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Recent efforts for alternative non-pharmaceutical treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis are focused on nutritional measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of table olive wastewater extract (OE) administration on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical strength in ovariectomised rats. Thirty mature 9-month-old female Wistar rats were separated into three groups of ten: Control, Ovariectomised (OVX) and OVX + OE. BMD was measured before ovariectomy, 3 and 6 months afterwards. At the end of the study, blood, both femurs and tibias, internal organs and abdominal fat were collected. After 3 months, the percentage changes from baseline of the total and proximal tibial BMD of the OVX + OE group were both higher compared with the OVX group (P < 0·005). Similar results were found after 6 months, when the percentage changes from baseline of the total and proximal tibial BMD of the OVX + OE group were both higher compared with the OVX group (P < 0·005). Biomechanical testing of the femurs did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the groups. Body weights throughout the study, organs’ and abdominal fat ratios to final body weight and blood results (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Ca and P) were within normal limits and did not show any significant difference between the treated and untreated groups. As a conclusion, the administration of OE for 6 months protected tibial BMD loss in comparison with the untreated OVX group without causing adverse effects.
The aim of this network meta-analysis is to compare bone mineral density (BMD) changes among different osteoporosis prevention interventions in postmenopausal women. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library from inception to 24 February 2019. Included studies were randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing the effects of different treatments on BMD in postmenopausal women. Studies were independently screened by six authors in three pairs. Data were extracted independently by two authors and synthesised using Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis. The results were summarised as mean difference in BMD and surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) of different interventions. A total of ninety RCT (10 777 participants) were included. Ca, vitamin D, vitamin K, oestrogen, exercise, Ca + vitamin D, vitamin D + vitamin K and vitamin D + oestrogen were associated with significantly beneficial effects relative to no treatment or placebo for lumbar spine (LS). For femoral neck (FN), Ca, exercise and vitamin D + oestrogen were associated with significantly beneficial intervention effects relative to no treatment. Ranking probabilities indicated that oestrogen + vitamin D is the best strategy in LS, with a SUCRA of 97·29 % (mean difference: +0·072 g/cm2 compared with no treatment, 95 % credible interval (CrI) 0·045, 0·100 g/cm2), and Ca + exercise is the best strategy in FN, with a SUCRA of 79·71 % (mean difference: +0·029 g/cm2 compared with placebo, 95 % CrI –0·00093, 0·060 g/cm2). In conclusion, in postmenopausal women, many interventions are valuable for improving BMD in LS and FN. Different intervention combinations can affect BMD at different sites diversely.
Clinical trials with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) for intractable pain from vertebral compression fractures (VCF) have shown variable results. Variation in the outcomes may be related to poor patient selection on imaging.
To assess if PVA augmentation for osteoporotic VCF results in better improvement in pain when patients were selected based on clinical examination plus imaging vs clinical examination only.
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched from 2000 to May 2018. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data to identify randomised control trials (RCTs) on PVA for osteoporotic VCF and assessed the risk of bias. Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were advocated by the Cochrane Collaboration and PRISMA Statement. A total of 12 RCTs with 1110 participants met the inclusion criteria. Eight of the 10 studies (938 participants) that used imaging to confirm oedema in the target vertebral bodies showed PVA (compared to nonsurgical treatment) was effective in reducing pain (immediate term: mean difference (MD) of −1.89; 95% confidence interval −1.93 to −1.85, p < 0.001; short term: MD of −1.68; 95% CI −1.82 to −1.54, p < 0.001; intermediate term: MD of −2.04; 95% CI −2.15 to −1.94, p < 0.001 and long term: MD of −1.88; 95% CI −1.95 to −1.80, p < 0.001).
RCTs using imaging to confirm marrow oedema in the index vertebra showed an improved size effect compared to RCTs using no imaging. This benefit was observed in the immediate, short, intermediate and long term.
To assess knowledge of osteoporosis and its risk factors and to explore associations between knowledge and various sociodemographic factors in Indian adults.
Cross-sectional study. The Revised Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT) was used to assess knowledge of osteoporosis. Four scores (OKT-total, range 0–32; OKT-exercise, range 0–20; OKT-nutrition, range 0–26; OKT-risk factors, range 0–14) were generated by giving 1 point to every correct answer and 0 points for incorrect or ‘not known’ answers.
Tertiary-care hospital in Pune city, India.
Adults aged 40–75 years (n 477; 234 males) enrolled through voluntary routine health checks and health camps.
Mean age of the study population was 54·6 (sd 9·5) years. Half the participants were aware of osteoporosis and could correctly define it. Women showed significantly higher median OKT-total and OKT-nutrition scores than men (P<0·05). Those with higher education and higher socio-economic status had significantly higher scores in both men and women (P<0·05). All four scores were significantly higher in both men and women who could correctly define osteoporosis (P<0·05). All four scores were significantly higher in women with a family history of osteoporosis (P<0·05) but not in men (P>0·1).
Understanding about osteoporosis and its risk factors is low in the present cohort of Indian men and women. There is need to create awareness programmes aimed at both men and women especially targeting those with lower education, lower socio-economic status and no previous exposure to osteoporosis.
We aimed to systematically review available data on the association between vitamin C intake and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as risk of fractures and osteoporosis, and to summarise this information through a meta-analysis. Previous studies on vitamin C intake in relation to BMD and risk of fracture and osteoporosis were selected through searching PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar databases before February 2017, using MeSH and text words. To pool data, either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model was used, and for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran’s Q and I2 tests were used. Subgroup analysis was applied to define possible sources of heterogeneity. Greater dietary vitamin C intake was positively associated with BMD at femoral neck (pooled r 0·18; 0·06, 0·30) and lumbar spine (pooled r 0·14; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·22); however, significant between-study heterogeneity was found at femoral neck: I2=87·6 %, Pheterogeneity<0·001. In addition, we found a non-significant association between dietary vitamin C intake and the risk of hip fracture (overall relative risk=0·74; 95 % CI 0·51, 1·08). Significant between-study heterogeneity was found (I2=79·1 %, Pheterogeneity<0·001), and subgroup analysis indicated that study design, sex and age were the main sources of heterogeneity. Greater dietary vitamin C intake was associated with a 33 % lower risk of osteoporosis (overall relative risk=0·67; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·94). Greater dietary vitamin C intake was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture and osteoporosis, as well as higher BMD, at femoral neck and lumbar spine.
This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of family physicians in Iran, regarding osteoporosis and their experience with national osteoporosis guideline.
Osteoporosis is a relatively preventable, chronic and progressive disease. Family physicians play a crucial role in relieving the burden of care.
This cross-sectional study was addressed at all qualified family physicians who registered at urban family physicians and referral system program. Data collection included demographics, professional experience, and knowledge of guidelines based on a standardized KAP questionnaire. Student’s t-test was used to measure the associations between KAP scores and demographic, professional experience variables.
The response rate was 72% (540/750). Based on Bloom’s cut off scale, family physicians knowledge and practice scores were in moderate level, and only 14 and 38.5% of them had good knowledge and practice, respectively. Attitude score was in good level, and 64.1% of participants had positive attitude. Mean score of knowledge and practice were higher significantly among family physicians that practice in public settings. Family physicians, who completed osteoporosis training courses, had higher attitude score (P=0.03). Only 23.5% of family physicians were aware of the existence of national osteoporosis guideline.
Although most family physicians believed in the importance of preventive measures, however, limited number of them had good knowledge and practice regarding osteoporosis and less than a quarter were aware of national guideline. This is a clear need to disseminate the guideline more effectively, make greater use of efficient training methods.
The bone regeneration and healing effect of formononetin was evaluated in a cortical bone defect model that predominantly heals by intramembranous ossification. For this study, female Balb/c mice were ovariectomised (OVx) and a drill-hole injury was generated in the midfemoral bones of all animals. Treatment with formononetin commenced the day after and continued for 21 d. Parathyroid hormone (PTH1–34) was used as a reference standard. Animals were killed at days 10 and 21. Femur bones were collected at the injury site for histomorphometry studies using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and confocal microscopy. RNA and protein were harvested from the region surrounding the drill-hole injury. For immunohistochemistry, 5 µm sections of decalcified femur bone adjoining the drill-hole site were cut. μCT analysis showed that formononetin promoted bone healing at days 10 and 21 and the healing effect observed was significantly better than in Ovx mice and equal to PTH treatment in many aspects. Formononetin also significantly enhanced bone regeneration as assessed by calcein-labelling studies. In addition, formononetin enhanced the expression of osteogenic markers at the injury site in a manner similar to PTH. Formononetin treatment also led to predominant runt-related transcription factor 2 and osteocalcin localisation at the injury site. These results support the potential of formononetin to be a bone-healing agent and are suggestive of its promising role in the fracture-repair process.
Research considering the relationship between dietary Mg and osteoporosis as well as fractures are sparse and conflicting. We therefore aimed to investigate Mg intake and the onset of fractures in a large cohort of American men and women involved in the Osteoarthritis Initiative over a follow-up period of 8 years. Dietary Mg intake (including that derived from supplementation) was evaluated through a FFQ at baseline and categorised using sex-specific quintiles (Q); osteoporotic fractures were evaluated through self-reported history. Overall, 3765 participants (1577 men; 2071 women) with a mean age of 60·6 (sd 9·1) years were included. During follow-up, 560 individuals (198 men and 368 women) developed a new fracture. After adjusting for fourteen potential confounders at baseline and taking those with lower Mg intake as reference (Q1), men (hazard ratio (HR) 0·47; 95 % CI 0·21, 1·00, P=0·05) and women (HR 0·38; 95 % CI 0·17, 0·82, P=0·01) in the highest quintile reported a significantly lower risk for fracture. Women meeting the recommended Mg intake were at a 27 % decreased risk for future fractures. In conclusion, higher dietary Mg intake has a protective effect on future osteoporotic fractures, especially in women with a high risk for knee osteoarthritis. Those women meeting the recommended Mg intake appear to be at a lower risk for fractures.
A high Ca intake has been recommended for osteoporosis prevention; however, little research has examined the relationship between dietary Ca and bone health in men. We examined associations between dietary Ca intake, bone mineral density (BMD) and change in BMD at the total body, hip and spine over 2 years in a cohort of men (mean age 57 years, BMI 26 kg/m2) from a trial. Data from the total cohort (n 323) were used in the analysis of Ca intake and BMD at baseline, and data from the placebo group (n 99) were used in the longitudinal analysis of Ca intake and change in BMD. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the markers of bone turnover serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, serum C-telopeptide and serum procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide were measured in a subset of participants at baseline (n 150), and associations with dietary Ca at baseline were examined. Mean Ca intake was 870 mg/d. Baseline BMD was not related to dietary Ca intake at any site, before or after adjustment for covariables. Similarly, bone loss over 2 years was not related to Ca intake at any site, before or after adjustment. Dietary Ca intake was inversely correlated with PTH at baseline (r −0·19, P=0·02), but was not associated with the markers of bone turnover. BMD and rates of bone loss were unrelated to Ca intake in these men. This suggests that strategies to increase Ca intake are unlikely to impact on the prevalence of and morbidity from male osteoporosis.
Carotenoids are found in abundance in fruit and vegetables, and may be involved in the positive association of these foods with bone health. This study aimed to explore the associations of dietary carotenoid intakes and plasma concentrations with bone density status and osteoporotic fracture risk in a European population. Cross-sectional analyses (n 14 803) of bone density status, using calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and longitudinal analyses (n 25 439) of fracture cases were conducted on data from the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort of middle-aged and older men and women. Health and lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and dietary nutrient intakes were derived from 7-d food diaries. Multiple regression demonstrated significant positive trends in BUA for women across quintiles of dietary α-carotene intake (P=0·029), β-carotene intake (P=0·003), β-cryptoxanthin intake (P=0·031), combined lutein and zeaxanthin intake (P=0·010) and lycopene intake (P=0·005). No significant trends across plasma carotenoid concentration quintiles were apparent (n 4570). The Prentice-weighted Cox regression showed no trends in fracture risk across dietary carotenoid intake quintiles (mean follow-up time 12·5 years), except for a lower risk for wrist fracture in women with higher lutein and zeaxanthin intake (P=0·022); nevertheless, inter-quintile differences in fracture risk were found for both sexes. Analysis of plasma carotenoid data (mean follow-up time 11·9 years) showed lower hip fracture risk in men across higher plasma α-carotene (P=0·026) and β-carotene (P=0·027) quintiles. This study provides novel evidence that dietary carotenoid intake is relevant to bone health in men and women, demonstrating that associations with bone density status and fracture risk exist for dietary intake of specific carotenoids and their plasma concentrations.
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) on bone mineral density (BMD) in persons age 50 and older, with normal pituitary function, with or at risk for developing osteoporosis. We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCTs), searching six databases, and conducted meta-analyses to examine GH effects on BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Data for fracture incidence, bone metabolism biomarkers, and adverse events were also extracted and analysed. Thirteen RCTs met the eligibility criteria. Pooled effect sizes suggested no significant GH effect on BMD. Pooled effect sizes were largest, but nonsignificant, when compared to placebo. GH had a significant effect on several bone metabolism biomarkers. A significantly higher rate of adverse events was observed in the GH groups. Meta-analysis of RCTs suggests that GH treatment for persons with or at risk for developing osteoporosis results in very small, nonsignificant increases in BMD.
Equol is a metabolite of the soya isoflavone (ISO) daidzein that is produced by intestinal microbiota. Equol has greater oestrogenic activity compared with other ISO, and it prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women. Resistant starch (RS), which has a prebiotic activity and is a dietary fibre, was reported to promote equol production. Conversely, the intestinal microbiota is reported to directly regulate bone health by reducing inflammatory cytokine levels and T-lymphocytes in bone. The present study evaluated the combined effects of diet supplemented with ISO and RS on intestinal microbiota, equol production, bone mineral density (BMD) and inflammatory gene expression in the bone marrow of ovariectomised (OVX) mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were either sham-operated (Sham, n 7) or OVX. OVX mice were randomly divided into the following four groups (seven per group): OVX control (OVX); OVX fed 0·05 % ISO diet (OVX+ISO); OVX fed 9 % RS diet (OVX+RS); and OVX fed 0·05 % ISO- and 9 % RS diet (OVX+ISO+RS). After 6 weeks, treatment with the combination of ISO and RS increased equol production, prevented the OVX-induced decline in trabecular BMD in the distal femur by modulating the enteric environment and altered OVX-induced inflammation-related gene expression in the bone marrow. However, there were no significant differences in bone parameters between the ISO+RS and ISO-alone groups in OVX mice. Our findings suggest that the combination of ISO and RS might alter intestinal microbiota and immune status in the bone marrow, resulting in attenuated bone resorption in OVX mice.
Until recently, much of the research exploring the role of nutrition on bone mass accrual has focused on single nutrients. Although randomised controlled trials have provided key information about the effects of calcium and vitamin D on bone, they also have limitations, e.g. generalisation, implementation of the results and long-term consequences. Human subjects do not eat single nutrients, but foods, and describing healthy food patterns for optimising bone mineral accrual is warranted. Recent advances in research suggest that the effects of whole diet are larger than those of single nutrients on bone health. Research should focus on younger age groups to identify the life-course determinants of osteoporosis during prenatal, infancy, childhood and adolescence that would help to maximise peak bone mass. Food patterns that describe the variability, quality and choices of individuals give broader insight and may provide new strategies for preventing osteoporosis.
This study described prescribing trends before and after implementing a provincial strategy aimed at improving osteoporosis and fracture prevention in Ontario long-term care (LTC) homes. Data were obtained from a pharmacy provider for 10 LTC homes in 2007 and 166 homes in 2012. We used weighted, multiple linear regression analyses to examine facility-level changes in vitamin D, calcium, and osteoporosis medication prescribing rates between 2007 and 2012. After five years, the estimated increase in vitamin D, calcium, and osteoporosis medication prescribing rates, respectively, was 38.2 per cent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29.0, 47.3; p < .001), 4.0 per cent (95% CI: –3.9, 12.0; p = .318), and 0.2 per cent (95% CI: –3.3, 3.7; p = .91). Although the study could not assess causality, findings suggest that wide-scale knowledge translation activities successfully improved vitamin D prescribing rates, although ongoing efforts are needed to target homes with low uptake.
Objectives: The study question was whether dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) alone is more cost-effective for identifying postmenopausal women with osteoporosis than a two-step procedure with quantitative ultrasound sonography (QUS) plus DXA. To answer this question, a systematic review was performed.
Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, INAHTA, Health Evidence Network, NIHR, the Health Technology Assessment program, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Research Papers in Economics, Web of Science, Scopus, and EconLit) were searched for cost-effectiveness publications. Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quality assessment of economic evaluations was undertaken using the Drummond checklist.
Results: Seven journal articles and four reports were reviewed. The cost per true positive case diagnosed by DXA was found to be higher than that for diagnosis by QUS+DXA in two articles. In one article it was found to be lower. In three studies, the results were not conclusive. These articles were characterized by the differences in the types of devices, parameters and thresholds on the QUS and DXA tests and the unit costs of the DXA and QUS tests as well as by variability in the sensitivity and specificity of the techniques and the prevalence of osteoporosis.
Conclusions: The publications reviewed did not provide clear-cut evidence for drawing conclusions about which screening test may be more cost-effective for identifying postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Although several studies have confirmed the bone-protective properties of dried plum, its exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. Recent research has shown that osteocytes may control bone formation via the production of sclerostin and bone resorption via the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and its inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG). To investigate the mechanism of action of dried plum in reversing bone loss, we measured serum levels of RANKL, OPG and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women (n 160). Participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group of either 100 g dried plum/d or 75 g dried apple/d (comparative control) for 1 year. All participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral densities (BMD) of the lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Dried plum significantly increased the BMD of the ulna and spine in comparison with the control group. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, dried plum increased the RANKL levels by only +1·99 v. +18·33 % and increased the OPG levels by +4·87 v. − 2·15 % in the control group. Serum sclerostin levels were reduced by − 1·12 % in the dried plum group v. +3·78 % in the control group. Although percentage changes did not reach statistical significance (P≤ 0·05), these preliminary data may indicate that the positive effects of dried plum on bone are in part due to the suppression of RANKL production, the promotion of OPG and the inhibition of sclerostin.
The relationship between fat and bone mass at distinct trabecular and cortical skeletal compartments in a high-fat diet (HFD) model was studied. For this, C57BL/6 mice were assigned to four groups of eight animals each. Two groups, each of males and females, received a standard chow diet while the remaining other two groups received the HFD for a period of 10 weeks. Male mice on the HFD were heavier and gained more weight (15·8 %; P< 0·05) v. those on the control diet or when compared with the female rats fed the HFD. We observed an increased lipid profile in both males and females, with significantly higher lipid levels (about 20–25 %; P< 0·01) in males. However, glucose intolerance was more pronounced in females than males on the HFD (about 30 %; P< 0·05). The micro-architectural assessment of bones showed that compared with female mice on the HFD, male mice on the HFD showed more deterioration at the trabecular region. This was corroborated by plasma osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTx) levels confirming greater loss in males (about 20 %; P< 0·01). In both sexes cortical bone parameters and strength remained unchanged after 10 weeks of HFD treatment. The direct effect of the HFD on bone at the messenger RNA level in progenitor cells isolated from femoral bone marrow was a significantly increased expression of adipogenic marker genes v. osteogenic genes. Overall, the present data indicate that obesity induced by a HFD aggravates bone loss in the cancellous bone compartment, with a greater loss in males than females, although 10 weeks of HFD treatment did not alter cortical bone mass and strength in both males and females.
Electron Rutherford backscattering (ERBS) is a new technique that could be developed into a tool for materials analysis. Here we try to establish a methodology for the use of ERBS for materials analysis of more complex samples using bone minerals as a test case. For this purpose, we also studied several reference samples containing Ca: calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and hydroxyapatite and mouse bone powder. A very good understanding of the spectra of CaCO3 and hydroxyapatite was obtained. Quantitative interpretation of the bone spectrum is more challenging. A good fit of these spectra is only obtained with the same peak widths as used for the hydroxyapatite sample, if one allows for the presence of impurity atoms with a mass close to that of Na and Mg. Our conclusion is that a meaningful interpretation of spectra of more complex samples in terms of composition is indeed possible, but only if widths of the peaks contributing to the spectra are known. Knowledge of the peak widths can either be developed by the study of reference samples (as was done here) or potentially be derived from theory.
The aim of the present study was to identify the association of dietary patterns with osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women from the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–10. The present cross-sectional analysis included 3735 postmenopausal women who completed a health interview, nutrition survey and a health examination including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The general characteristics and dietary intakes of the participants were obtained using a standardised questionnaire and a 24 h recall method, respectively. The BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; osteoporosis was defined based on the WHO T-score criteria. Overall, we identified four dietary patterns using factor analysis as follows: ‘meat, alcohol and sugar’, ‘vegetables and soya sauce’, ‘white rice, kimchi and seaweed’ and ‘dairy and fruit’, which accounted for 30·9 % of the total variance in food intake (11·3, 7·7, 6·0 and 5·9 %, respectively). The subjects in the highest quintile of the ‘dairy and fruit’ pattern showed a decreased risk of osteoporosis of the lumbar spine (53 %) compared with those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for covariates (OR 0·47, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·65, P for trend < 0·0001). In contrast, the ‘white rice, kimchi and seaweed’ dietary pattern was negatively associated with bone health (OR 1·40, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·90, P for trend = 0·0479). The present results suggest that an increased intake of dairy foods and fruits in the traditional Korean diet, based on white rice and vegetables, may decrease the risk of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.