To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper investigates global dynamics of an infection age-space structured cholera model. The model describes the vibrio cholerae transmission in human population, where infection-age structure of vibrio cholerae and infectious individuals are incorporated to measure the infectivity during the different stage of disease transmission. The model is described by reaction–diffusion models involving the spatial dispersal of vibrios and the mobility of human populations in the same domain Ω ⊂ ℝn. We first give the well-posedness of the model by converting the model to a reaction–diffusion model and two Volterra integral equations and obtain two constant equilibria. Our result suggest that the basic reproduction number determines the dichotomy of disease persistence and extinction, which is achieved by studying the local stability of equilibria, disease persistence and global attractivity of equilibria.
The aim of this study was to assess the current status of disease-related knowledge and to analyze the relationship among the general condition, illness perception, and psychological status of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients using convenience sampling. The general questionnaire, disease-related knowledge questionnaire of COVID-19, Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to measure the current status of participants.
The overall average score of the disease-related knowledge of patients with COVID-19 was (79.19 ± 14.25), the self-care situation was positively correlated with knowledge of prevention and control (r = 0.265; P = 0.004) and total score of disease-related knowledge (r = 0.206; P = 0.025); the degree of anxiety was negatively correlated with the knowledge of diagnosis and treatment (r = −0.182; P = 0.049). The score of disease-related knowledge was negatively correlated with negative cognition (volatility, consequences, emotional statements) and negative emotions (tension, fatigue, depression) (P < 0.05); positively correlated with positive cognition (disease coherence) and positive emotion (self-esteem) (P < 0.05).
It was recommended that we should pay more attention to the elderly and low-income groups, and increase the knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and self-care in the future health education for patients.
This meta-analysis aimed to study the relationship between abdominal obesity and the risk of CVD by waist circumference (WC), waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Prospective studies that estimated cardiovascular events by WC, WHR and WHtR were included in this study. Pooled relative risks with 95 % CI were calculated using random effects models. A total of thirty-one studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 669 560 participants and 25 214 cases. Compared the highest with the lowest category of WC, WHR and WHtR, the summary risk ratios were 1·43 (95 % CI, 1·30, 1·56, P < 0·001), 1·43 (95 % CI, 1·33, 1·54, P < 0·001) and 1·57 (95 % CI, 1·37, 1·79, P < 0·001), respectively. The linear dose–response analysis revealed that the risk of CVD increased by 3·4 % for each 10 cm increase of WC, and by 3·5 and 6·0 % for each 0·1 unit increase of WHR and WHtR in women, respectively. In men, the risk of CVD increased by 4·0 % for each 10 cm increase of WC, and by 4·0 and 8·6 % for each 0·1 unit increase of WHR and WHtR, respectively. Collectively, abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of CVD. WC, WHR and WHtR are good indicators for the prediction of CVD.
A study was conducted to identify whether composted manure and straw amendments (replacement of a portion of chemical fertilizer [50% of the total nitrogen application] with composted pig manure, and straw return [all straw from the previous rice crop] combined with chemical fertilizer) compared with no fertilization and chemical fertilizer only would change the dominant species of wheat-associated weeds as well as influence their growth and seed yield in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system. The study was initiated in 2010, and the treatment effects on the species, density, plant height, shoot biomass, seed yield of dominant weeds, and wheat yields were assessed in 2017 and 2018. Fertilization significantly increased the height, density, and yield of wheat, as well as the shoot biomass of wheat-associated weeds, but decreased the weed species number. A total of 17 and 14 weed species were recorded in the experimental wheat fields in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The most dominant weed species were American sloughgrass [Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald] and catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.), which made up more than 64% of the weed community in all treatments. When the chemical fertilizer application was amended with pig manure compost and straw return, the relative abundance of B. syzigachne significantly decreased, while the relative abundance of G. aparine significantly increased. The application of the chemical fertilizer-only treatment resulted in increases in the density, shoot biomass, and seed yield of B. syzigachne, while the composted manure and straw amendments applied together with chemical fertilizer led to significant increases in the density, shoot biomass, and seed yield of G. aparine. Consequently, further research on ways to promote greater cropping system diversity will be needed to prevent the selection of weed species that are adapted to a limited suite of crop management practices.
This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China.
This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10–20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.
There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures.
The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, leading to toxoplasmosis. Currently, the effective treatment for human toxoplasmosis is the combination of sulphadiazine and pyrimethamine. However, both drugs have serious side-effects and toxicity in the host. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new anti-T. gondii drugs with high potency and less or no side-effects. Our findings suggest that lumefantrine exerts activity against T. gondii by inhibiting its proliferation in Vero cells in vitro without being toxic to Vero cells (P ≤ 0.01). Lumefantrine prolonged mice infected with T. gondii from death for 3 days at the concentration of 50 μg L−1 than negative control (phosphate-buffered saline treated only), and reduced the parasite burden in mouse tissues in vivo (P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production was observed in high-dose lumefantrine-treated mice (P ≤ 0.01), whereas interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-4 levels increased in low-dose lumefantrine-treated mice (P ≤ 0.01). The results demonstrated that lumefantrine may be a promising agent to treat toxoplasmosis, and more experiments on the protective mechanism of lumefantrine should be undertaken in further studies.
A novel Ag/AgBr/Nb2O5 heterojunction photocatalyst was successfully developed via a facile solvothermal method combined with deposition–precipitation. The morphology and composition of the Ag/AgBr/Nb2O5 photocatalyst were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry, respectively. The results showed that metallic Ag was formed on the surface of the AgBr by an in situ photoreaction. The low crystalline Nb2O5 (L-Nb2O5) substrate provides the photocatalyst with a high specific area and numerous active sites for catalysis, while the combination of the Ag/AgBr with L-Nb2O5 effectively facilitates the separation of photo-generated charge carriers. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were measured using the degradation of an aqueous solution of rhodamine B under different LEDs with UV (365 nm), yellow (595 nm), and white (400 nm ≤ λ ≤ 800 nm) light. The Ag/AgBr/L-Nb2O5 photocatalyst displayed a much higher photocatalytic activity than bare L-Nb2O5 under UV and visible-light irradiation.
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is enormously important in suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the structural alterations in the brains of people with MDD and suicidal ideation. We examined the gray matter volume (GMV) of the PFC of individuals with MDD and suicidal ideation to determine if PFC volumetric differences contribute to suicidal ideation in patients with MDD. Thirty-five subjects with MDD and suicidal ideation, 38 subjects with MDD but without suicidal ideation, and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent T1-weighted imaging. A voxel-based morphometric analysis was conducted to compare the PFC GMVs of the three groups. Further GMV reductions in the left and right dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) were detected in the MDD with suicidal ideation group compared with those in the HC group and the MDD without suicidal ideation group, whereas the MDD without suicidal ideation group only exhibited significant differences in the left DLPFC relative to the HC group. Our findings demonstrated that left DLPFC reductions were associated with MDD and suicidal ideation, and diminished GMV reductions in the right DLPFC and right VLPFC were only associated with suicidal ideation. These results help us better understand the neuropathological changes in MDD with suicidal ideation.
The co-occurrence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is extremely rare. Here, we present the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of three cases with co-occurring CE and AE in the liver. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and 18FFluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-CT were used for preoperative diagnosis. Specimens were taken intraoperatively and sent for pathological studies to confirm the coexistence of CE and AE by laminated membrane, daughter cysts or germinal layer and infiltration structure. Albendazole was prescribed after operation for 12 months. All patients were completely recovered and showed no recurrence at last follow-up. Therefore, surgical intervention and postoperative application of albendazole are recommended for patients with concurrence of hepatic AE and CE.
Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) enables the desorption of nonvolatile and/or thermally labile neutral compounds, such as asphaltenes, saturated hydrocarbons in base-oil fractions and biomolecules, from a metal surface into a mass spectrometer. This is a “gentle” evaporation technique and causes minimal fragmentation to the desorbed neutral molecules, including oligonucleotides and polypeptides. LIAD can be coupled with a wide range of ionization methods to facilitate analysis of the desorbed analytes by using many different types of mass spectrometers, including Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, linear quadrupole ion trap and quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. The development and improvement of LIAD remains an active research area with diverse goals such as better desorption efficiencies, minimized analyte fragmentation and greater versatility. This article details the theory, experimental methods, applications, and future directions of LIAD in combination with mass spectrometry.
Although it is crucial to improve the treatment status of people with severe mental illness (SMI), it is still unknown whether and how socioeconomic development influences their treatment status.
To explore the change in treatment status in people with SMI from 1994 to 2015 in rural China and to examine the factors influencing treatment status in those with SMI.
Two mental health surveys using identical methods and ICD-10 were conducted in 1994 and 2015 (population ≥15 years old, n = 152 776) in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
Compared with 1994, individuals with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status, fewer family caregivers, longer duration of illness, later age at first onset and poor mental status. Participants in 2015 had significantly higher rates of never being treated, taking antipsychotic drugs and ever being admitted to hospital, and lower rates of using traditional Chinese medicine or being treated by traditional/spiritual healers. The factors strongly associated with never being treated included worse mental status (symptoms/social functioning), older age, having no family caregivers and poor family economic status.
Socioeconomic development influences the treatment status of people with SMI in contemporary rural China. Relative poverty, having no family caregivers and older age are important factors associated with a worse treatment status. Culture-specific, community-based interventions and targeted poverty-alleviation programmes should be developed to improve the early identification, treatment and recovery of individuals with SMI in rural China.
In a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system, a study was conducted to determine the effects of different fertilization regimens (no fertilization, replacement of a portion of chemical fertilizer with composted pig manure, chemical fertilizer only, and straw return combined with chemical fertilizer) on the weed communities and wheat yields after 4 and 5 yr. The impact of the long-term recurrent fertilization regimen initiated in 2010 on the composition and diversity of weed communities and the impact of the components and total amount of fertilizer on wheat yields were assessed in 2014 and 2015. Totals of 19 and 16 weed species were identified in experimental wheat fields in 2014 and 2015, respectively, but the occurrence of weed species varied according to the fertilization regimen. American sloughgrass [Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald], water starwort [Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench], and lyrate hemistepta (Hemistepta lyrata Bunge.) were adapted to all fertilization treatments and were the dominant weed species in the experimental wheat fields. The greatest number of weed species were observed under the no-fertilization treatment, in which 40% of the weed community was composed of broadleaf weeds and the lowest wheat yields were obtained. With fertilizer application, the number of weed species was reduced, the height of weeds increased significantly, the density of broadleaf weeds was significantly reduced, the biodiversity indices of weed communities decreased significantly, and higher wheat yields were obtained. Only the chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure treatment and the chemical fertilizer–only treatment increased the density of grassy weeds and the total weed community density. The treatment with chemical fertilizer only also resulted in the highest density of B. syzigachne. Rice straw return combined with chemical fertilizer yielded the lowest total weed density, which suggests that it inhibited occurrence of weeds. The different fertilizer regimens not only affected the weed species composition, distribution, and diversity, but also the weed density. Our study provides new information from a rice–wheat rotation system on the relationship between soil amendments and agricultural weed infestation.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
AgBr-modified Bi2WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized using a CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method followed by a facile deposition–precipitation procedure. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL). AgBr nanoparticles were found evenly distributed on the surface of the Bi2WO6 nanosheets. The AgBr/Bi2WO6 nanocomposite demonstrated enhanced pollutant decolorization efficiency in eliminating Rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO), and phenol aqueous solutions under simulated solar light irradiation. It has been noticed that the adsorption performance of both Bi2WO6 nanosheets and AgBr-modified Bi2WO6 nanosheets played a more important role in the decolorization of pollutants, such as RhB and MO, than their photocatalytic ability. The high adsorption efficiency of the photocatalysts was mainly attributed to the increased surface area and the exposed reactive facets of the materials.
The giant panda, native to mountains of south-west China, is one of the world's rarest bear species and is subject to considerable conservation effort. In captivity, the proportion of twins accounts for 54% of the total number of births. To date, little is known about zygosity in panda populations — specifically, the proportion of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In this study, we used 10 microsatellite markers for reliable zygosity testing, and the probability of monozygotic twins was 99.963% when all 10 markers were concordant. Out of 43 studied twin pairs, no MZ twins were found, indicating that there may be no identical panda twins (or the incidence is very low). We speculate that the fertilized eggs of giant pandas do not have the capability to split into two identical embryos, or that this ability is very poor, which is likely due to delayed implantation that is common in bear species. The results of this study deepen our understanding of giant panda breeding, yield insight into panda twins’ likely mechanism of formation, and reduce the uncertainty of individual identity in wild population surveys.
Dipetalonema gracile is a common parasite in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which can cause malnutrition and progressive wasting of the host, and lead to death in the case of massive infection. This study aimed to identify a suspected D. gracile worm from a dead squirrel monkey by means of molecular biology, and to amplify its complete mitochondrial genome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. The results identified the worm as D. gracile, and the full length of its complete mitochondrial genome was 13,584 bp, which contained 22 tRNA genes, 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, one AT-rich region and one small non-coding region. The nucleotide composition included A (16.89%), G (20.19%), T (56.22%) and C (6.70%), among which A + T = 73.11%. The 12 protein-coding genes used TTG and ATT as start codons, and TAG and TAA as stop codons. Among the 22 tRNA genes, only trnS1AGN and trnS2UCN exhibited the TΨC-loop structure, while the other 20 tRNAs showed the TV-loop structure. The rrnL (986 bp) and rrnS (685 bp) genes were single-stranded and conserved in secondary structure. This study has enriched the mitochondrial gene database of Dipetalonema and laid a scientific basis for further study on classification, and genetic and evolutionary relationships of Dipetalonema nematodes.
This paper presents a model-based approach for the first time to identify the crack location for the hinge-based planar RRR compliant mechanism, a parallel micro-motion stage driven by piezoelectric (PZT) actuators. However, cracks more likely occur on a flexure hinge because it usually undergoes a periodic deformation in service, which eventually compromises mechanism's performance, positioning accuracy for instance. In this work, the pseudo-rigid-body method is used to develop kinematic and dynamic models of the RRR mechanism both in healthy and damaged conditions, where the crack is considered in terms of the rotational compliance of a flexible hinge. The crack location is determined by measuring PZT elongations, which represents the driving toque deviation because of the crack presence. Numerical simulation is conducted to verify the proposed approach, and the results show good match of the identified crack location with the assumed location. Finally, experiments on the RRR mechanism with a prefabricated crack is performed to further validate the proposed models; the experimental results yield a good consistence.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC) has been one of the most promising choices as the electrode for supercapacitors due to its large surface area and uniform mesoporous structure. However, there is still a big challenge to prepare N-OMC using a relatively simple method. Here, a straightforward preparation of N-OMC was reported in which the precursor zeoliticimidazolate framework was in situ grown in the SBA-15 template by a fast, solvent-free, and atom economic solid–solid grinding strategy. After pyrolysis and removing of the template, the N-OMC was obtained with ordered mesoporous structure, rich oxygen and nitrogen, and a large specific surface area of 1004 m2/g. As the electrode material for supercapacitors, N-OMC displayed an excellent specific capacitance of 228 F/g at 0.2 A/g and superb charge/discharge cycling stability, which is promising for high-performance energy storage. This solid–solid grinding strategy may offer a low-cost and scalable method to produce high-performance N-OMC for the electrode from the zeoliticimidazolate framework.
As the first European to claim that he travelled to China and back, Marco Polo is a celebrated traveller who described the multicultural society of Eurasia in the thirteenth to fourteenth centuries ad. However, his famed account, the Travels of Marco Polo, contains many unsolved mysteries which have generated discussion among historians, while an archaeological approach has been even less convincing because the material that may link to Marco Polo is very rare. A recent re-analysis of Chinese ceramics from a wide geographical area ranging from southern China to the Indian Ocean provides some archaeological support: it suggests that a Chinese porcelain jar housed in the Treasury of San Marco in Venice dates to the era of Marco Polo and is associated with his journey to China.