To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Most of us don’t build muscle mass after young adulthood. After we turn 50 our muscle mass decreases 1-2% per year. From our 20s until the age of 80, our muscle mass decreases by 30 – 50%! This becomes increasingly noticeable after age 70.Our strength declines by 10%-15% per decade until age 70, when this loss accelerates to 25% to 40% per decade. Sarcopenia, or muscle loss, often serves as a harbinger of frailty. But frailty is not normal with aging. The five factors of frailty (three must be met to be considered frail): Unintentional weight loss; exhaustion; muscle weakness; slowness in walking; low levels of activity. Multiple studies show that a good exercise program, including aerobic, strength, and balance regimens, preserves muscle mass in older generations. Chapter explains how frailty is a group of symptoms that can be effectively avoided or treated.
We aimed to investigate the association of main meals’ specific protein intake with cardiometabolic risk factors, including general and abdominal obesity, serum lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP). This cross-sectional study was conducted on 850 subjects aged 20–59 years. Dietary intakes were assessed by completing three 24-h recalls, and the protein intake of each meal was extracted. Anthropometric measures, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and BP were measured. Multivariate logistic regression controlling for age, physical activity, sex, marital status, smoking status, BMI and energy intake was applied to obtain OR and CI. The mean age was 42 years, and the mean BMI of the participants was 27·2. The mean protein intake for breakfast, lunch and dinner was 12·5, 22·2 and 18·7 g/d, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, higher protein intake was not associated with any of the cardiometabolic risk factors, including LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), TAG, body weight, BP and fasting plasma glucose, in any of the three main meals consumed within a day. Adherence to a higher protein intake at each meal was not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian adults. Further prospective studies are needed to justify our findings.
Timely estimation of silage maize protein provides an effective decision to adapt optimized strategies for nitrogen fertilizer management and also harvesting time for farmers. So, this research aimed to investigate whether using vegetative indices (VIs) derived from UAV remotely sensed multispectral (with 520–900 nm wavelengths) imagery and also Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) greenness index can be used to detect the leaf protein concentration (LPC) of silage maize, as a function of various nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100, and 150% of recommended dosage). Results of principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that LPC was highly correlated with leaf greenness index in all developmental stages. In addition, LPC was highly correlated with most of the VIs investigated. A PCA clustering showed the meaningful pattern of N rates. Higher LPC values, VIs, and greenness index were more concentrated in the higher nitrogen (N100% and N150%) sectors. Nitrogen Reflectance Index (NRI) was identified as the most important VIs to monitor and predict LPC in the silage maize field, showing a strong polynomial relationship with LPC in both eight-leaf collar (V8) (R2 = 0.81, p ≤ 0.01) and tasseling (VT) (R2 = 0.98, p ≤ 0.001) stages. In addition, among VIs, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) demonstrated a significant linear regression relationship with LPC (R2 = 0.80, p ≤ 0.01) in the VT. Findings suggested the high potential of VIs extracted by UAV-taken multispectral imagery and also SPAD proximal sensing to help farmers rapidly diagnose LPC in silage maize, in line with the objectives of precision farming.
In the United States, over 70% of milk production is priced under Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMOs). A primary purpose of FMMOs is to facilitate orderly allocation of milk as a limited, perishable resource among alternative uses. Fundamental to FMMOs are the regulatory prices applicable to milk used in cheese and whey (Class III), and nonfat dry milk and butter (Class IV). This work examines a novel milk pricing method based on the concept of opportunity cost for milk used in cheese and whey. This novel method may improve the functioning of FMMOs and the U.S. dairy industry.
Higher dietary protein, alone or in combination with physical activity (PA), may slow the loss of age-related muscle strength in older adults. We investigated the longitudinal relationship between protein intake and grip strength, and the interaction between protein intake and PA, using four longitudinal ageing cohorts. Individual participant data from 5584 older adults (52 % women; median: 75 years, IQR: 71·6, 79·0) followed for up to 8·5 years (mean: 4·9 years, SD: 2·3) from the Health ABC, NuAge, LASA and Newcastle 85+ cohorts were pooled. Baseline protein intake was assessed with food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls and categorized into < 0·8, 0·8–<1·0, 1·0–<1·2 and ≥ 1·2 g/kg adjusted body weight (aBW)/d. The prospective association between protein intake, its interaction with PA, and grip strength (sex- and cohort-specific) was determined using joint models (hierarchical linear mixed effects and a link function for Cox proportional hazards models). Grip strength declined on average by 0·018 SD (95 % CI: –0·026, –0·006) every year. No associations were found between protein intake, measured at baseline, and grip strength, measured prospectively, or rate of decline of grip strength in models adjusted for sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health variables (e.g., protein intake ≥ 1·2 v· < 0·8 g/kg aBW/d: β = –0·003, 95 % CI: –0·014, 0·005 SD per year). There also was no evidence of an interaction between protein intake and PA. We failed to find evidence in this study to support the hypothesis that higher protein intake, alone or in combination with higher PA, slowed the rate of grip strength decline in older adults.
Recommendations for protein intake are based on total body weight; however, these recommendations do not consider lean body mass (LBM). The purpose of the present study was to identify the average protein intake in g/kg LBM in a group of healthy Masters Athletes (≥26 years of age, exercising ≥2 d/week). Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study. Body weight (kg), height (cm) and LBM via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Dietary intake was measured using a 2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. The average energy intake, the percent energy from protein and the average protein intake in g/kg LBM were calculated. Differences between protein intake and the US Recommended Dietary Allowance (US RDA) (0⋅8 g/kg body weight) were determined. Alpha levels were set a priori to P < 0⋅05. A total of 176 participants (94 women, 82 men; 39 ± 11 years of age; body mass index: 24⋅6 ± 3⋅4 kg/m2) were analysed. The average energy intake, the percent protein energy and the average protein intake were 7996⋅9 ± 110⋅9 kilojoules (kJ)/d (1,910⋅4 ± 26⋅5 kcal), 15⋅5 ± 2⋅6 % and 1⋅43 ± 0⋅53 g/kg LBM, respectively. No differences existed between women and men for protein intake/kg LBM. Both sexes had significantly higher protein intakes than the US RDA (P < 0⋅001). We identified the average protein intake (g/kg LBM) in healthy Masters Athletes that may contribute to evolving perspectives on the determination of protein needs. The present study helps establish the relationship between protein intake and LBM so that we may further increase our accuracy when developing future protein recommendations.
Given the destruction that humans are bringing to the natural habitat of colobine monkeys, it is important to understand the factors affecting colobine population dynamics so that effective conservation programs can be planned and put into action. Here we consider the effects of food quality and availability, competition, predation, and disease in determining colobus abundance. We find there is little evidence that natural disasters, predation, or disease play a strong role in regulating colobine numbers, but they can cause dramatic declines in populations at specific points in time and space. Given the difficulty of determining niche overlap and competition, no conclusion can be made regarding the role of interspecific competition in limiting colobine abundance. It seems most likely that colobines are limited by the availability of quality food, but the exact nature of that limitation remains unclear.
To compare the nutritional composition of bovine milk and several plant-based drinks with a focus on protein and essential amino acid content and to determine the ratio of essential amino acids to greenhouse gas emission.
Nutritional information on the label was extracted for semi-skimmed milk, soy, oat, almond, coconut and rice drink from the Innova database between January 2017 and March 2020 for the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Italy and Sweden. Protein and amino acids were measured and carbon footprint was calculated for a selection of Dutch products. Protein quality was determined by calculating the contribution to the WHO essential amino acids requirements.
The bovine milk and plant-based drinks market in Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Italy and Sweden.
Semi-skimmed bovine milk and soy, oat, almond, coconut and rice drink.
Nutritional label information was collected for 399 products. Milk naturally contains many micronutrients, e.g. vitamin B2, B12 and Ca. Approximately 50 % of the regular plant-based drinks was fortified with Ca, whereas the organic plant-based drinks were mostly unfortified. Protein quantity and quality were highest in milk. Soy drink had the best protein quality to carbon footprint ratio and milk came second.
The nutrition – climate change balance presented in this study, is in line with previous literature, which shows that semi-skimmed bovine milk and fortified soy drink deserve a place in a sustainable diet.
Meeting the recommended daily protein intake can be a challenge for community-dwelling older adults (CDOA). In order to understand why, we studied attitudes towards protein-rich products and healthy eating in general; identified needs and preferences, barriers and promotors and knowledge regarding dietary behaviour and implementation of high protein products. Attitudes towards protein-rich products and healthy eating were evaluated in focus groups (study 1, n 17). To gain insights in the needs and preferences of older adults with regard to meals and meal products (study 2, n 30), visual information on eating behaviour was assessed using photovoicing and verified in post-photovoice interviews. In studies 3 and 4, semi-structured interviews were conducted to identify protein consumption-related barriers, opportunities (n 20) and knowledge and communication channels (n 40), respectively. Risk of low protein intake was assessed using ProteinScreener55+ (Pro55+) in studies 2–4 (n 90). Focus groups showed that participants were unaware of potential inadequate dietary protein. Photovoicing showed that sixteen of thirty participants mainly consumed traditional Dutch products. In post-photovoice interviews, participants indicated that they were satisfied with their current eating behaviour. Barriers for adequate use of protein-rich products were ‘lack of knowledge’, ‘resistance to change habits’ and ‘no urge to receive dietary advice’. Promotors were ‘trust in professionals’ and ‘product offers’. Sixty-two percent had a low risk of low protein intake. CDOA feel low urgency to increase protein intake, possibly linked to low knowledge levels. A challenge for professionals would be to motivate older adults to change their eating pattern, to optimise protein intake.
Archaeologists have used isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N) of the collagen of human bones, as well as knowledge of available nutrients, to infer that the diet of the ancient Maya was drawn from the resources of the Maya forest landscape. The interpretations have focused on plant carbohydrates from maize and protein dominated by white-tail deer. The δ15N values of bone collagen suggest that most of the protein requirements of the Maya could have been satisfied with a mixture of wild animal flesh and wild and cultivated plants including beans. Chaya, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, domesticated before the Spanish conquest, has a high-protein content and the potential to have been a significant contributor to the ancient Maya diet. Chaya is easily propagated, is grown in home gardens by the Maya today, and is a significant part of the local traditional diet. Chaya's stable isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) resembles that of other terrestrial plants, but its values for nitrogen (δ15N) are significantly higher. Consumption of chaya would result in slightly higher δ15N values in humans than expected from the consumption of terrestrial animals. Thus, chaya is situated well as a component of the complex, diverse, and varied diets of ancient Mesoamericans.
Many persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have one or more preventable chronic diseases related to excessive energetic intake and poor eating patterns. Appropriate nutrient consumption relative to need becomes a concern despite authoritative dietary recommendations from around the world. These recommendations were developed for the non-disabled population and do not account for the injury-induced changes in body composition, hypometabolic rate, hormonal dysregulation and nutrition status after SCI. Because evidence-based dietary reference intake values for SCI do not exist, ensuring appropriate consumption of macronutrient and micronutrients for their energy requirements becomes a challenge. In this compressive review, we briefly evaluate aspects of energy balance and appetite control relative to SCI. We report on the evidence regarding energy expenditure, nutrient intake and their relationship after SCI. We compare these data with several established nutritional guidelines from American Heart Association, Australian Dietary Guidelines, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake, Public Health England Government Dietary Recommendations, WHO Healthy Diet and the Paralyzed Veterans of America (PVA) Clinical Practice Guidelines. We also provide practical assessment and nutritional recommendations to facilitate a healthy dietary pattern after SCI. Because of a lack of strong SCI research, there are currently limited dietary recommendations outside of the PVA guidelines that capture the unique nutrient needs after SCI. Future multicentre clinical trials are needed to develop comprehensive, evidence-based dietary reference values specific for persons with SCI across the care continuum that rely on accurate, individual assessment of energy need.
Understanding the effects of acute feeding on body composition and metabolic measures is essential to the translational component and practical application of measurement and clinical use. To investigate the influence of acute feeding on the validity of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a four-compartment model (4C) and indirect calorimetry metabolic outcomes, thirty-nine healthy young adults (n 19 females; age: 21·8 (sd 3·1) years, weight; 71·5 (sd 10·0) kg) participated in a randomised cross-over study. Subjects were provided one of four randomised meals on separate occasions (high carbohydrate, high protein, ad libitum or fasted baseline) prior to body composition and metabolic assessments. Regardless of macronutrient content, acute feeding increased DXA percent body fat (%fat) for the total sample and females (average constant error (CE):–0·30 %; total error (TE): 2·34 %), although not significant (P = 0·062); the error in males was minimal (CE: 0·11 %; TE: 0·86 %). DXA fat mass (CE: 0·26 kg; TE: 0·75 kg) and lean mass (LM) (CE: 0·83 kg; TE: 1·23 kg) were not altered beyond measurement error for the total sample. 4C %fat was significantly impacted from all acute feedings (avg CE: 0·46 %; TE: 3·7 %). 4C fat mass (CE: 0·71 kg; TE: 3·38 kg) and fat-free mass (CE: 0·55 kg; TE: 3·05 kg) exceeded measurement error for the total sample. RMR was increased for each feeding condition (TE: 1666·9 kJ/d; 398 kcal/d). Standard pre-testing fasting guidelines may be important when evaluating DXA and 4C %fat, whereas additional DXA variables (fat mass and LM) may not be significantly impacted by an acute meal. Measuring body composition via DXA under less stringent pre-testing guidelines may be valid and increase feasibility of testing in clinical settings.
This chapter will help the reader assess the adequacy of his of her current diet and determine which module(s) (described in chapters 6, 7, and 8) is/are most appropriate to complete as next steps. Key components of this chapter will include:
Information about common nutrition deficiencies observed in ARFID
The five basic food groups (from US MyPlate schematic) and the importance of eating a varied diet
Strategically selecting fruits, vegetables, proteins, dairy, and grains to learn about that will support resolution of nutrition deficiencies, encourage further weight gain (if needed), and/or reduce psychosocial impairment
Selecting whether to tackle sensory sensitivity, fear of aversive consequences, and/or lack of interest in eating or food, and in what order
A high dose of whey protein hydrolysate fed with milk minerals rich in calcium (Capolac®) results in enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations in lean individuals; however, the effect of different calcium doses ingested alongside protein is unknown. The present study assessed the dose response of calcium fed alongside 25 g whey protein hydrolysate on GLP-1 concentrations in individuals with overweight/obesity. Eighteen adults (mean ± sd: 8M/10F, 34 ± 18 years, 28·2 ± 2·9 kgm−2) completed four trials in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design. Participants consumed test solutions consisting of 25 g whey protein hydrolysate (CON), supplemented with 3179 mg (LOW), 6363 mg (MED) or 9547 mg (HIGH) Capolac® on different occasions, separated by at least 48 h. The calcium content of test solutions equated to 65, 892, 1719 and 2547 mg, respectively. Arterialised-venous blood was sampled over 180 min to determine plasma concentrations of GLP-1TOTAL, GLP-17–36amide, insulin, glucose, NEFA, and serum concentrations of calcium and albumin. Ad libitum energy intake was measured at 180 min. Time–averaged incremental AUC (iAUC) for GLP-1TOTAL (pmol·l−1·min−1) did not differ between CON (23 ± 4), LOW (25 ± 6), MED (24 ± 5) and HIGH (24 ± 6). Energy intake (kcal) did not differ between CON (940 ± 387), LOW (884 ± 345), MED (920 ± 334) and HIGH (973 ± 390). Co-ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate with Capolac® does not potentiate GLP-1 release in comparison with whey protein hydrolysate alone. The study was registered at clinical trials (NCT03819972).
To compare temporal trends, over a 20-year period, in dietary habits between a county (Västerbotten) with a CVD prevention programme and a county (Norrbotten) without such a programme.
Cross-sectional data from the Northern Sweden MONICA study (survey period 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014). Dietary habits were assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ.
Counties of Norrbotten and Västerbotten, Northern Sweden.
Five thousand four hundred Swedish adults (mean age 56·9 years; 51·2 % women) from Västerbotten (47 %) and Norrbotten (53 %).
No differences in temporal trend for estimated percentage of energy intake from total carbohydrates, total fat, total protein and alcohol were observed between the counties (Pfor interaction ≥ 0·33). There were no between-county difference in temporal trends for overall diet quality (assessed by the Healthy Diet Score; Pfor interaction = 0·36). Nor were there any between-county differences for the intake of whole grain products, fruits, vegetables, fish, sweetened beverages or fried potatoes (Pfor interaction ≥ 0·09). Consumption of meat (Pfor interaction = 0·05) increased to a greater extent in Norrbotten from 2009 and onwards, mainly in men (sex-specific analyses, Pfor interaction = 0·04). Men in Västerbotten decreased their intake of sweets to a greater extent than men in Norrbotten (Pfor interaction < 0·01).
Over a 20-year period in northern Sweden, only small differences in dietary habits were observed in favour of a county with a CVD prevention programme compared with a county without such a programme.
Due to the important roles of resistance training and protein consumption in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, we assessed the efficacy of post-exercise Icelandic yogurt consumption on lean mass, strength and skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males. Thirty healthy untrained older males (age = 68 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to Icelandic yogurt (IR; n 15, 18 g of protein) or an iso-energetic placebo (PR; n 15, 0 g protein) immediately following resistance training (3×/week) for 8 weeks. Before and after training, lean mass, strength and skeletal muscle regulatory factors (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), Activin A, myostatin (MST) and follistatin (FST)) were assessed. There were group × time interactions (P < 0·05) for body mass (IR: Δ 1, PR: Δ 0·7 kg), BMI (IR: Δ 0·3, PR: Δ 0·2 kg/m2), lean mass (IR: Δ 1·3, PR: Δ 0·6 kg), bench press (IR: Δ 4, PR: 2·3 kg), leg press (IR: Δ 4·2, PR: Δ 2·5 kg), IGF-1 (IR: Δ 0·5, Δ PR: 0·1 ng/ml), TGF-β (IR: Δ − 0·2, PR: Δ − 0·1 ng/ml), GDF15 (IR: Δ − 10·3, PR: Δ − 4·8 pg/ml), Activin A (IR: Δ − 9·8, PR: Δ − 2·9 pg/ml), MST (IR: Δ − 0·1, PR: Δ − 0·04 ng/ml) and FST (IR: Δ 0·09, PR: Δ 0·03 ng/ml), with Icelandic yogurt consumption resulting in greater changes compared with placebo. The addition of Icelandic yogurt consumption to a resistance training programme improved lean mass, strength and altered skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males compared with placebo. Therefore, Icelandic yogurt as a nutrient-dense source and cost-effective supplement enhances muscular gains mediated by resistance training and consequently may be used as a strategy for the prevention of sarcopenia.
Menopausal women are susceptible to osteoarthritis(OA) and memory impairment. We hypothesised that Alzheimer’s-like disease(AD) exacerbates OA and that intermittent fasting(IMF) with a high-protein(H-P) diet would enhance memory function and relieve OA symptoms in oestrogen-deficient animals induced AD and OA. The action mechanism was also explored. Ovariectomised Sprague–Dawley rats were fed high-fat(H-F) or H-P diets for 2 weeks, and then they had a hippocampal infusion of β-amyloid(25–35) for 4 weeks to induce AD and an injection of monoidoacetate(MIA) into the articular cartilage to induce OA. Non-AD groups had non-AD symptoms by hippocampal amyloid-β(35–25) infusion. IMF suppressed memory impairment in AD rats, especially those fed H-P diets. Compared with non-AD, AD exacerbated OA symptoms, including swelling, limping, slowed treadmill running speed, and uneven weight distribution in the left leg. The exacerbations were linked to increased inflammation and pain, but IMF and H-P lessened the exacerbation. Lean body mass(LBM) decreased with AD, but H-P protected against LBM loss. Histological examination of the knee joint revealed the degree of the cellular invasion into the middle zone, and the changes in the tidemark plateau were greatest in the AD-AL with H-F, while non-AD-IMF improved the cellular invasion to as much as non-AD-AL. H-P reduced the infiltration into the middle zone of the knee and promoted collagen production. In conclusion, AD exacerbated the articular cartilage deterioration and memory impairment, and IMF with H-P alleviated the memory impairment and osteoarthritic symptoms by decreasing hippocampal amyloid-β deposition and proinflammatory cytokine expressions and by increasing LBM.
This study investigated whether the interaction of protein level and grain type can affect milk production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation in primiparous Holstein cows. Four dietary treatments were used: high-protein with barley as the only grain source, HP-B; (2) high-protein with an equal mix of barley and maize, HP-BM; (3) low-protein with barley as the only grain source, LP-B and (4) low-protein with equal proportions of barley and maize, LP-BM. High-protein diets showed no improvement in milk or protein yield compared with low-protein, but barley and maize mix diets increased energy-corrected milk yield and fat yield compared with barley-only diets. The highest total apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre was observed for LP-BM whereas HP-BM showed the greatest crude protein digestibility. Treatment had no effect on total volatile fatty acid concentrations, molar proportion of acetate and propionate and acetate to propionate ratio. The lowest ruminal pH was observed for LP-B. High-protein diets resulted in greater concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (N), urinary N, blood and milk urea nitrogen compared with low-protein diets, whereas low-protein diets showed better nitrogen utilization efficiency. This study showed that primiparous lactating cows do not benefit from high-protein diets with different fermentation rates of grain sources, but barley and maize diets may improve milk production performance, ruminal fermentation and pH under the present dietary conditions. The current results on milk production performance should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of cows used (eight in each treatment).
We aimed to examine the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) scores during the first trimester and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in a Chinese population. A total of 1455 women were included in 2017. Dietary information during the first trimester was collected by 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d. The overall, animal and plant LCD scores, which indicated adherence to different low-carbohydrate dietary patterns, were calculated. GDM was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. Log-binomial models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. The results showed that the multivariable-adjusted RR of GDM from the lowest to the highest quartiles of the overall LCD score were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·42), 1·30 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·60) and 1·24 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·52) (P = 0·026 for trend). Multivariable-adjusted RR (95 % CI) of GDM from the lowest to the highest quartiles of the animal LCD score were 1·00 (reference), 1·20 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·50), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·14, 1·73) and 1·29 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·59) (P = 0·002 for trend). After additional adjustment for gestational weight gain before GDM diagnosis, the association of the overall LCD score with GDM risk was non-significant, while the association of animal LCD score with GDM risk remained significant. In conclusion, a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern characterised by high animal fat and protein during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of GDM in Chinese women.
Global population growth, increased life expectancy and climate change are all impacting world's food systems. In industrialised countries, many individuals are consuming significantly more protein than needed to maintain health, with the majority being obtained from animal products, including meat, dairy, fish and other aquatic animals. Current animal production systems are responsible for a large proportion of land and fresh-water use, and directly contributing to climate change through the production of greenhouse gases. Overall, approximately 60% of the global protein produced is used for animal and fish feed. Concerns about their impact on both human, and planetary health, have led to calls to dramatically curb our consumption of animal products. Underutilised plants, insects and single-cell organisms are all actively being considered as alternative protein sources. Each present challenges that need to be met before they can become economically viable and safe alternatives for food or feed. Many plant species contain anti-nutritional factors that impair the digestion and absorption of protein and micronutrients. Insects represent a potentially rich source of high-quality protein although, questions remain relating to digestibility, allergenicity and biosecurity. Algae, fungi and bacteria are also a rich source of protein and there is growing interest in the development of ‘cultured meat’ using stem cell technology. For the foreseeable future, it appears likely that the ‘protein-economy’ will remain mixed. The present paper reviews progress and future opportunities in the development of novel protein sources as food and animal feed.