To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Non-communicable Diseases such as anaemia, hypertension and diabetes and their treatment may upsurge the risk of childbirth-related complications for both women and their babies. The present study is an attempt to assess the level and determinants of Anaemia, Hypertension and Diabetes among pregnant women using the fourth round of National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16) data. Bivariate and logistic regression techniques have been used for data analysis. Study findings suggest that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women was found to be 25.9%, whereas the corresponding figure for hypertension and diabetes were 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively. Further, substantial socio-economic differentials have been observed in the prevalence of Anaemia, Hypertension and Diabetes among pregnant women. Results of regression analysis suggest that anaemia and hypertension were significantly higher among women in their third trimester [(OR = 2.10; p < 0.001) and (OR = 1.63; p < 0.001)], respectively, compared to women in the first trimester. Similarly, pregnant women in the age group 35-49 were at an elevated risk of hypertension (OR = 2.78; p < 0.001)) and diabetes (OR = 2.50; p < 0.001)) compared to women aged 15-24. Further, the risk of anaemia was found to be significantly lower among pregnant women from the richest quintile (OR = 0.71; p < 0.001) and women with higher educational level (OR = 0.72; p < 0.001) when compared to women from the poorest wealth quintile and women with no formal education respectively. Similarly, pregnant women from the richest quintile (OR = 1.68; p < 0.001) and women from other religion (OR = 1.75; p < 0.001) are significantly more likely to develop diabetes compared to women from the poorest quintile and women from the Hindu religion, respectively. In conclusion, early screening for predicting the risk of gestational anaemia, gestational diabetes, and gestational hypertension is critical in minimizing maternal and reproductive outcomes. The existing guidelines for Screening and Management of Gestational Diabetes, Gestational Hypertension need to be contextualized and modified according to a local need for effective treatment.
The aim of this study is to review the literature in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries with regard to their response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Package of Essential Non-communicable (PEN) disease interventions for primary health care.
NCDs are estimated to account from 62% to 92% of total deaths in CIS countries. Current management of NCDs in CIS countries is focused on specialists and hospital care versus primary health care (PHC) as recommended by the WHO.
This paper uses a scoping review of published and grey literature focusing on diabetes and hypertension in CIS countries. These two conditions are chosen as they represent a large burden in CIS countries and are included in the responses proposed by the WHO PEN.
A total of 96 documents were identified and analysed with the results presented using the WHO Health System Building Blocks. Most of the publications identified focused on the service delivery (41) and human resources (20) components, while few addressed information and research (17), and only one publication was related to medical products. As for their disease of focus, most studies focused on hypertension (14) and much less on diabetes (3). The most studies came from Russia (18), followed by Ukraine (21) and then Kazakhstan (12). Only two countries Moldova and Kyrgyzstan have piloted the WHO PEN. Overall, the studies identified highlight the importance of the PHC system to better control and manage NCDs in CIS countries. However, these present only strategies versus concrete interventions. One of the main challenges is that NCD care at PHC in CIS countries continues to be predominantly provided by specialists in addition to focusing on treatment versus preventative services.
As we age, we have a little bit less of everything: less energy, less physical flexibility, less learning capacity. That’s why the concept of multiple reserves is so important. Aging well isn’t just about avoiding death and disease. Aging healthy also means keeping the reserve capacity of our component systems high so that, as function declines with age, performance is less severely affected, and fitness is better maintained. The body’s organ systems are all interconnected and interdependent. And the brain is dependent upon the healthy functioning of all organ systems. It needs to be a goal of our aging to enhance the possibility that negative interactions do not take place. In order to pursue this goal, we need to manage our lifestyle activities so that our fitness levels can be enhanced. By this I mean fitness in the sense of interdependence—fitness of all the body parts, not only one of them. The good news is there are lots of things everyone can do to maximize healthful interactions inside our body and between ourselves and friends, family, and community.
A critical component of the theory of the multiple reserves is that the health of the body is good for the health of the brain. The brain is dependent on all other body parts for maintenance of its functions. This dependence upon other bodily functions is especially prominent in older persons, because of their lower reserve capacities. Research has shown that intensive blood pressure control is more effective than standard blood pressure control in reducing the risk of cognitive impairment. It is certainly true that "what is good for the heart is good for the brain.” It is valuable to have the best possible heart, lung, kidney, liver, and endocrine function. Diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease as well as small and large strokes. Avoidance of obesity and physical exercise can lower the risk of diabetes. A high-fiber diet can improve insulin responsiveness and diminish the severity of diabetes. The recommendations in this book are good for the health of the heart, lungs and other organs as well as directly beneficial to the nervous system. Good systemic health means good physical reserve. Good physical reserve helps to maintain healthy brain function throughout life.
Many dietary guidelines recommend restricting the consumption of processed red meat (PRM) in favour of healthier foods such as fish, to reduce the risk of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential effect of replacing PRM for fatty fish, lean fish, red meat, eggs, pulses, or vegetables, on the risk of incident hypertension and diabetes. This was a prospective study of women in the E3N cohort study. Cases of diabetes and hypertension were based on self-report, specific questionnaires, and drug reimbursements. In the main analysis, information on regular dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and food substitutions were modelled using cox proportional hazard models 95 % confidence intervals were generated via bootstrapping. 71,081 women free of diabetes and 45,771 women free of hypertension were followed for an average of 18.7 and 18.3 years respectively. 2,681 incident cases of diabetes and 12,327 incident cases of hypertension were identified. Replacing PRM with fatty fish was associated with a 15 % lower risk of diabetes (HR = 0.85, 95 CI [0.73: 0.97]), and hypertension (HR =0 .85 [0.79: 0.91]). Between 3 – 10 % lower risk of hypertension or diabetes was also observed when replacing PRM with vegetables, unprocessed red meat, or pulses. The replacement of PRM with alternative protein sources such as fatty fish, unprocessed red meat, vegetables, or pulses was associated with a reduced risk of hypertension and diabetes.
A 17-year-old female was referred with a history of several neurological episodes with seizures, sudden vision loss and transient right- and left-sided hemiparesis over 3 years. Increased acute phase reactants have been associated with these episodes. A presumptive diagnosis of vasculitis was established after detection of fever, myalgia, abdominal pain, livedo reticularis and severe hypertension at last episode. On admission, she was febrile (38.3 °C) and her blood pressure was 170/110 mmHg. Physical examination revealed livedo reticularis on both lower and upper limbs with a normal neurologic and fundoscopic examination. Diffuse muscle tenderness and colicky abdominal pain without rebound tenderness were also observed. Cranial angiography was normal, however higher signal intensity in bilateral parietal regions accompanied by parenchymal volume loss was observed in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further investigation with conventional visceral angiography elicited multiple microaneurysms and segmental narrowings in branches of renal, hepatic and mesenteric arteries suggestive of a vasculitis affecting primarily medium-sized arteries. The patient diagnosed with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and all of the clinical manifestations including fever, myalgia, abdominal pain and hypertension have resolved by three types of antihypertensive medications and 5 days of pulse methylprednisolone (1 gr/m2/day). At discharge, oral methylprednisolone at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day and monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide infusions (1 gr/m2/month) for 6 months were planned for induction treatment. The patient no longer required antihypertensive medication by the second month of discharge and never had a recurrence of disease
Various body indicators are used to predict health risks. However, controversies still exist regarding the best indicators to predict CVD. Using a large number of measurements, our aim was to assess their associations with blood pressure (BP) and to identify the most relevant parameters to be used in health surveillance studies. The population included 589 students (67·2 % women) aged 20–25 years from Constantine (Algeria). Sixteen parameters were considered, including crude body measurements, ratios and body fat indicators based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). We used multi-adjusted linear regression models to assess the associations between body measurements and BP. According to WHO definitions, underweight, overweight-without obesity, obesity and hypertension (HT) were identified in 6·1, 18·0, 2·4 and 5·1 % of the subjects, respectively. Prevalence of HT was higher in men than in women (11·9 % v. 1·8 %; P < 0·001). In the whole sample, almost all indicators were positively associated with systolic and diastolic BP. The suprailiac skinfold had the strongest associations with systolic (β = 3·498; P < 0·001) and diastolic (β = 2·436; P < 0·001) BP, and as a whole, arm circumferences and weight were also good candidates. The currently used BMI, waist-to-hip, waist-to-height ratio and BIA indictors also predicted BP, but they did not seem to be better determinants of BP than crude anthropometric measurements. This study showed that overweight and HT were already found in the present population of young Algerian adults. Most body indicators were highly associated with BP, but simple anthropometric measurements appeared to be particularly useful to predict BP.
This study was to investigate the relationships among health behaviors and quality of life (QOL) and to test a proposed model among people with hypertension and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care. In addition, the mediation effect of modifiable risk factors between self-care health behaviors and QOL was examined.
This study was prospective, conducted in the centers of primary medical care in the period from January 2018 to January 2020. In total, 170 patients diagnosed with hypertension and CKD at least 12 months previously were included in this study. The following parameters were measured: self-efficacy, self-care health behaviors with the subscales of health responsibility, exercise, consumption of a healthy diet, stress management, and smoking cessation; modifiable risk score; and QOL (assessed using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey instrument).
Self-efficacy had a significantly positive direct effect on self-care health behaviors, with a standardized regression coefficient of 0.87 (P = 0.007), a negative indirect effect on risk factors, with a standardized regression coefficient of 0.11 (P = 0.006), and a positive indirect effect on QOL, with a standardized regression coefficient of 0.62 (P = 0.008). Self-care health behaviors had a significantly positive direct effect on QOL, with a standardized regression coefficient of 0.72 (P = 0.012); there was also an indirect effect of 0.053 (P = 0.004). The direct effect of risk factors on QOL was significant, with a standardized regression coefficient of 0.44 (P = 0.018). The direct effect of self-care health behaviors on QOL was 0.77 (P = 0.008), which has been reduced to 0.72 (P = 0.012). The reduced effect of 0.05 was significant (P = 0.004), confirming the mediating role of modified risk factors.
This study indicates health-promoting behaviors in hypertensive patients with CKD have a potential impact on their QOL in primary care. Primary care physicians should focus on motivation strategies to encourage individuals to perform self-care health-promoting behaviors associated with the improved QOL, in order to achieve better outcomes in risk factor management.
Avocado is a fruit rich in dietary fibre, potassium, Mg, mono and PUFA and bioactive phytochemicals, which are nutritional components that have been associated with cardiovascular health. Yet, despite the boom in avocado consumption, we lack evidence on its association with CVD risk in the general population. To estimate the prospective association between avocado consumption and incident hypertension in Mexican women, we estimated the association in participants from the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort who were ≥ 25 years, free of hypertension, CVD and cancer at baseline (n 67 383). We assessed baseline avocado consumption with a semi-quantitative FFQ (never to six or more times per week). Incident hypertension cases were identified if participants self-reported a diagnosis and receiving treatment. To assess the relation between categories of avocado consumption (lowest as reference) and incident hypertension, we estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95 % CI using Poisson regression models and adjusting for confounding. We identified 4002 incident cases of hypertension during a total of 158 706 person-years for a median follow-up of 2·2 years. The incidence rate of hypertension was 25·1 cases per 1000 person-years. Median avocado consumption was 1·0 (interquartile range: 0·23, 1·0) serving per week (half an avocado). After adjustment for confounding, consuming 5 + servings per week of avocado was associated with a 17 % decrease in the rate of hypertension, compared with non- or low consumers (IRR = 0·83; 95 % CI: 0·70, 0·99; Ptrend = 0·01). Frequent consumption of avocado was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension.
Hypertension is a major public health concern whose prevalence increases with age and is a major risk factor for disability, cognitive decline, cardiovascular events, and death; yet hypertension is frequently undertreated, and sometimes overtreated, in older adults. Evidence from recent clinical trials indicate treating hypertension to targeted blood pressures of < 130/80 is safe and beneficial in ambulatory older adults free of cognitive impairment. However, because clinical trials have tended to exclude persons with cognitive impairment or poor functional status and nursing home residents, management of hypertension in these groups of older adults remains uncertain and the current guidelines recommend using an individualized approach incorporating clinical judgment and patient values. As with management of other chronic conditions, age alone should not be the only consideration to hypertension treatment goals in this heterogeneous population.
Beetroot juice (BRJ) has been demonstrated to decrease blood pressure (BP) due to the high inorganic nitrate content. This pilot randomized crossover trial aimed to investigate the effect of two different high nitrate vegetable juices on plasma nitrate concentrations and BP in healthy adults. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive 115 ml of BRJ or 250 ml of green leafy vegetable juice for 7 d which contained similar amounts of nitrate (340 mg) daily. Blood samples were collected, and clinic BP measured at baseline and at the end of each juice consumption. Daily home BP assessment was conducted 2 h after juice consumption. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were analysed using a commercially available kit on a Triturus automated ELISA analyser. Hills and Armitage analysis was used for the two-period crossover design and paired sample t-tests were performed to compare within-group changes. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations significantly increased and there was a significant reduction in clinic and home systolic blood pressure (SBP) mean during the BRJ period (P-values 0⋅004 and 0⋅002, respectively). Home diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reduced significantly during green leafy vegetable juice consumption week (P-value 0⋅03). The difference between groups did not reach statistical significance during the formal crossover analysis adjusted for period effects. BRJ and green leafy vegetable juice may reduce SBP or DBP, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two juices, although this was only a pilot study.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It has been known for some time as a both a reproductive and a metabolic disorder but more recently, mainly as a result of large longitudinal population-based studies, is becoming recognized as a complex multisystem disorder with comorbidities and long-term health implications. PCOS is associated not only with reproductive and metabolic features but also with cardiovascular abnormalities, psychological illness and endometrial cancer. Data are also emerging about possible long-term health consequences for the offspring of women with PCOS. Their children are more likely to be obese with metabolic disorders and are more likely to develop neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, the long-term health consequences of PCOS for women and their offspring are described, together with a discussion on how they should best be managed.
Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet reduces blood pressure (BP) as effectively as one antihypertensive drug, yet its mechanism of action was never fully characterized.
We designed a translational inpatient trial to elucidate the biological pathway leading from nutritional change, through hormonal response, reversal of urine electrolytes ratio, to BP reduction.
A single-center open-label interventional trial. Volunteers were admitted for 14 days, transitioning from an American-style diet to DASH diet. Vital signs, blood, and urine samples were collected daily. Participants completed two 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM) and two 24-hour urine collections on days 1 and 10. Nine volunteers completed the protocol. During inpatient stay, serum aldosterone increased from day 0 (mean 8.3 ± 5.0) to day 5 (mean 17.8 ± 5.8) after intervention and decreased on day 11 (mean 11.5 ± 4.7) despite continuous exposure to the same diet (p-value = 0.002). Urine electrolyte ratio ([Na]/[K]) decreased significantly from a mean of 3.5 to 1.16 on day 4 (p < 0.001). BP by 24-hour ABPM decreased by a mean of 3.7 mmHg systolic BP and 2.3 mmHg diastolic BP from day 1 to 10.
Shifting from a high-sodium/low-potassium diet to the opposite composition leads to aldosterone increase and paradoxical BP reduction. Urine electrolyte ratio reflects nutritional changes and should guide clinicians in assessing adherence to lifestyle modification.
Oxidative stress along the gut-kidney axis is a risk factor for developing arterial hypertension in offspring from dams fed a high-fat diet. Considering the antioxidant capacity of probiotic strains, this study evaluated the effects of a daily multistrain formulation with Limosilactobacillus fermentum 139, 263, and 296 on blood pressure (BP), renal function, and oxidative stress and along the gut-kidney axis in male offspring from dams fed a high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet during pregnancy and lactation. Dams were fed a diet control or HFHC diet during pregnancy and lactation. At 100 days of age, part of the male offspring from dams fed a HFHC diet received Limosilactobacillus fermentum formulation for 4 weeks (HFHC + Lf) daily. After the 4-week intervention, BP (tail-cuff plethysmography) and urinary and biochemical variables were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde levels, enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense (thiols content) were measured in the colon and renal cortex. Male offspring from dams fed a HFHC had increased blood pressure, impaired renal function, and oxidative stress along the gut-kidney axis. Administration of Limosilactobacillus fermentum reduced systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure levels and alleviated renal function impairment and oxidative stress along the gut-kidney axis in male offspring from dams fed a HFHC diet. Administration of Limosilactobacillus fermentum formulation attenuated programmed hypertension in the HFHC group through oxidative stress modulation along the gut-kidney axis.
In the field of nutritional epidemiology, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used extensively in identifying dietary patterns. Recently, compositional data analysis (CoDA) has emerged as an alternative approach for obtaining dietary patterns. We aimed to directly compare and evaluate the ability of PCA and principal balances analysis (PBA), a data-driven method in CoDA, in identifying dietary patterns and their associations with the risk of hypertension.
Cohort study. A 24-h dietary recall questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and hypertension.
2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey.
A total of 3892 study participants aged 18–60 years were included as the subjects.
PCA and PBA identified five patterns each. PCA patterns comprised a linear combination of all food groups, whereas PBA patterns included several food groups with zero loadings. The coarse cereals pattern identified by PBA was inversely associated with hypertension risk (highest quintile: OR = 0·74 (95 % CI 0·57, 0·95); Pfor trend = 0·037). None of the five PCA patterns was associated with hypertension. Compared with the PCA patterns, the PBA patterns were clearly interpretable and accounted for a higher percentage of variance in food intake.
Findings showed that PBA might be an appropriate and promising approach in dietary pattern analysis. Higher adherence to the coarse cereals dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of hypertension. Nevertheless, the advantages of PBA over PCA should be confirmed in future studies.
Hypertension is considered one of the most persistent public health issues and the single largest contributor to avoidable morbidity and mortality in India. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in youths (15-29 years) by gender and rural-urban place of residence. Data from the fourth round of the National Family and Health Survey – 2015-16 (n = 395,207) was utilised for the study. After estimation of the stratified prevalence of hypertension by various characteristics, multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the correlates of hypertension. The results revealed that the prevalence of hypertension in youths at the national level varied from 9.16% (Meghalaya) to 3.34% (Delhi). The stratified analysis suggests pronounced gender differences in the prevalence of hypertension among youth with insignificant rural-urban differences, although the prevalence was higher in urban areas. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension was found higher for male youths living in urban areas (7.82%) and females in rural areas (5.08%). Concurrently, results from regression analysis also suggest higher odds of hypertension for males residing in urban areas for a variety of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-risk factors. Advancing age, having no education, living in the northeast region, being overweight/obese and high blood glucose level was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of hypertension for both the gender and place of residence. Public health awareness regarding blood pressure needs to be tailored differently for both males and females considering the place of residence. The study suggests that more research should focus on blood pressure/hypertension among children, adolescents and youth since they point towards adult blood pressure patterns.
The most important risk factor of cardiovascular disease is hypertension and high salt intake contributes to high blood pressure. However, to prevent iodine deficiency disorders, the iodisation of salt is a proven strategy. So, on one hand, we suggest people reduced salt consumption but on the other hand, we also fear an increase in the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of salt intake at WHO recommended levels resulting in higher or lower iodine status in India by assessing the urinary iodine status and its relation with blood pressure.
It was a cross-sectional study.
It was a community-based study.
We collected 24-hour urine samples for estimation of iodine concentrations in urine from 411 adult hypertensives in the Mandla district of central India. Urinary iodine was estimated using Thermo ORION make ion-selective electrodes.
The median urinary iodine excretion was 162·6 mcg/l. Interestingly 371 (90·26 %) subjects were observed with > 200 mcg/l urinary iodine concentration level indicating iodine sufficiency. Individuals with high urine Na significantly had high blood pressure as compared with individuals with low urinary Na excretion (P < 0·01). There is a higher probability of high urine iodine levels among individuals with higher urine Na levels.
The study revealed that 90 % of the population were excreting excessive iodine in urine, which is more than adequate iodine uptake. This excess uptake enables a scope for reduction in salt intake to control hypertension.
We aimed to investigate the associations of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet and Mediterranean-style diet with blood pressure (BP) in less-developed ethnic minority regions (LEMR).
Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ. Dietary quality was assessed by the DASH-style diet score and the alternative Mediterranean-style diet (aMED) score. The association between dietary quality and BP was evaluated using multivariate linear regression model. We further examined those associations in subgroups of BP level.
A total of 81 433 adults from the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) study were included in this study.
In the overall population, compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH-style diet score was negatively associated with systolic BP (SBP) (coefficient –2·78, 95 % CI –3·15, –2·41; Pfor trend < 0·001), while the highest quintile of aMED score had a weaker negative association with SBP (coefficient –1·43, 95 % CI –1·81, –1·05; Pfor trend < 0·001). Both dietary indices also showed a weaker effect on diastolic BP (coefficient for DASH-style diet –1·06, 95 % CI –1·30, –0·82; coefficient for aMED –0·43, 95 % CI –0·68, –0·19). In the subgroup analysis, both dietary indices showed a stronger beneficial effect on SBP in the hypertension group than in either of the other subgroups.
Our results indicated that the healthy diet originating from Western developed countries can also have beneficial effects on BP in LEMR. DASH-style diet may be a more appropriate recommendation than aMED as part of a dietary strategy to control BP, especially in hypertensive patients.
To evaluate the association of systolic blood pressure percentile, race, and body mass index with left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram and echocardiogram to define populations at risk.
This is a retrospective cross-sectional study design utilising a data analytics tool (Tableau) combining electrocardiogram and echocardiogram databases from 2003 to 2020. Customized queries identified patients aged 2–18 years who had an outpatient electrocardiogram and echocardiogram on the same date with available systolic blood pressure and body measurements. Cases with CHD, cardiomyopathy, or arrhythmia diagnoses were excluded. Echocardiograms with left ventricle mass (indexed to height2.7) were included. The main outcome was left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram defined as Left ventricle mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age.
In a cohort of 13,539 patients, 6.7% of studies had left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram. Systolic blood pressure percentile >90% has a sensitivity of 35% and specificity of 82% for left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram. Left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram was a poor predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram (9% sensitivity and 92% specificity). African American race (OR 1.31, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.56, p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure percentile >95% (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.93, p < 0.001), and higher body mass index (OR = 7.22, 95% CI = 6.23, 8.36, p < 0.001) were independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram.
African American race, obesity, and hypertension on outpatient blood pressure measurements are independent risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy in children. Electrocardiogram has little utility in the screening for left ventricular hypertrophy.