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The rearrangement of drainage basins provides critical insight into crustal deformation and geodynamic mechanisms. Near the southeastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau, the Dadu River abruptly shifts from south- to east-flowing, providing important implications for regional tectonogeomorphic development since the mid-Pleistocene. South of the bend, the headwaters of the Anning River occupy an unusually wide valley. Field investigations show that large quantities of fluvial/lacustrine sediments are widespread along the Dadu and Anning rivers and are exposed at their drainage divide. Detrital zircon U-Pb age patterns confirm that these fluvial/lacustrine sediments are the remnants of the paleo-Dadu River, which strongly suggests that the paleo-Dadu River originally flowed southward into the Anning River. The cosmogenic nuclide burial ages of the lacustrine sediments along the Dadu and Anning rivers suggest deposition of these sediments from separate dammed lakes ca. 1.2 Ma ago, ca. 0.6 Ma ago, and ca. 0.9 Ma ago from north to south, respectively. Provenance and burial-age studies indicate that reorganization of the Dadu drainage occurred within the last 0.6 Ma. We propose that this drainage reorganization in southeastern Tibet resulted from progressive convergence between the India and Eurasian plates during the Pleistocene.
The mitochondrial genome provides important information for phylogenetic analysis and an understanding of evolutionary origin. In this study, the mitochondrial genomes of Ilisha elongata and Setipinna tenuifilis were sequenced, which are typical circular vertebrate mitochondrial genomes composed of 16,770 and 16,805 bp, respectively. The mitogenomes of I. elongata and S. tenuifilis include 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and one control region (CR). Both two species' genome compositions were highly A + T biased and exhibited positive AT-skews and negative GC-skews. The genetic distance and Ka/Ks ratio analyses indicated that 13 PCGs were affected by purifying selection and the selection pressures were different from certain deep-sea fishes, which were most likely due to the difference in their living environment. Results of phylogenetic analysis support close relationships among Chirocentridae, Denticipitidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Pristigasteridae based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs. Within Clupeoidei, I. elongata and S. tenuifilis were most closely related to the family Pristigasteridae and Engraulidae, respectively. These results will help to better understand the evolutionary position of Clupeiformes and provide a reference for further phylogenetic research on Clupeiformes species.
The role of dietary factors in osteoporotic fractures (OFs) in women is not fully elucidated. We investigated the associations between incidence of OF and dietary calcium, magnesium and soy isoflavone intake in a longitudinal study of 48 584 postmenopausal women. Multivariable Cox regression was applied to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate associations between dietary intake, based on the averages of two assessments that took place with a median interval of 2⋅4 years, and fracture risk. The average age of study participants is 61⋅4 years (range 43⋅3–76⋅7 years) at study entry. During a median follow-up of 10⋅1 years, 4⋅3 % participants experienced OF. Compared with daily calcium intake ≤400 mg/d, higher calcium intake (>400 mg/d) was significantly associated with about a 40–50 % reduction of OF risk among women with a calcium/magnesium (Ca/Mg) intake ratio ≥1⋅7. Among women with prior fracture history, high soy isoflavone intake was associated with reduced OF risk; the HR was 0⋅72 (95 % CI 0⋅55, 0⋅93) for the highest (>42⋅0 mg/d) v. lowest (<18⋅7 mg/d) quartile intake. This inverse association was more evident among recently menopausal women (<10 years). No significant association between magnesium intake and OF risk was observed. Our findings provide novel information suggesting that the association of OF risk with dietary calcium intake was modified by Ca/Mg ratio, and soy isoflavone intake was modified by history of fractures and time since menopause. Our findings, if confirmed, can help to guide further dietary intervention strategies for OF prevention.
The Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus is a globally ‘Endangered’ species breeding in north-east Asia. Limited by information on the geographic distribution of suitable habitat, the conservation management programme has not been comprehensive or spatially explicit for the breeding population. This study combines potentially important environmental variables with extensive data on species occurrence to create the first species distribution model for the breeding Scaly-sided Merganser, followed by a GAP analysis to highlight the unprotected areas containing suitable habitat. The predictive map showing the most suitable breeding habitat for the Scaly-sided Merganser covered broad-leaved deciduous forest distributed in six provincial regions in south-east Russia, north-east China, and North Korea. The conservation GAP, i.e. 90% (38,813 km2) of highly suitable habitat, is mainly concentrated in the Sikhote-Alin and Changbai mountain ranges. This study suggests that prioritizing conservation of unprotected broad-leaved deciduous riverine forests within the above two mountainous regions should be included in international conservation planning, and the remaining suitable patches need to be preserved to allow range expansion in future. This predictive map improves the expert global assessment of breeding Scaly-sided Merganser distribution and provides a basic reference for establishing conservation areas or implementing conservation actions for the breeding Scaly-sided Merganser in north-east Asia.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major threat to the public. However, the comprehensive profile of suicidal ideation among the general population has not been systematically investigated in a large sample in the age of COVID-19.
A national online cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 28, 2020 and March 11, 2020 in a representative sample of Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Suicidal ideation was assessed using item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its risk factors was evaluated.
A total of 56,679 participants (27,149 males and 29,530 females) were included. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation was 16.4%, including 10.9% seldom, 4.1% often, and 1.4% always suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher in males (19.1%) and individuals aged 18–24 years (24.7%) than in females (14.0%) and those aged 45 years and older (11.9%). Suicidal ideation was more prevalent in individuals with suspected or confirmed infection (63.0%), frontline workers (19.2%), and people with pre-existing mental disorders (41.6%). Experience of quarantine, unemployed, and increased psychological stress during the pandemic were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and its severity. However, paying more attention to and gaining a better understanding of COVID-19-related knowledge, especially information about psychological interventions, could reduce the risk.
The estimated prevalence of suicidal ideation among the general population in China during COVID-19 was significant. The findings will be important for improving suicide prevention strategies during COVID-19.
Schizophrenia is a common major mental disorder and prenatal nutritional deficiency may increase its risk. We aimed to investigate long-term impact of prenatal exposure to malnutrition on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood using the Chinese famine of 1959–1961 as a natural experiment.
We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in 31 provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387,093 individuals born from 1956 to 1965. Schizophrenia was ascertained by psychiatrists based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Famine severity was defined as cohort size shrinkage index. The famine effect on adult schizophrenia was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts.
Compared with the reference cohort of 1965, famine cohorts (1959–1962) had significantly higher odds (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.00; P = 0.014) of schizophrenia in the rural population. After adjusting for multiple covariates, this association remained significant (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.98; P = 0.018). We did not observe statistically significant differences in odds of schizophrenia among famine cohorts compared with the reference cohort in the urban population.
Prenatal malnutrition exposure has a detrimental impact on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood in the rural population. Further studies were needed to investigate corresponding mechanisms on this topic.
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have been used to investigate the interaction between a laser pulse and a foil exposed to an external strong longitudinal magnetic field. Compared with that in the absence of the external magnetic field, the divergence of proton with the magnetic field in radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) regimes has improved remarkably due to the restriction of the electron transverse expansion. During the RPA process, the foil develops into a typical bubble-like shape resulting from the combined action of transversal ponderomotive force and instabilities. However, the foil prefers to be in a cone-like shape by using the magnetic field. The dependence of proton divergence on the strength of magnetic field has been studied, and an optimal magnetic field of nearly 60 kT is achieved in these simulations.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
The protective effects of fruits and vegetables against CHD have been suggested by many epidemiological studies among Western populations. However, prospective data are lacking for Asian populations. In the present study, we examined the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with CHD incidence among 67 211 women (aged 40–70 years) and 55 474 men (aged 40–74 years) living in Shanghai, China. Food intake was assessed using validated FFQ through in-person interviews. Coronary events (non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD) were identified by biennial home visits and further confirmed by medical record review. During a mean follow-up period of 9·8 and 5·4 years, 148 events in women and 217 events in men were documented and verified. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the highest quartile of total fruit and vegetable intake (median 814 g/d) had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·62 (95 % CI 0·38, 1·02) for CHD (P for trend = 0·04) compared with those in the lowest quartile (median 274 g/d). This association was primarily driven by fruits (HR for the highest v. the lowest intake in women: 0·62, 95 % CI 0·37, 1·03). The strength of the association was attenuated after further controlling for history of diabetes or hypertension. For men, no significant association was found for fruit and vegetable intake when analysed either in combination or individually. The present findings suggest that a high consumption of fruits may reduce CHD risk in Chinese women.
A well-optimized design of an ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna is very important for steady-state plasma heating with high radio frequency (RF) power of several tens of megawatts. However, a sharp decrease in the coupling RF power because of impedance mismatch of ICRH system is an issue that must be resolved for present-day fusion reactors and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. This paper has theoretically analyzed the ICRH antenna's impedance matching for ELMy plasmas on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) by the transmission line theory. The results indicate that judicious choice of the optimal feeder location is found useful for adjustable capacitors' tolerance to the variations of the antenna input impedance during edge-localized mode (ELM) discharge, which is expected to be good for the design of ICRH antenna system and for real-time feedback control during ELM discharge on EAST.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
X-ray powder diffraction was used to analyze and evaluate 11 samples of traditional Chinese medicine, Costustoot, found at various locations in China. A reference fingerprint pattern with 48 characteristic peaks for Costustoot was obtained from X-ray diffraction patterns of six Costustoots from the rhizomes of Aucklandia lappa Decne. The reference fingerprint pattern with 48 characteristic peaks for Costustoot was then used to evaluate the remaining five Costustoot materials. X-ray diffraction results show that the X-ray diffraction Fourier fingerprint pattern method can be used for rapid classification, identification, and quality control of Costustoots.
Little is known about the association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and blood pressure (BP) parameters, including systolic and diastolic BP, pulse pressure (PP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and hypertension in non-Western populations that have not yet been exposed to foods fortified with vitamins and seldom use vitamin D supplements. A cross-sectional analysis of plasma 25(OH)D levels in association with BP measures was performed for 1460 participants (1055 women and 405 men, aged 40–74 years) of two large cohort studies in Shanghai. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were conducted. Overall, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55·8 % using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA criteria and 29·9 % using WHO criteria. The median plasma 25(OH)D level in the population was 38·0 nmol/l for men and 33·6 nmol/l for women (P < 0·01) among participants who were not on antihypertensive drugs. Among men, BP parameters (systolic BP, diastolic BP and MAP) were significantly and inversely associated with higher quintiles of 25(OH)D compared with the lowest quintile (Ptrend < 0·05 for all). Vitamin D non-deficient status (WHO criteria) was inversely associated with hypertension (ORadjusted = 0·29; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·82). An inverse association was also found between hypertension and the highest quintile of 25(OH)D (ORadjusted = 0·16; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·65 for ≥ 50·6 nmol/l; Ptrend = 0·02). Among women, no significant associations were found for BP parameters and hypertension. The present study shows that vitamin D deficiency is common among adults in urban China. Circulating 25(OH)D levels were inversely related to the levels of individual BP parameters and hypertension among middle-aged and elderly men but not among women. More research is needed to investigate the potential sex differential associations.
The prevalence of hypertension has increased over the past decade in many developed and developing countries, including China. This increase may be associated with changes in lifestyle, including dietary patterns. We evaluated the association of dietary patterns with blood pressure (BP) by using data from a large, population-based cohort study of middle-aged and elderly Chinese men, the Shanghai Men's Health Study. The present cross-sectional analysis includes 39 252 men who reported no prior history of hypertension, diabetes, CHD, or stroke nor use of antihypertensive drugs at study enrolment. Three dietary patterns, ‘vegetable’, ‘fruit and milk’ and ‘meat’, were derived using factor analysis. The fruit and milk diet was inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic BP (Ptrend < 0·001). The adjusted mean systolic BP was 2·9 mmHg lower (95 % CI − 3·4, − 2·4), and diastolic BP was 1·7 mmHg lower (95 % CI − 2·0, − 1·4) for men in the highest quintile of the ‘fruit and milk’ pattern compared with men in the lowest quintile. This inverse association was more evident among heavy drinkers; the highest quintile of the ‘fruit and milk’ pattern was associated with a 4·1 mmHg reduction in systolic BP v. a 2·0 mmHg reduction among non-drinkers (Pinteraction = 0·003) compared to the lowest quintile. The corresponding reductions in diastolic BP were 2·0 v. 1·3 mmHg (Pinteraction = 0·011). The ‘fruit and milk’ pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of both pre-hypertension and hypertension, and the associations appeared to be stronger among drinkers. Results of the present study suggest an important role for diet in the prevention of hypertension.
To examine the association between the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) and maternal serum vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine in a high-risk area of China.
A case–control study was carried out in Luliang mountain area of Shanxi Province.
A total of eighty-four NTD pregnancies and 110 matched controls were included in the study; their serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were measured by chemiluminescent immunoenzyme assay and total homocysteine concentrations by fluorescent polarisation immunoassay.
Serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were lower in NTD-affected pregnant women than in controls (P < 0·01). Serum total homocysteine was higher in the NTD group than in controls at less than 21 weeks of gestation (P < 0·01). Adjusted odds ratios revealed that women with lower vitamin B12 (adjusted OR=4·96; 95 % CI 1·94, 12·67) and folate (adjusted OR=3·23; 95 % CI 1·33, 7·85) concentrations had a higher risk of NTD compared to controls. Based on dietary analysis, less consumption of meat, egg or milk, fresh vegetables and fruit intake would increase the risk of NTD.
Lower serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are related to the increased risk of NTD in high-risk populations. Both folate and vitamin B12 intake insufficiency could contribute to the increased risk of NTD. A dietary supplement, combining folate and vitamin B12, might be an effective measure to decrease the NTD incidence in these areas.