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In this paper, we investigate the constrained attitude control problem of hypersonic vehicles (HVs). An improved prescribed performance dynamic surface control method is proposed based on an adaptive scaling strategy. Because of the uncertain time-varying disturbances, the controlled state may violate the constraint in the prescribed performance control (PPC) framework. An adaptive scaling strategy is introduced in the PPC method to avoid state violation. The performance function is scaled with respect to the state adaptively. Moreover, a nonlinear disturbance observer is used to compensate the sum of external and other internal disturbances of the system. The proposed method improves the system dynamic performance while ensuring the system robustness. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov analysis. Finally, numerical simulations are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the PPC method and superiority over other methods.
Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively.
An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021.
21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated.
Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.
Endothelial dysfunction is a marked feature of Kawasaki disease during convalescence, but its pathogenesis is currently unclear. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with the progression of Kawasaki disease. However, the role and mechanism of circulating miRNAs in endothelial dysfunction are largely unknown. Kawasaki disease patients were found to have a unique circulating miRNA profile, including upregulation of miRNA-210-3p, miR-184 and miR-19a-3p, compared to non-Kawasaki disease febrile controls. This study aimed to investigate the effects of these three miRNAs on endothelial function.
Overexpression of miRNAs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was done by transfection of miRNA mimics. The tube formation assay was used to evaluate the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The potential binding sites of miRNAs on 3’untranslated regions were predicted by using TargetScan database and validated by dual luciferase reporter assay. The protein expression of AGO2, PTEN and VEGF in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was detected by Western blot. Overexpression of AGO2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was done by transfection of AGO2 expression plasmids.
Overexpression of miRNA-184 and miRNA-19a-3p, but not miR-210-3p, impaired the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Mechanistically, miR-184 and miR-19a-3p could target the 3’untranslated regions of AGO2 mRNA to downregulate its expression and subsequently impede the AGO2/PTEN/VEGF axis. To be noted, the rescue of the expression of AGO2 remarkably recovered the function that was impaired by overexpression of miRNA-184 and miRNA-19a-3p.
This study suggested that miR-184 and miR-19a-3p could target AGO2/PTEN/VEGF axis to induce endothelial dysfunction in Kawasaki disease.
Previously, we reported the myelin regulatory factor (MYRF) as a candidate gene for nanophthalmos. We have also produced Myrf knockdown (Myrf+/−) mouse strain to investigate the cellular and molecular phenotypes of reduced MYRF expression in the retina. Myrf+/− mouse strain was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Optomotor response system, electroretinogram (ERG), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), histology, and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate retinal spatial vision, electrophysiological function, retinal thickness, and pathological changes in cone or rod photoreceptors, respectively. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism linking Myrf deficiency with photoreceptor defects. The genotype and phenotype of CRISPR/Cas9-induced Myrf+/− mice and their offspring were comprehensively investigated. Photoreceptor defects were detected in the retinas of Myrf+/− mice. Visual acuity and ERG responses were decreased in Myrf+/− mice compared with the control mice (Myrf+/+). The loss of cone and rod neurons was proportional to the decreased outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness. Moreover, RNA-seq revealed that phototransduction and estrogen signaling pathways played important roles in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Myrf+/− mouse strain provides a good model to investigate the function of the MYRF gene. Photoreceptor defects with impaired functions of spatial vision and retinal electrophysiology indicate an important role played by MYRF in retinal development. Alterations in phototransduction and estrogen signaling pathways play important roles in linking Myrf deficiency with retinal photoreceptor defects.
The objective of this study was to explore the metabolic profiles of pregnancy malnutrition induced by feed restriction (FR) and the counteracting effects of glycerol and rumen-protected choline chloride supplementation. Two feeding trials were conducted. In the first experiment, twenty pregnant Hu sheep carrying multiple fetuses with a gestation period of 108 d were randomly divided into two groups. The ewes in the control (CON) group were offered 100 % of their nutritional requirements as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC), while the FR group was offered 30 % of feed intake of CON for 15 d. In the second experiment, eighteen pregnant Hu sheep were offered a feed intake comprising 30 % of the NRC-recommended nutritional requirements twice daily. The sheep were randomly divided into three groups: the FR group in the second experiment (FR2), with no supplementation, the glycerol (GLY) group, which received 40 ml of glycerol per d, and the rumen-protected choline chloride (RPC) group, which received 10 g of rumen-protected choline chloride per d for 9 d. In the first experiment, the urine metabolome of sixteen ewes showed significant difference between the CON group and FR group. Compared with the CON group, FR decreased the level of d-glucose, lactic acid, levoglucosan, α-ketoglutarate, phosphohydroxypyruvic acid, glucose 6-phosphate and the methyl donors, while increasing the level of pyruvate, fumaric acid and carnitines in urine. Both the GLY and RPC treatments counteracted some of these changes and modulated the urine metabolome in advanced pregnant ewes suffering from malnutrition.
Dalian, China, is a city free of rabies in recent 20 years, but the annual cost for rabies vaccination still brings an economic burden on society and individuals. We did a retrospective descriptive analysis to analyse the reason for this and try to find some ways to resolve it. A total of 10 028 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) cases were recorded from January 2016 to December 2017. According to the exposure grades, 32 cases were grade I; 7712 cases were grade II; 2284 cases were grade III. All the patients in the cases were injured by pet dogs without abnormal clinical signs, and 80% of them were home pet dogs. Fifty-two per cent of the pet dogs were vaccinated. All the dogs survived during the PEP vaccination period. The data showed that a considerable proportion of people who did not have exposure risk for rabies had received vaccination. The underlying reasons included social, medical and personal factors. So here we proposed to replace the current ‘five-course’ intramuscular injection with intradermal injection method in the cities free of rabies in China, this can not only achieve effective vaccination but also save resources and eliminate the fear of rabies from victims. Meanwhile we should strengthen communication on rabies knowledge and make a routine evaluation of rabies surveillance system to improve understanding of the risk for rabies from biting animals.
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can increase the level of inflammation and induce rumenitis in dairy cows. Berberine (BBR) is the major active component of Rhizoma Coptidis, which is a type of Chinese anti-inflammatory drug for gastrointestinal diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of BBR on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rumen epithelial cells (REC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. REC were cultured and stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of BBR. The results showed that cell viability was not affected by BBR. Moreover, BBR markedly decreased the concentrations and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in the LPS-treated REC in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, Western blotting analysis showed that BBR significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in LPS-treated REC. Furthermore, the results of immunocytofluorescence showed that BBR significantly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 induced by LPS treatment. In conclusion, the protective effects of BBR on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in REC may be due to its ability to suppress the TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that BBR can be used as an anti-inflammatory drug to treat inflammation induced by SARA.
Nanocrystalline and nanolaminated materials show enhanced radiation tolerance compared with their coarse-grained counterparts, since grain boundaries and layer interfaces act as effective defect sinks. Although the effects of layer interface and layer thickness on radiation tolerance of crystalline nanolaminates have been systematically studied, radiation response of crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates is rarely investigated. In this study, we show that irradiation can lead to formation of nanocrystals and nanotwins in amorphous CuNb layers in Cu/amorphous-CuNb nanolaminates. Substantial element segregation is observed in amorphous CuNb layers after irradiation. In Cu layers, both stationary and migrating grain boundaries effectively interact with defects. Furthermore, there is a clear size effect on irradiation-induced crystallization and grain coarsening. In situ studies also show that crystalline/amorphous interfaces can effectively absorb defects without drastic microstructural change, and defect absorption by grain boundary and crystalline/amorphous interface is compared and discussed. Our results show that tailoring layer thickness can enhance radiation tolerance of crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates and can provide insights for constructing crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates under radiation environment.
AlMg alloys have widespread industrial applications. Grain refinement techniques have been frequently used to achieve high strength in these alloys. Here, we report on the fabrication of epitaxial co-sputtered AlMg thin films with high-density growth twins. The microstructure evolution with varying Mg composition has been characterized. Nanoindentation and in-situ micropillar compression tests show that the strength of AlMg alloys increases with increasing Mg composition. The flow stress of epitaxial nanotwinned Al–10 at.% Mg thin film exceeds 800 MPa. The modified Hall–Petch plots incorporating the solid solution strengthening effect suggest that, compared to high angle grain boundaries, incoherent twin boundaries are equivalent barriers to the transmission of dislocations in nanotwinned AlMg alloys.
A high power laser system was used to drive the ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), of which the high energy, the uniform focal spot, the accurate laser waveform, and the synchronization between the laser beams are key parameters. To accomplish this, global laser characteristics control should be assured, which was the main purpose of the injection laser system. In this paper, the key technological progress involved in the improvement of the performance of the injection laser of SG-II is reported, including frequency domain control, time domain control, near-field spatial shaping, pre-amplifier technology, and the optical parametric chirped pulse amplification pump source.
A miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider based on composite right/left-handed transmission line is presented. The composite right/left-handed transmission line and conventional microstrip transmission line are utilized to realize the 0° phase shift transmission line, which is used to replace the 180° transmission line of the conventional Bagley Polygon power divider. As a result, miniaturization is realized, without deteriorating the isolation between the output ports. The design equations are presented. This power divider shows advantages compared with other miniaturized ones. For verification, a miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider is designed and fabricated. The 58.2% length reduction of the counterpart is realized. The measurement and simulation results show good agreement.
Three gravity cores (LZK1, ZKA4, and CSJA6) from the incised Yangtze paleo-valley comprise a thick sequence of the post-glacial deposit. Nineteen genera (26 species) of the benthic foraminifers are described from these cores, with detailed down-core foraminiferal variations to investigate their paleoenvironmental implications. Three foraminiferal assemblages are recognized for the lower, middle, and upper parts of the cores respectively. The lower part is dominated by Ammonia beccarii var. and Florilus decorus with lower abundance and diversity. In the middle part, the foraminifers are abundant and diverse, dominated by both Ammonia beccarii var. and Elphidium advenum. Cavarotalia annectens, Pararotalia nipponica, and porcellaneous benthic foraminiferal forms are always present, sometimes abundant. The upper part is characterized by the Ammonia beccarii-Elphidium magellanicum assemblage, except for the Core ZKA4, which is barren of foraminifers in this interval. AMS 14C dates and foraminiferal assemblages both confirm that the transgression-regression sequence in these cores belongs to the “Ammonia transgression” during the Holocene. In addition to documenting the post-glacial sea-level fluctuations, the benthic foraminifers also reflect a warmer climate during the early–middle Holocene. The foraminiferal differences among the three cores can be used to interpret the influence of seawater during the post-glacial sea-level fluctuations. The area in the vicinity of Core ZKA4 was affected by marine water only during the middle Holocene, which was much shorter than the areas of the other cores.
Metallic glasses (MGs) are known to have high strength, but poor ductility. Prior studies have shown that plasticity in MG can be enhanced by significantly reducing their dimension to nanoscale. Here we show that, via the introduction of certain types of crystalline/amorphous interfaces, plasticity of MG can be prominently enhanced as manifested by the formation of ductile “dimples” in a 2 μm thick amorphous CuNb film. By tailoring the volume fraction and architecture of crystalline/amorphous multilayers, tensile fracture surface of MG can evolve from brittle featureless morphology to containing ductile dimples. In situ micropillar compression studies performed inside a scanning electron microscope show that shear instability in amorphous layers can be inhibited by interfaces. The mechanisms for improving plasticity and fracture resistance of MG via interface and size effect are discussed.
In this paper, a tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) using asymmetric stub-loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SL-SIR) is presented. The asymmetric characteristic of SL-SIR broadens degrees of freedom for three controllable modes design. Also, the coupling coefficients (Mij) and the external quality factors (Qei) at each passband of the filter can be independently adjusted by the proposed mixed-type feedline structure. Besides, multi-transmission zeros are produced to improve the isolation and selectivity of the passbands. Finally, a tri-band BPF is operated at 1.9 GHz (time division long term evolution – TD-LTE band), 3.2 GHz (worldwide interoperability for microwave access – WiMAX band), and 5.8 GHz (wireless local area networks – WLAN band) and their insertion loss are 1.03, 0.94, and 1.27 dB, respectively. The measured results of the fabricated tri-band BPF exhibit good agreement with simulated results.
The existence of black holes with masses of about one billion solar masses in quasars at redshifts z > 6 presents significant challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the early Universe. Here we report a recent discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar at redshift z = 6.30, which has an observed optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. With near-infrared spectroscopy, we obtain a black hole mass of about 12 billion solar masses, which is well consistent with the mass derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion. This ultra-luminous quasar with at z > 6 provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive black holes at cosmic dawn. It raises further challenges to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the epoch of cosmic reionization because the black hole needs to grow much faster than the host galaxy.
The role of oxidative stress in skeletal health is unclear. The present study investigated whether a high dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, animal-derived vitamin A, retinol equivalents, Zn and Se) is associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese. This 1:1 matched case–control study involved 726 elderly Chinese with hip fracture and 726 control subjects, recruited between June 2009 and May 2013. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to determine habitual dietary intakes of the above-mentioned seven nutrients based on a seventy-nine-item FFQ and information on various covariates, and an antioxidant score was calculated. After adjustment for potential covariates, dose-dependent inverse associations were observed between the dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and Se and antioxidant score and the risk of hip fracture (P for trend ≤ 0·005). The OR of hip fracture for the highest (v. lowest) quartile of intake were 0·39 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·56) for vitamin C, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 0·33) for vitamin E, 0·51 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·73) for β-carotene, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·70) for Se and 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·36) for the antioxidant score. A moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents in quartiles 2–4 (v. 1) was found to be associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (OR range: 0·51–0·63, P< 0·05). No significant association was observed between dietary Zn or animal-derived vitamin A intake and hip fracture risk (P for trend >0·20). In conclusion, a higher dietary intake of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, and Se and a moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents are associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese.