of acute malnutrition were recognised by mothers, while early signs of undernutrition and stunting largely went undetected or unmentioned. Limited knowledge, time and financial resources were mentioned as contributors to suboptimal practices resulting in malnutrition. The district hospital, rather than community resources or local health posts, was indicated as the place mothers would go to seek advice and treatment for malnutrition. All mothers requested additional information on how to prevent and treat malnutrition.
The varying literacy levels among mothers, the lack of references to community health workers as a resource in identifying and managing malnutrition, and the identification of poverty and sociocultural conditions as contributors to suboptimal practices indicate the need for in-depth research focused on the social determinants of malnutrition. A more comprehensive understanding of mothers’ health literacy would contribute to the development of holistic programmes aiming to improve community management of malnutrition.
Maternal and child malnutrition and anaemia remain the leading factors for health loss in India. Low birth weight (LBW) offspring of women suffering from chronic malnutrition and anaemia often exhibit insulin resistance and infantile stunting and wasting, together with increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. The resulting self-perpetuating and highly multifactorial disease burden cannot be remedied through uniform dietary recommendations alone. To inform approaches likely to alleviate this disease burden, we implemented a systems-analytical approach that had already proven its efficacy in multiple published studies. We utilised previously published qualitative and quantitative analytical results of rural and urban field studies addressing maternal and infantile metabolic and nutritional parameters to precisely define the range of pathological phenotypes encountered and their individual biological characteristics. These characteristics were then integrated, via extensive literature searches, into metabolic and physiological mechanisms to identify the maternal and foetal metabolic dysregulations most likely to underpin the ‘thin-fat’ phenotype in LBW infants and its associated pathological consequences. Our analyses reveal hitherto poorly understood maternal nutrition-dependent mechanisms most likely to promote and sustain the self-perpetuating high disease burden, especially in the Indian population. This work suggests that it most probably is the metabolic consequence of ‘ill-nutrition’ – the recent and rapid dietary shifts to high salt, high saturated fats and high sugar but low micronutrient diets – over an adaptation to ‘thrifty metabolism’ which must be addressed in interventions aiming to significantly alleviate the leading risk factors for health deterioration in India.
About a third of under-five Filipino children are stunted, with significant socio-economic inequality. This study aims to quantify factors that explain the large gap in stunting between poor and non-poor Filipino children.
Using the 2015 Philippine National Nutrition Survey (NNS), we conducted a linear probability model to examine the determinants of child stunting then an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to explain the factors contributing to the gap in stunting between poor and non-poor children.
1, 881 children aged 6-23 months
The overall stunting prevalence was 38.5% with significant gap between poor and non-poor (45.0% vs. 32.0%). Maternal height, education, and maternal nutrition status account for 26%, 18%, and 17% of stunting inequality, respectively. These are followed by quality of prenatal care (12%), dietary diversity (12%), and iron supplementation in children (5%).
Maternal factors account for more than 50% of the gap in child stunting in the Philippines. This signifies the critical role of maternal biological and socio-economic circumstances in improving the linear growth of children.
This study aimed to determine the depression and nutritional statuses of advanced stage cancer patients and investigate the relationship between depression and malnutrition.
The descriptive, cross-sectional, and correlational study was conducted with 245 patients with advanced cancer. The data were collected by using an Information Form, the Visual Analog Scale, the NRS-2002-Nutritional Risk Score, and the Beck Depression Inventory.
The mean NRS-2002 score of the patients was 2.22, and when the cutoff value was accepted as 3, it was determined that 39.2% of the patients had malnutrition. The mean Beck Depression Inventory score of the patients was 35.06, and they were found to experience severe depression. There was a positive and significant relationship between the NRS-2002 scores and the Beck Depression Inventory scores (r = 0.409; p < 0.001).
Significance of results
These results showed that there was a strong relationship between the depression and malnutrition levels of advanced stage cancer patients. Deterioration in the nutritional status of the advanced stage cancer patients was associated with a significant worsening effect in terms of depression and pain.
Malnutrition (synonym: undernutrition) is prevalent among older adults, which may be partly related to changes in dietary intake, but evidence on the link between malnutrition and diet is scarce. The aims of this study were to estimate the association between energy/nutrients intake and malnutrition, and to characterise nutritional inadequacy in institutionalised and non-institutionalised older adults. A national survey was conducted including a Portuguese representative sample of nursing home (NH) residents (n 563) and community-dwellers (n 837) aged ≥ 65 years. Data included socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported health, loneliness feelings, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment®) and dietary intake (two non-consecutive 24-h recalls). A higher energy intake was associated with lower odds of malnutrition risk (being ‘at risk of malnutrition’ or ‘malnourished’) in both settings, but only significant among NH residents after adjusting for confounders (NH: OR = 0·66, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·86; community: OR = 0·64, 95 % CI 0·37, 1·10). The intake of carbohydrates, fat, fibre, vitamin C, Na, K and Mg was inversely associated with malnutrition risk in NH residents, and protein, fat, vitamin B6, folates, Na, K, Ca and Mg intake in community-dwellers. After additional adjustment for total energy, only Na and Mg intake of community-dwellers remained significantly associated. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake was generally higher for the malnutrition risk group, which was particularly evident among community-dwellers. The effect of dietary intake on nutritional status seems more dependent on total energy and carbohydrates intake in institutionalised elders, whereas among community-dwellers protein and some micronutrients appear to have a greater impact.
There is a duty upon every State to exercise due diligence to seek to prevent and address both extreme poverty and starvation. Intentionally inflicting starvation upon a person or group of individuals, for example by provoking a famine, will violate the right to freedom from cruel or inhuman treatment as well as the right to food; it may also violate the right to life, in particular – but not only – if a person dies as a result. 13.19 The related issues of poverty and starvation have been addressed to varying extents in the interpretation and application of regional instruments. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights have been especially prominent in this regard, with the Court’s judgments in the Yakye Axa, Sawhoyamaxa, and Xákmok Kásek indigenous communities cases being especially influential. International humanitarian law does not address poverty as such but it does prohibit deliberate starvation of civilians as a method of warfare in any armed conflict and further requires that all detainees be treated humanely, including through the provision of adequate food and water.
Iron is essential for the functioning of all cells and organs, most critically for the developing brain in the fundamental neuronal processes of myelination, energy and neurotransmitter metabolism. Iron deficiency, especially in the first 1000 days of life, can result in long-lasting, irreversible deficits in cognition, motor function and behaviour. Pregnant women, infants and young children are most vulnerable to iron deficiency, due to their high requirements to support growth and development, coupled with a frequently inadequate dietary supply. An unrecognised problem is that even if iron intake is adequate, common pregnancy-related and lifestyle factors can affect maternal–fetal iron supply in utero, resulting in an increased risk of deficiency for the mother and her fetus. Although preterm birth, gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restriction are known risk factors, more recent evidence suggests that maternal obesity and delivery by caesarean section further increase the risk of iron deficiency in the newborn infant, which can persist into early childhood. Despite the considerable threat that early-life iron deficiency poses to long-term neurological development, life chances and a country's overall social and economic progress, strategies to tackle the issue are non-existent, too limited or totally inappropriate. Prevention strategies, focused on improving the health and nutritional status of women of reproductive age are required. Delayed cord clamping should be considered a priority. Better screening strategies to enable the early detection of iron deficiency during pregnancy and early-life should be prioritised, with intervention strategies to protect maternal health and the developing brain.
Disease-related malnutrition is prevalent among older adults; therefore, identifying the modifiable risk factors in the diet is essential for the prevention and management of disease-related malnutrition. The present study examined the cross-sectional association between dietary patterns and malnutrition in Chinese community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years in Hong Kong. Dietary patterns, including Diet Quality Index International (DQI-I), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), the Mediterranean Diet Score, ‘vegetable–fruit’ pattern, ‘snack–drink–milk product’ pattern and ‘meat–fish’ pattern, were estimated and generated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Malnutrition was classified according to the modified Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria based on two phenotypic components (low body mass index and reduced muscle mass) and one aetiologic component (inflammation/disease burden). The association between the tertile or level of adherence of each dietary pattern and modified GLIM criteria was analysed using adjusted binary logistic regression models. Data of 3694 participants were available (49 % men). Malnutrition was present in 397 participants (10⋅7 %). In men, a higher DQI-I score, a higher ‘vegetable–fruit’ pattern score and a lower ‘meat–fish’ pattern score were associated with a lower risk of malnutrition. In women, higher adherence to the DASH diet was associated with a lower risk of malnutrition. After the Bonferroni correction, the association remained statistically significant only in men for the DQI-I score. To conclude, a higher DQI-I score was associated with a lower risk of malnutrition in Chinese older men. Nutritional strategies for the prevention and management of malnutrition could potentially be targeted on dietary quality.
Vitamin A (VA) deficiency, more common in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) secondary to malnutrition, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and impact of VA deficiency in high-income countries (HIC) where chronic conditions may predispose is less well understood.
Interpretation of serum retinol may be affected by inflammation, so C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were sought. Binary logistic regression and generalised estimating equations were performed to review the relationship between CRP and VA.
We examined the scale of low and deficient VA status in our tertiary University Teaching Hospital (HIC).
Patients undergoing serum retinol concentrations 2012–2016 were identified from laboratory records, and records examined.
Totally, 628 assays were requested, with eighty-two patients VA low (0·7–0·99 Umol/l) or deficient (<0·7 Umol/l). Sixteen patients were symptomatic (fifteen deficient), predominantly visual. Only one symptomatic patient’s VA deficiency was secondary to poor intake. Other symptomatic patients had chronic illnesses resulting in malabsorption. The incidence of a low VA level increases significantly with a raised CRP.
The majority of patients tested either were replete or likely to have abnormal VA levels due to concomitant inflammation. A minority of patients had signs and symptoms of VA deficiency and was a cause of significant morbidity, but aetiology differs from LMIC, overwhelmingly malabsorption, most commonly secondary to surgery or hepatobiliary disease. A correlation between inflammation and low VA levels exists, which raises the possibility that requesting a VA level in an asymptomatic patient with active inflammation may be of questionable benefit.