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To examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Relevant Outcome Scale for Alzheimer’s disease (CROSA) among persons with AD (PWAD) and their caregivers in China.
A single-arm, open-label, multi-center study.
Two tertiary general hospitals in Shanghai.
A total of 336 PWAD and their family caregivers.
The PWAD completed a 12-week treatment with memantine after a baseline assessment.
The CROSA and the Chinese versions of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, the Disability Activity of Dementia, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview and the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Chinese Family Caregivers.
The Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale was 0.900, and the intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were 0.910 (P < 0.001) and 0.836 (P < 0.001), respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the two-factor model to be consistent with the original version. For the known-group validity, the total score of the CROSA classified the PWAD into three stages and three MMSE score groups. Moderate to large correlations with the validated scales confirmed the criteria validity of the CROSA, and the convergent validity was confirmed via testing a hypothesized caregiving model; however, only minimal responsiveness was found among the deterioration group after 12 weeks of treatment with memantine.
The reliability and validity of the CROSA was good or acceptable for use in daily clinical settings. Further studies are needed to examine the psychometric properties of the scale.
In this paper, a millimeter-wave (MMW) dual-mode and dual-band switchable Gilbert up-conversion mixer in a commercial 65-nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process is presented. By simply changing the bias, the proposed CMOS Gilbert up-conversion mixer can be switched between subharmonic and fundamental operation modes for MMW dual-band applications. With a low local oscillator pumping power of 3 dBm and low dc power consumption of 6 mW, the proposed CMOS Gilbert up-conversion mixer exhibits a measured conversion gain of −0.5 ± 1.5 dB from 37 to 50 GHz and 2.5 ± 1.5 dB from 17.5 to 32 GHz for the subharmonic and fundamental modes, respectively.
Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded vertebrates with pathogensis being largely influenced by the host immune status. As important epidemiological hosts, rodents are globally distributed and are also commonly found infected with haemoflagellates, such as those in the genus Trypanosoma. We here address whether and how co-infection with trypanosomes can influence T. gondii infection in laboratory models. Rats of five strains, co-infected with T. lewisi and mice of four strains, co-infected with T. musculi, were found to be more or less susceptible to T. gondii infection, respectively, with corresponding increased or decreased brain cyst burdens. Downregulation of iNOS expression and decreased NO production or reverse were observed in the peritoneal macrophages of rats or mice, infected with trypanosomes, respectively. Trypanosoma lewisi and T. musculi can modulate host immune responses, either by enhancement or suppression and influence the outcome of Toxoplasma infection.
Teenagers are important carriers of Neisseria meningitidis, which is a leading cause of invasive meningococcal disease. In China, the carriage rate and risk factors among teenagers are unclear. The present study presents a retrospective analysis of epidemiological data for N. meningitidis carriage from 2013 to 2017 in Suizhou city, China. The carriage rates were 3.26%, 2.22%, 3.33%, 3.53% and 9.88% for 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. From 2014 to 2017, the carriage rate in the 15- to 19-year-old age group (teenagers) was the highest and significantly higher than that in remain age groups. Subsequently, a larger scale survey (December 2017) for carriage rate and relative risk factors (population density, time spent in the classroom, gender and antibiotics use) were investigated on the teenagers (15- to 19-year-old age) at the same school. The carriage rate was still high at 33.48% (223/663) and varied greatly from 6.56% to 52.94% in a different class. Population density of the classroom was found to be a significant risk factor for carriage, and 1.4 persons/m2 is recommended as the maximum classroom density. Further, higher male gender ratio and more time spent in the classroom were also significantly associated with higher carriage. Finally, antibiotic use was associated with a significantly lower carriage rate. All the results imply that attention should be paid to the teenagers and various measures can be taken to reduce the N. meningitidis carriage, to prevent and control the outbreak of IMD.
This paper proposes and presents a millimeter-wave (MMW) fundamental and subharmonic hybrid mixer in a 65-nm CMOS technology. Based on a hybrid structure with two switching quads and a quasi-diplexer, the proposed circuit can function either as a fundamental mixer (FM) or a subharmonic mixer (SHM) for dual-band applications. An application of the MMW hybrid mixer in a concurrent dual-band receiver is also discussed, which indicates that the proposed mixer can operate at two different MMW frequency bands concurrently as long as the frequency conversion schemes are carefully designed. Measured results show that the 3-dB RF bandwidth of the MMW hybrid mixer ranges from 16 to 35 GHz for the FM mode and 30 to 53 GHz for the SHM mode, respectively.
To investigate the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake before conception and during pregnancy reduce the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and to examine the joint effect of folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake on the risk of SGA.
Participants were interviewed by trained study interviewers using a standardized and structured questionnaire. Information on birth outcomes and maternal complications was abstracted from medical records and dietary information was collected via a semi-quantitative FFQ before conception and during pregnancy.
A birth cohort data analysis using the 2010–2012 Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital.
Women (n 8758) and their children enrolled in the study.
Folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (OR = 0·72, 95 % CI 0·60, 0·86), with the reduced risk seen mainly for SGA at ≥37 weeks of gestational age (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85) and nulliparous SGA (OR = 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). There was no significant association between dietary folate intake and SGA risk.
Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA and the risk varied by preterm status and parity.
As part of our ongoing research on Peltigera, we recognize a morphologically and phylogenetically distinct new species, Peltigera shennongjiana L. F. Han & S. Y. Guo, from the Shennongjia region of Central China. It is distinguished from other members of the P. canina-group by the presence of abundant phyllidia and flat, branched lobules along the margin or laminal cracks, short lobes, and a pruinose, usually greyish upper surface. The various populations sampled share identical ITS nr DNA sequences, of which the ITS2 regions are characterized by a unique secondary structure. Furthermore, we provide a detailed comparison of the characteristics of P. shennongjiana with morphologically similar species and a key to Peltigera species reported from China.
Auto-alignment is a basic technique for high-power laser systems. Special techniques have been developed for laser systems because of their differing structures. This paper describes a new sensor for auto-alignment in a laser system, which can also serve as a reference in certain applications. The authors prove that all of the beam transfer information (position and pointing) can theoretically be monitored and recorded by the sensor. Furthermore, auto-alignment with a single lens sensor is demonstrated on a simple beam line, and the results indicate that effective auto-alignment is achieved.
The degradation, alteration and depletion of riparian habitats caused by river regulation are among critical conservation concerns. Aquatic and riparian habitats support not only river-dwelling biota such as macroinvertebrates and fish, but also waterbirds, the top predators in the aquatic food web. Despite the intimate relationships between fish and waterbirds, the two groups are often investigated separately. Using an integrative approach, we examined the effects of dams on fish and scaly-sided merganser (Mergus squamatus), an endangered, iconic riverine species, where the lack of knowledge about habitat preferences greatly hampers long-term conservation efforts. Our analysis quantified three causal links: (1) water depth had direct, comparable, negative effects on both fish and waterbirds, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are –0.31 and –0.46, respectively; (2) river landscape heterogeneity directly and positively affected fish and waterbirds, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are 0.63 and 0.19, respectively; and (3) depth and river landscape also exerted indirect effects on waterbirds through their impacts on fish abundance, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are –0.15 and 0.28, respectively. Our findings could contribute to the rational spatial planning and sustainable operation of dams in that maintaining instream habitat availability and heterogeneity would benefit the whole riverine ecosystem.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
In the paper, we focus on atom diffusion behavior in Ni-based superalloys, which have important applications in the aero-industry. Specifically, the expressions of the key physical parameter – transition rate (jump rate) in the diffusion can be given from the diffusion theory in solids and the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method, respectively. The transition rate controls the diffusion process and is directly related to the energy of vacancy formation and the energy of migration of atom from density functional theory (DFT). Moreover, from the KMC calculations, the diffusion coefficients for Ni and Al atoms in the γ phase (Ni matrix) and the γʹ phase (intermetallic compound Ni3Al) of the superalloy have been obtained. We propose a strategy of time stepping to deal with the multi-time scale issues. In addition, the influence of temperature and Al concentration on diffusion in dilute alloys is also reported.
Apixaban (Eliquis®) is a novel oral pyrazole-based direct FXa inhibitor. The title compound is an intermediate in the synthesis of the anticoagulant, Apixaban. X-ray powder diffraction data for the title compound, are reported [a = 9.511(5) Å, b = 18.539(2) Å, c = 5.645(3) Å, α = 90°, β = 101.813(1)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 974.28 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.336 g cm−3, and space group P2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
The Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt (QMB) was considered to have either formed in situ by amalgmation of the North and South Qiangtang blocks or been underthrust from the Jinsha suture and exhumed in the interior of a single ‘Qiangtang Block’. A new Sphaeroschwagerina fusuline fauna discovered in the Raggyorcaka Lake area supports the interpretation that the North and South Qiangtang blocks were separated by a wide ocean during Asselian (Early Permian) time, indicating that the QMB was formed by the suturing of the Palaeotethys Ocean along the Longmu Co-Shuanghu suture.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for drospirenone, C24H30O3, are reported [a = 12.897(1) Å, b = 12.618(1) Å, c = 12.252(1) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1994.13 Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.229 g cm−3, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
Course keeping for ships is the core of automatic navigation in sea transportation. Much work has concentrated on developing novel control strategies for closed loop systems. We have turned our attention the other way to improve the control performance of marine autopilots in this work by “modulating” the control error using a sine function while the construction of the controller is not changed. The nonlinear feedback signal thus obtained is sent to the controller to replace the control error itself, which used to be the deviation between the output response and the reference input of the system. Such a control scheme is called “nonlinear feedback control” hereafter. Theoretical analysis by using a describing function and robust control theory shows that the same control quality is guaranteed with minor control actions for the nonlinear feedback scheme. Simulation experiments were carried out for the ship Yulong of Dalian Maritime University. It is shown that the method postulated in this paper has advantages of safety and energy saving in navigation; the maximum initial rudder angle is reduced by 31·2% with satisfactory control effect.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for DCT (C12H12Cl2N6O4S2 • C6H15N) are reported [a = 18.991(9) Å, b = 19.057(2) Å, c = 7.346(8) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 2659.05 Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P212121]. No detectable impurity was observed.
We investigated the effect of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPS) medium on porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer and bovine in vitro fertilized early blastocysts, in comparison with North Carolina State University (NCSU)-37 medium and in vitro culture (IVC)-II medium. After 2 days of culture, the diameter of the portion of the blastocyst that was extruded from the zona pellucid dramatically differed between porcine blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium and those cultured in NCSU-37 medium (221.47 ± 38.94 μm versus 481.87 ± 40.61 μm, P < 0.01). Moreover, the diameter of the portion of the blastocyst significantly differed between bovine blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium and those cultured in IVC-II medium (150.30 ± 29.49 μm versus 195.58 ± 41.59 μm, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the total number of cells per porcine and bovine blastocyst was more than two-fold higher in blastocysts cultured in hiPS medium than in those cultured in NCSU-37 medium (44.33 ± 5.28 and 143.33 ± 16.05, P < 0.01) or IVC-II medium (172.12 ± 45.08 and 604.83 ± 242.64, P < 0.01), respectively. These results indicate that hiPS medium markedly improves the quality of porcine and bovine blastocysts.
Sn–Ag–Cu solder interconnects were made by solidifying the solder balls in a magnetic field and subsequently tested for their electromigration behavior. The orientation of the tin grains was analyzed by electron backscattered diffraction. It was found that the c-axis of Sn grain tended to rotate away from the direction of the magnetic field during solidification, resulting in an enhanced electromigration resistance for the solder joint when the current was applied along the direction of the magnetic field, as evidenced by a smaller electromigration-induced polarity effect in the growth of the interfacial intermetallic compound. Such a reduced polarity-effect of electromigration is shown to agree well with the anisotropy in the diffusivity of the active diffusion species, Cu, in the tetragonal Sn. The difference of free energy change caused by the anisotropy in the magnetic susceptibility of the tetragonal Sn during solidification is suggested to be the main factor for this phenomenon.
A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is carried out to study the wakefield and stopping power for a hydrogen ion beam pulse with low drift velocity propagation in hydrogen plasmas. The plasma is assumed to be collisionless, uniform, non-magnetized, and in a steady state. Both the pulse ions and plasma particles are treated by the PIC method. The effects of the beam density on the wakefield and stopping power are then obtained and discussed. It is found that as the beam densities increase, the oscillation wakefield induced by the beam become stronger. Besides, the first oscillation wakefield behind the bunch is particularly stronger than others. Moreover, it is found that the stationary stopping power increases linearly with the increase of the beam density in the linear/semilinear region.
ING2 (inhibitor of growth protein-2) is a member of the ING-gene family and participates in diverse cellular processes involving tumor suppression, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and cellular senescence. As a subunit of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex co-repressor complex, ING2 binds to H3K4me3 to regulate chromatin modification and gene expression. Additionally, ING2 recruits histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity for gene repression, which is independent of the HDAC class I or II pathway. However, the physiological function of ING2 in mouse preimplantation embryo development has not yet been characterized previously. The expression, localization and function of ING2 during preimplantation development were investigated in this study. We showed increasing expression of ING2 within the nucleus from the 4-cell embryo stage onwards; and that down-regulation of ING2 expression by endoribonuclease-prepared small interfering RNA (esiRNA) microinjection results in developmental arrest during the morula to blastocyst transition. Embryonic cells microinjected with ING2-specific esiRNA exhibited decreased blastulation rate compared to the negative control. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism indicated that down-regulation of ING2 significantly increased expression of p21, whilst decreasing expression of HDAC1. These results suggest that ING2 may play a crucial role in the process of preimplantation embryo development through chromatin regulation.