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Nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate is a nicotine salt that can be used as the nicotine source in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4, are reported [a = 7.726(8) Å, b = 11.724(3) Å, c = 9.437(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 109.081(3)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 802.902 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.309 g cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and were consistent with the P21 space group.
A graph is edge-primitive if its automorphism group acts primitively on the edge set, and
-arc-transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on the set of
-arcs. In this paper, we present a classification for those edge-primitive graphs that are
-arc-transitive and have soluble edge-stabilizers.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) occurs in the intermediate host's liver, assuming a bladder-like structure surrounded by the host-derived collagen capsule mainly derived from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). However, the effect of CE on liver natural killer (NK) cells and the potential of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling inhibition on alleviating CE-related liver damage remain to be explored. Here, by using the CE-mouse model, we revealed that the inhibitory receptors on the surface of liver NK cells were up-regulated, whereas the activating receptors were down-regulated over time. TGF-β1 secretion was elevated in liver tissues and mainly derived from macrophages. A combination of TGF-β signalling inhibitors SB525334 and pirfenidone could reduce the expression of TGF-β1 signalling pathway-related proteins and collagen production. Based on the secretion of TGF-β1, only the pirfenidone group showed a depressing effect. Also, the combination of SB525334 and pirfenidone exhibited a higher potential in effectively alleviating the senescence of the hepatocytes and restoring liver function. Together, TGF-β1 may be a potential target for the treatment of CE-associated liver fibrosis.
The objective of this study was to analyze differences in birth weight and overweight/obesity in a Shanghai twin cohort. We also wanted to study their association and explore possible risk factors for the discordance of overweight/obesity within twins. This was an internal case–control study designed for twins. The 2012 Shanghai Twin Registration System baseline survey data of a total of 3417 twin pairs were statistically analyzed using SPSS22 software. Results show that the body mass index (BMI) of the Shanghai twin population increased with age. Twins with a high birth weight had a higher BMI and a higher rate of overweight and obesity; 0- to 6-year-old twins, male twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins had higher rates of overweight/obesity than other groups. The greater the discordant birth weight rate of twins, the more obvious the difference in BMI (p < .05). There was a significant difference in overweight/obesity between twins with a relative difference of birth weight ≥15% in DZ twins (p < .05). DZ twins, male twins and 0- to 6-year-old twins were more likely to be discordant in overweight/obese than others. The discordant birth weight within twins was not a risk factor for discordant overweight/obesity. However, attention should be paid to childhood obesity, and appropriate interventions should be made at the appropriate time. Genetics may play an important role in the occurrence and development of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, discordant growth and development in the uterus early in life may not lead to discordant weight development in the future.
Deep neural networks (DNN) have solved many tasks, including image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation. However, when there are huge parameters and high level of computation associated with a DNN model, it becomes difficult to deploy on mobile devices. To address this difficulty, we propose an efficient compression method that can be split into three parts. First, we propose a cross-layer matrix to extract more features from the teacher's model. Second, we adopt Kullback Leibler (KL) Divergence in an offline environment to make the student model find a wider robust minimum. Finally, we propose the offline ensemble pre-trained teachers to teach a student model. To address dimension mismatch between teacher and student models, we adopt a $1\times 1$ convolution and two-stage knowledge distillation to release this constraint. We conducted experiments with VGG and ResNet models, using the CIFAR-100 dataset. With VGG-11 as the teacher's model and VGG-6 as the student's model, experimental results showed that the Top-1 accuracy increased by 3.57% with a $2.08\times$ compression rate and 3.5x computation rate. With ResNet-32 as the teacher's model and ResNet-8 as the student's model, experimental results showed that Top-1 accuracy increased by 4.38% with a $6.11\times$ compression rate and $5.27\times$ computation rate. In addition, we conducted experiments using the ImageNet$64\times 64$ dataset. With MobileNet-16 as the teacher's model and MobileNet-9 as the student's model, experimental results showed that the Top-1 accuracy increased by 3.98% with a $1.59\times$ compression rate and $2.05\times$ computation rate.
Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in Taiwan. On 27 April 2018, a salmonellosis outbreak among customers of a restaurant was reported to the Taiwan CDC. We investigated the outbreak to identify infection sources and prevent further transmission. We interviewed ill customers and their dining companions. We conducted a case-control study to identify foods associated with the illness. Case-patients were those who had diarrhoea within 72 h after eating at the restaurant during 16–27 April 2018. Specimens, food samples and environmental samples were collected and tested for enteric pathogens. Salmonella isolates were analysed with pulse-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing. We inspected the restaurant sanitation and reviewed kitchen surveillance camera recordings. We identified 47 case-patients, including one decedent. Compared with 44 controls, case-patients were more likely to have had a French toast sandwich (OR: 102.4; 95% CI: 18.7–952.3). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 16 case-patients shared an indistinguishable genotype. Camera recordings revealed eggshell contamination, long holding time at room temperature and use of leftovers during implicated food preparation. Recommendations for restaurant egg-containing food preparation are to use pasteurised egg products and ensure a high enough cooking temperature and long enough cooking time to prevent Salmonella contamination.
Findings for the roles of dairy products, Ca and vitamin D on ovarian cancer risk remain controversial. We aimed to assess these associations by using an updated meta-analysis. Five electronic databases (e.g. PubMed and Embase) were searched from inception to 24 December 2019. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated. A total of twenty-nine case–control or cohort studies were included. For comparisons of the highest v. lowest intakes, higher whole milk intake was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (RR 1·35; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·59), whereas decreased risks were observed for higher intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96), dietary Ca (RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·84) and dietary vitamin D (RR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·95). Additionally, for every 100 g/d increment, increased ovarian cancer risks were found for total dairy products (RR 1·03; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) and for whole milk (RR 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11); however, decreased risks were found for 100 g/d increased intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·95; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·99), cheese (RR 0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·98), dietary Ca (RR 0·96; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·98), total Ca (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99), dietary vitamin D (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) and increased levels of circulating vitamin D (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97). These results show that whole milk intake might contribute to a higher ovarian cancer risk, whereas low-fat milk, dietary Ca and dietary vitamin D might reduce the risk.
To identify countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that have not yet achieved at least 90 % universal salt iodization and factors associated with the consumption of non-iodized salt among women of reproductive age.
A cross-sectional study using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The presence of iodine in household salt (iodized or non-iodized), which was tested during the survey process, was the study outcome. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine independent factors associated with the consumption of non-iodized salt among women of reproductive age.
There were eleven countries in SSA that participated in the DHS since 2015 and measured the presence of iodine in household salt.
Women (n 108 318) aged 15–49 years.
Countries with the highest rate of non-iodized salt were Senegal (29·5 %) followed by Tanzania (21·3 %), Ethiopia (14·0 %), Malawi (11·6 %) and Angola (10·8 %). The rate of non-iodized salt was less than 1 % in Rwanda (0·3 %), Uganda (0·5 %) and Burundi (0·8 %). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression showed that women were more likely to be using non-iodized salt (adjusted OR; 95 % CI) if they were poor (1·62; 1·48, 1·78), pregnant (1·16; 1·04, 1·29), aged 15–24 years (v. older: 1·14; 1·04, 1·24) and were not literate (1·14; 1·06, 1·23).
The use of non-iodized salt varies among SSA countries. The higher level of use of non-iodized salt among poor, young women and pregnant women is particularly concerning.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Colistin, a peptide antibiotic belonging to the polymyxin family, is one of the last effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections. Recent discovery of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, from people and food animals has caused a significant public health concern and drawn worldwide attention. Extensive usage of colistin in food animals has been proposed as a major driving force for the emergence and transmission of mcr-1; thus, there is a worldwide trend to limit colistin usage in animal production. However, despite lack of colistin usage in food animals in the USA, mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli isolates were still isolated from swine. In this paper, we provided an overview of colistin usage and epidemiology of mcr-1 in food animals, and summarized the current status of mechanistic and evolutionary studies of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance. Based on published information, we further discussed several non-colistin usage risk factors that may contribute to the persistence, transmission, and emergence of colistin resistance in an animal production system. Filling the knowledge gaps identified in this review is critical for risk assessment and risk management of colistin resistance, which will facilitate proactive and effective strategies to mitigate colistin resistance in future animal production systems.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
This paper presents a relatively simple numerical method to investigate the flow and heat transfer of laminar power-law fluids over a semi-infinite plate in the presence of viscous dissipation and anisotropy radiation. On one hand, unlike most classical works, the effects of power-law viscosity on velocity and temperature fields are taken into account when both the dynamic viscosity and the thermal diffusivity vary as a power-law function. On the other hand, boundary layer equations are derived by Taylor expansion, and a mixed analytical/numerical method (a pseudosimilarity method) is proposed to effectively solve the boundary layer equations. This method has been justified by comparing its results with those of the original governing equations obtained by a finite element method. These results agree very well especially when the Reynolds number is large. We also observe that the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm are better when thermal boundary layer is thinner than velocity boundary layer.
The current study evaluated the overall public health impact of the ‘Shaping Up My Choices’ (SMC) programme, a 10-week school-based nutrition education curriculum developed for third-grade students, using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework.
Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the programme and secondary analysis of archival data to describe dissemination. Data were collected from programme records, teacher surveys and student pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up surveys.
Public elementary schools in California.
An evaluation sample (938 students and nineteen teachers) and a dissemination sample (195 245 students and 7359 teachers).
In the evaluation sample, differences between the control and intervention groups were observed for nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and intakes of vegetables, fruit (girls only), soda, and low-nutrient high-energy foods from pre- to post-survey. Group differences in change in knowledge, outcome expectancies and vegetable intake were sustained through the 3-month follow-up (efficacy). One hundred per cent of intervention teachers in the evaluation sample implemented all of the lessons (implementation). The dissemination sample represented 42 % of third-grade students (reach) and 39 % of third-grade classrooms in public elementary schools in California during 2010–2011 (adoption). Thirty-seven per cent of third-grade teachers in the dissemination sample reordered SMC materials during the subsequent school year (2011–2012; maintenance).
The SMC programme demonstrates the potential for moderate to high public health impact.
This study estimates the effect of dysgenic trends in Taiwan by exploring the relationships among intelligence, education and fertility. Based on a representative adult sample, education and intelligence were negatively correlated with the number of children born. These correlations were stronger for females. The decline of genotypic intelligence was estimated as 0.82 to 1.33 IQ points per generation for the Taiwanese population.
High quality factor and near-zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) are the two key issues for a certain microwave dielectric material system used in microstrip patch antennas. ZnTiO3-based ceramics is a promising candidate for microstrip patch antennas. On inhibiting the decomposition of ZnTiO3 by adding sufficient amount of MgO, high quality factor microwave dielectric material (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3 was obtained. The deviations between theoretical and observed dielectric polarizabilites, the packing fraction, and bond valence were calculated to analyze correlation between structure and properties of (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3. TiO2 was added to adjust τf of (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3, and 0.82(Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3–0.18TiO2 with an εr of 28.5, a Qf of 125,050 GHz, and a near-zero τf which satisfied the requirement as a substrate material for microstrip patch antenna was obtained at 1100 °C. In addition, a dielectric microstrip antenna was designed and fabricated using the proposed dielectric materials. The microstrip patch antenna exhibited a −34.96 dB return loss and a 1.05 voltage standing wave ratio at 2.5 GHz.
The influences of temperature, cone height, and apex angle on the tensile and compressive behaviors of open-tip carbon nanocones (CNCs) under axial strains were examined. The tensile failure strain and failure load of the CNC were found to decline evidently as the system temperature increases. The average failure strain decreases with the growth in the cone height. Concerning compressive behaviors, the critical strain and critical load of the CNC reduce manifestly with the increase in the system temperature and the apex angle. As the cone height grows, the critical strain decreases evidently but the critical load has no obvious change. The buckling mode does not have much variation when the temperature increases. It displays a more distorted buckling pattern with the growth in the cone height and transfers from an axisymmetric pattern to an unsymmetrical and more warped pattern when the apex angle expands.
ZnO films were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using diethylzinc (DeZn) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in an inductively heated reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Low-temperature (LT) ZnO buffer layers having various thicknesses were deposited at 400¢J followed by subsequent growth of ZnO films at 600¢J. Some of the ZnO films were then post-annealed at 1000¢J in the N2O flow. Under certain growth conditions, ZnO nanowires were formed on the post-annealed ZnO samples. Room temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnO nanowires show strong ultraviolet (UV) near band edge emissions at 3.27 eV with a typical full width at half-maximum ( FWHM ) of ~130 meV and quenched defect luminescence at 2.8 eV. 10 K PL spectra of the post-annealed ZnO all exhibit sharp excitonic emissions with the dominant emission being located at 3.36 eV having a FWHM of 4.6 meV.
Preferential Pb electromigration (EM) in eutectic Sn–Pb molten solder was characterized by examining Pb segregation at the anode of the solder on a thin stripe of Cu metallization. The eutectic Sn–Pb molten solder stressed at current densities of 103−104 A/cm2 was found to form columnar Pb-rich phase (α) at the anode side and Pb deficiency at the cathode side. The columnar α-phase grew in the direction parallel to the electron flow, and its growth rate increased proportionally with the current density applied through the molten solder. By measuring the growth rate of the columnar α-phase, we calculated the Pb effective charge number of EM in the eutectic Sn–Pb molten solder to be 2.7, which is one order of magnitude lower than the reported value of 47 for self-electromigration in bulk Pb. The mechanism for the EM-induced Pb segregation in Sn–Pb solder was also explored.
June Yip's Envisioning Taiwan considers Taiwan's emergent discourse on a national identity in light of its regionalist or nativist (hsiang-t'u) literary movement and the New Cinema which flourished in the 1970s and 1980s. The book has seven chapters, largely devoted to the work of artists such as Hwang Chun-ming and Hou Hsiao-hsien. It gives a most sensible and nuanced account of the development of post-colonial global consciousness and of the indigenization processes in post-1987, Taiwan when martial law was lifted. It argues that language, literature and cinema have played a vital part in constructing cultural nationalism. To map the critical paths in which the Taiwanese have struggled to fashion a unique cultural identity, Yip reveals how “the complexities of Taiwanese literature and film have themselves necessitated a reassessment of conventional assumptions about the local, the national, and the global” (p. 11).
Democratization, indigenization and the emergence of a vigorous native consciousness provided parameters that pushed forward local demands for “creative ways to assert the island's undeniable existence as an independent entity without actually declaring itself a nation” (p. 246). According to Yip, the ascendancy of Taiwanese national consciousness was indebted to the political liberation of the 1980s, but was in fact inspired by the hsiang-t'u literature of the 1960s and 1970s. She begins with the literary debates of 1977–78 and uses Hwang Chun-ming as a prime – albeit “curious” – example of someone who provided a voice of local colour in response to capitalist lifestyles, trendy Western ideas and American cultural goods.
Objectives: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) scanners are high-tech equipment with the highest utilizations and expenditures in Taiwan. This study investigates the factors that affect MRI and CT utilization, such as whether supply-side factors have more impact than demand-side factors, and the effect of utilization control policies.
Methods: This study used the nationwide CT and MRI claim data for the years 1998 to 2001 from the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) in Taiwan. Multiple regression analysis was the statistical method used to determine the relative factors that influence CT and MRI utilization.
Results: CT : population ratio, hospital-based physician : population ratio, female ratio, pediatric (≤14 years) : population ratio, and family income significantly influenced CT utilization. MRI : population ratio and hospital-based physician : population ratio, female ratio, and family income significantly influenced MRI utilization. However, the proportion of the aged (≥65 years of age) did not significantly influence CT or MRI utilization after controlling for other factors. The rates of CT and MRI utilization for the outpatient and inpatient settings and the repeated uses of CT or MRI have decreased significantly after a utilization review was implemented by BNHI, which suggests that CT and MRI have been overused.
Conclusions: Increases in supply-side factors significantly increase CT/MRI utilization, and supply-side factors impact CT/MRI utilization more than demand-side factors. The results show that the utilization instant report policy effectively decreases repeated uses of CT/MRI.