To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previously, we provided an evidence that l-Leucine supplementation facilitates growth performance in suckling piglets with normal birth weight. However, it remains hitherto obscure weather breast-fed piglets displaying intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) show a similar effect in response to l-Leucine provision. In this study, 7-d-old sow-reared IUGR piglets were orally administrated with l-Leucine (0, 0·7, 1·4 or 2·1 g/kg BW) twice daily for 2 weeks. Increasing leucine levels hampered the growth performance of suckling IUGR piglets. The average daily gain of IUGR piglets was significantly reduced in 1·4 g/kg BW and 2·1 g/kg BW l-Leucine supplementation groups (P < 0·05). Except for ornithine and glutamine, the plasma concentrations of other amino acids were abated as l-Leucine levels increased (P < 0·05). Leucine supplementation led to reduction in the levels of urea, blood ammonia, blood glucose, TAG and total cholesterol, as well as an elevation in the level of LDL-cholesterol in suckling IUGR piglets (P < 0·05). In addition, 1·4 g/kg BW of l-Leucine enhanced the mRNA expression of ATB0,+, whereas decreased the mRNA abundances of CAT1, y + LAT1, ASCT2 and b0,+AT in the jejunum (P < 0·05). Concomitantly, the jejunum of IUGR piglets in l-Leucine group contains more ATB0,+ and less SNAT2 protein than in the control (P < 0·05). Collectively, l-Leucine supplementation impairs growth performance in breast-fed IUGR piglets, which may be associated with depressed nutritional conditions and alterations in the uptake of amino acids and the expression of amino acid transporters in the small intestine.
Late Palaeozoic igneous rock associations in response to subduction, accretion, and final closure of the eastern Palaeo-Asian Ocean play a significant role in understanding the geodynamic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Previous studies have identified a Permian arc magmatic belt associated with the southward-dipping subduction of the eastern Palaeo-Asian Ocean along the Solonker–Changchun suture zone. The genetic mechanism and associated geodynamic settings are of great importance in deciphering the evolution of the eastern Palaeo-Asian Ocean. This paper presents zircon U–Pb–Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical analyses for a suite of magmatic rocks including the early Permian diorite porphyrites (ca. 281.0 Ma), andesites (ca. 276 Ma) and rhyolites (ca. 275 Ma) in the Kulun region. The diorite porphyrites and andesites have high SiO2 and total alkali contents, and low MgO contents and Mg no. values, with enrichments in large ion lithophile elements and depletions in high-field-strength elements. These geochemical characteristics, together with low-Sr and high-Yb contents, a weak concave-upward shape of middle rare earth elements and negative Eu anomalies, suggest that these intermediate igneous rocks were generated by partial melting of amphibolitic lower crust at a crustal depth of 30–40 km. The rhyolites have heterogeneous isotopic compositions, with ϵHf(t) values and TDM2 ages of –20.8 to +0.5 and 3578∼1494 Ma, implying that they were likely derived from partial melting of a mixed source dominated by recycled ancient crust with minor juvenile crustal materials. The rhyolites show potassic affinity with relatively high K2O and very low Na2O, which was attributed to liquid immiscibility of felsic magma and subsequent limited fractional crystallization of plagioclase. The regional igneous associations, metamorphic events, and coeval sedimentary rocks along the Solonker–Changchun suture zone indicate that the early Permian igneous rocks were formed in an active continental arc environment in response to southward subduction of the eastern Palaeo-Asian Ocean.
Subthreshold depression (sD) negatively impacts well-being and psychosocial function and is more prevalent compared with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, as adults with sD are less likely to seek face-to-face intervention, internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) may overcome barriers of accessibility to psychotherapy. Although several trials explored the efficacy of ICBT for sD, the results remain inconsistent. This study evaluated whether ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD.
A randomized controlled trial was performed. The participants were randomly assigned to 5 weeks of ICBT, group-based face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or a waiting list (WL). Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measured depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Outcomes were analyzed using a mixed-effects model to assess the effects of ICBT.
ICBT participants reported greater reductions on all the outcomes compared to the WL group at post-intervention. The ICBT group showed larger improvement on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at post-intervention (d = 0.12) and at follow-up (d = 0.10), and with CES-D at post-intervention (d = 0.06), compared to the CBT group.
ICBT is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among Chinese adults with sD, and improvements in outcomes were sustained at a 6-month follow-up. Considering the low rates of face-to-face psychotherapy, our findings highlight the considerable potential and implications for the Chinese government to promote the use of ICBT for sD in China.
It is a global trend for nations to set forth various social policies to guide and regulate parents in their parenting practices as a form of family governance. In China, this trend is echoed by a number of ‘family education’ policies and guidelines. Drawing upon a critical discourse analysis of three family education documents, this article argues that the ideal Chinese parent is one with high suzhi who is responsible, rational and competent in science-based parenting knowledge and skills, conjoining closely with China’s nation-building agenda to produce high suzhi citizens who could contribute to the building of a strong nation. In reference to international scholarship, these discourses are understood as a form of family governance through parental responsibilisation and professionalisation. The article also calls for more empirical research to understand the implications of these official discourses for parenting and parent-child relations in diverse socio-economic and cultural contexts around China.
The concurrent incidence of autoimmune comorbidities in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is known. However, the association between OCD and related autoimmune skin diseases (ASDs) has not been well studied.
This study aimed to investigate the association between OCD and the risk of ASDs.
To assess the risk of developing ASDs, we recruited 44 324 patients with OCD and 177 296 matched controls from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A Cox regression model was used for the analyses.
After adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of ASDs among the patients with OCD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 6.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.43-7.45) was found when compared to the controls. Statistically significant associations were found between OCD and seven individual ASDs, including psoriasis (aHR: 12.52; 95% CI: 8.78-17.85), lichen planus (aHR: 27.22; 95% CI: 13.09-56.60), alopecia areata (aHR: 13.69; 95% CI: 9.38-19.98), autoimmune bullous diseases (aHR: 4.30; 95% CI: 2.03-9.11), hidradenitis suppurativa (aHR: 29.95; 95% CI: 3.35-267.62), vitiligo (aHR: 9.35; 95% CI: 5.35-16.32), and lupus erythematosus (aHR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.52-2.91).
Patients with OCD had an increased risk of developing ASDs compared to matched controls. Further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
To explore the accuracy of estimated 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UIEest) in assessing iodine nutritional status.
Fasting venous blood, 24-h and spot urine samples were collected during the day. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and urinary creatinine concentration (UCrC) were measured, and the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Cr), 24-h UIEest, and 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UIE) were calculated. At the population level, correlation and consistency between UIC, UI/Cr, 24-h UIEest and 24-h UIE were assessed using correlation analysis and Bland–Altman plots. At the individual level, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyse the accuracy of the above indicators for evaluating insufficient and excessive iodine intake. The reference interval of 24-h UIEest was established based on percentile values.
Indicator can accurately evaluate individual iodine nutrition during pregnancy remains controversial.
Pregnant women (n 788).
Using 24-h UIE as standard, the correlation coefficients of 24-h UIEest from different periods of the day ranged from 0·409 to 0·531, and the relative average differences ranged from 4·4 % to 10·9 %. For diagnosis of insufficient iodine intake, the area under the ROC curve of 24-h UIEest was 0·754, sensitivity and specificity were 79·6 % and 65·4 %, respectively. For diagnosis of excessive iodine intake, the area of 24-h UIEest was 0·771, sensitivity and specificity were 66·7 % and 82·0 %, respectively. The reference interval of 24-h UIEest was 58·43–597·65 μg.
Twenty-four-hour UIEest can better indicate iodine nutritional status at a relatively large sample size in a given population of pregnant women. It can be used for early screening at the individual level to obtain more lead time for pregnant women.
Late Mesozoic igneous rocks are important for deciphering the Mesozoic tectonic setting of NE China. In this paper, we present whole-rock geochemical data, zircon U–Pb ages and Lu–Hf isotope data for Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Tulihe area of the northern Great Xing’an Range (GXR), with the aim of evaluating the petrogenesis and genetic relationships of these rocks, inferring crust–mantle interactions and better constraining extension-related geodynamic processes in the GXR. Zircon U–Pb ages indicate that the rhyolites and trachytic volcanic rocks formed during late Early Cretaceous time (c. 130–126 Ma). Geochemically, the highly fractionated I-type rhyolites exhibit high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous characteristics. They are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) but depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), with their magmatic zircons ϵHf(t) values ranging from +4.1 to +9.0. These features suggest that the rhyolites were derived from the partial melting of a dominantly juvenile, K-rich basaltic lower crust. The trachytic volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline series and exhibit metaluminous characteristics. They have a wide range of zircon ϵHf(t) values (−17.8 to +12.9), indicating that these trachytic volcanic rocks originated from a dominantly lithospheric-mantle source with the involvement of asthenospheric mantle materials, and subsequently underwent extensive assimilation and fractional crystallization processes. Combining our results and the spatiotemporal migration of the late Early Cretaceous magmatic events, we propose that intense Early Cretaceous crust–mantle interaction took place within the northern GXR, and possibly the whole of NE China, and that it was related to the upwelling of asthenospheric mantle induced by rollback of the Palaeo-Pacific flat-subducting slab.
To understand the characteristics and influencing factors related to cluster infections in Jiangsu Province, China, we investigated case reports to explore transmission dynamics and influencing factors of scales of cluster infection. The effectiveness of interventions was assessed by changes in the time-dependent reproductive number (Rt). From 25th January to 29th February, Jiangsu Province reported a total of 134 clusters involving 617 cases. Household clusters accounted for 79.85% of the total. The time interval from onset to report of index cases was 8 days, which was longer than that of secondary cases (4 days) (χ2 = 22.763, P < 0.001) and had a relationship with the number of secondary cases (the correlation coefficient (r) = 0.193, P = 0.040). The average interval from onset to report was different between family cluster cases (4 days) and community cluster cases (7 days) (χ2 = 28.072, P < 0.001). The average time interval from onset to isolation of patients with secondary infection (5 days) was longer than that of patients without secondary infection (3 days) (F = 9.761, P = 0.002). Asymptomatic patients and non-familial clusters had impacts on the size of the clusters. The average reduction in the Rt value in family clusters (26.00%, 0.26 ± 0.22) was lower than that in other clusters (37.00%, 0.37 ± 0.26) (F = 4.400, P = 0.039). Early detection of asymptomatic patients and early reports of non-family clusters can effectively weaken cluster infections.
Effects of dietary supplemental stachyose on caecal skatole concentration, hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450, CYP) mRNA expressions and enzymatic activities in broilers were evaluated. Arbor Acre commercial mixed male and female chicks were assigned randomly into six treatments. The positive control (PC) diet was based on maize–soyabean meal, and the negative control (NC) diet was based on maize–non-soyabean meal. The NC diet was then supplemented with 4, 5, 6 and 7 g/kg stachyose to create experimental diets, named S-4, S-5, S-6 and S-7, respectively. Each diet was fed to six replicates of ten birds from days 1 to 49. On day 49, the caecal skatole concentrations in the PC, S-4, S-5, S-6 and S-7 groups were lower than those in the NC group by 42·28, 23·68, 46·09, 15·31 and 45·14 % (P < 0·01), respectively. The lowest pH value was observed in the S-5 group (P < 0·05). The stachyose-fed groups of broilers had higher caecal acetate and propionate levels compared with control groups, and propionate levels in the S-6 and S-7 groups were higher than those in the S-4 and S-5 groups (P < 0·001). The highest CYP3A4 expression was found in the S-7 group (P < 0·05), but this was not different from PC, S-4, S-5 and S-6 treatments. There was no significant difference in CYP450 (1A2, 2D6 and 3A4) enzymatic activities among the groups (P > 0·05). In conclusion, caecal skatole levels can be influenced by dietary stachyose levels, and 5 g/kg of stachyose in the diet was suggested.
Heading errors caused by gyroscope drift affect the positioning precision of pedestrian dead reckoning, and these errors are even greater for smartphone-based reckoning. In this study, an optimised improved heuristic drift elimination (O-iHDE) method is proposed to correct the heading errors on a smartphone gyroscope. Based on an analysis of the improved heuristic drift elimination (iHDE) and enhanced improved heuristic drift elimination (E-iHDE) algorithms, the quaternion method is used to update the attitude and angle threshold judgement conditions, and a method for correcting the quaternion is added to eliminate the heading errors caused by random gyro errors. The analysis of multiple sets of experiments shows that the new method improves the ability to discern and correct the walking route, and the heading accuracy is improved by more than 90%, which extends the effective operation time of pedestrian dead reckoning positioning based on the step-by-step system.
In this work, a new reconfigurable discrete 1D beam-steering Fabry–Perot cavity antenna with enhanced radiation performance is presented. It consists of a probe-fed patch antenna printed on the ground plane and a reconfigurable metasurface acting as the upper partially reflective surface to realize beam steering. By utilizing 6 × 6 proposed reconfigurable unit cells on the superstrate, the beam-steering angle can be effectively enhanced from ±7° to ±17° with fewer active elements and a much simpler biasing network. The proposed antenna was fabricated to validate the feasibility. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results is achieved. Moreover, the measured realized gains are over 11 dBi with a gain variation from the boresight direction to the tilted direction <0.2 dBi.
Social attention ability is crucial for human adaptive social behaviors and interpersonal communications, and the malfunction of which has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder marked by striking social deficits.
Using a classical twin design, the current study investigated the genetic contribution to individual variation in social and non-social attention abilities, and further probed their potential genetic linkage. Moreover, individual autistic traits were further measured in an independent group of non-twin participants to examine the hypothetical link between the core social attention ability and ASD.
We found reliable genetic influences on the social attentional effects induced by two distinct cues (eye gaze and walking direction), with 91% of their covariance accounted for by common genetic effects. However, no evidence of heritability or shared genetic effects was observed for the attentional effect directed by a non-social cue (i.e. arrow direction) and its correlation with the social attention ability. Remarkably, one's autistic traits could well predict his/her heritable core social attention ability extracted from the conventional social attentional effect.
These findings together suggest that human social attention ability is supported by unique genetic mechanisms that can be shared across different social, but not non-social, processing. Moreover, they also encourage the identification of ‘social attention genes’ and highlight the critical role of the core human social attention ability in seeking the endophenotypes of social cognitive disorders including ASD.
This study proposes two multimodal frameworks to classify pathological voice samples by combining acoustic signals and medical records. In the first framework, acoustic signals are transformed into static supervectors via Gaussian mixture models; then, a deep neural network (DNN) combines the supervectors with the medical record and classifies the voice signals. In the second framework, both acoustic features and medical data are processed through first-stage DNNs individually; then, a second-stage DNN combines the outputs of the first-stage DNNs and performs classification. Voice samples were recorded in a specific voice clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital, including three common categories of vocal diseases, i.e. glottic neoplasm, phonotraumatic lesions, and vocal paralysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework yields significant accuracy and unweighted average recall (UAR) improvements of 2.02–10.32% and 2.48–17.31%, respectively, compared with systems that use only acoustic signals or medical records. The proposed algorithm also provides higher accuracy and UAR than traditional feature-based and model-based combination methods.
Evidence on the association between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth (PTB) risk is inconclusive. This paper aimed to explore whether women with anaemia or high Hb level before pregnancy would be at higher risk of PTB. We conducted a population-based cohort study with 2 722 274 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project between 2013 and 2015 and delivered a singleton before 2016 in rural China. Logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for confounding variables. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the dose–response relationships. A total of 192 819 (7·08 %) women had preterm deliveries. Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for PTB was 1·19 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·44) for women with Hb<70 g/l, 1·01 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·03) for 70–99 g/l, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) for 100–109 g/l, 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06) for 150–159 g/l, 1·11 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·17) for 160–169 g/l and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·27) for ≥170 g/l, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted OR for very PTB (VPTB) was 1·07 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12) and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·12) for women with Hb <110 and ≥150 g/l, compared with those with Hb of 110–149 g/l, respectively. Our study identified a U-shaped relationship between maternal preconception Hb concentration and PTB risk. Both preconception anaemia and high Hb level can significantly increase VPTB risk. Appropriate intervention for women with abnormal Hb levels before pregnancy is very necessary.
Paradoxical arguments and mixed empirical evidence coexist in the current literature concerning the relationship between team familiarity and team innovation. To resolve this contradiction, we apply habitual routines theory to propose that team familiarity and team innovation have an inverted U-shaped relationship. Using a data set of 68,933 R&D teams in the electrical engineering industry, our results support a nonlinear relationship between team familiarity and team innovation, and suggest that the best innovative performance is produced by moderately familiar teams. Furthermore, we find that external learning can moderate this curvilinear relationship. Theoretical contributions and future implications are discussed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for menthyl lactate, C13H24O3, are reported [a = 5.522(6) Å, b = 11.795(8) Å, c = 17.780(6) Å, α = 50.632(3)°, β = 90.000(0)°, γ = 117.632(4)°, unit-cell volume V = 716.392(0) Å3, Z = 2, and space group P−1]. All measured lines were indexed and no detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for monomenthyl succinate, C14H24O4, are reported [a = 19.352(2), b = 30.015(1), c = 5.277(0) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 3065.1(6) Å3, Z = 8, and space group Pba2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the Pba2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes
mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in
the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown.
To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development
Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database,
5217 individuals aged 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke,
and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002
and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the
development of stroke.
Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke
(hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44–4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR =
3.47, 95% CI 2.23–5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical
comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke
HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13–4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI
1.79–4.66) after excluding the first year of observation.
Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and
ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the
There have been inconsistent results published regarding the relationship between dyslipidaemia and an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN), including colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between dyslipidaemia and CRN.
We identified studies by performing a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE and the Science Citation Index through October 2013.
We analysed thirty-three independent studies reporting the association between CRN and at least one of the selected lipid components, including total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C).
CRN cases (n 21 809) were identified.
Overall, people with high levels of serum TAG (risk ratio (RR)=1·08; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·12, P<0·00001) and LDL-C (RR=1·07; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·14, P=0·04) presented an increased prevalence of CRN. Subgroup analyses revealed that high levels of serum TC (RR=1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09, P=0·02), TAG (RR=1·06; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·10, P=0·0009) and LDL-C (RR=1·11; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·19, P=0·003) increased the risk of CRA but not of CRC. No association between serum HDL-C and risk for CRN (including CRA and CRC) was observed.
Both TAG and LDL-C were significantly associated with an increasing prevalence of CRN. High levels of serum TC, TAG and LDL-C were positively associated with CRA but not with CRC. No significant association was observed between levels of serum HDL-C and CRN.
To examine the vitamin D status, SNP of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the effects of vitamin D supplementation on parathyroid hormone and insulin secretion in adult males with obesity or normal weight in a subtropical Chinese city.
An intervention trial.
Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China.
From a cross-sectional survey conducted from June to July, eighty-two normal-weight and ninety-nine obese males (18–69 years) were screened to analyse their vitamin D status and for five SNP of VDR. From these individuals, in the same season of a different year, obese and normal-weight male volunteers (twenty-one per group) were included for an intervention trial with oral vitamin D supplementation at 1250 µg/week for 8 weeks.
For the survey, there was no significant difference (P>0·05) in baseline circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations or in the percentages of participants in different categories of vitamin D status between the two groups. The VDR SNP, rs3782905, was significantly associated with obesity (P=0·043), but none of the examined SNP were correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D when adjusted for age, BMI and study group. After vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, hypersecretions of parathyroid hormone and insulin, and insulin resistance in the obese were changed beneficially (P<0·05); however, the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was less than that of the normal-weight men.
For obese and normal-weight men of subtropical China, the summer baseline vitamin D status was similar. However, oral vitamin D supplementation revealed a decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obese men and ameliorated their hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone and insulin resistance.