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The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
We investigated the effects of botulinum toxin on gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with foot dystonia. Six patients underwent onabotulinum toxin A injection and were assessed by Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Test (BBT), and 3D gait analysis at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. BFMDRS (p = 0.002), VAS (p = 0.024), TUG (p = 0.028), and BBT (p = 0.034) were improved. Foot pressures at Toe 1 (p = 0.028) and Midfoot (p = 0.018) were reduced, indicating botulinum toxin’s effects in alleviating the dystonia severity and pain and improving foot pressures during walking in PD.
The present study aimed to investigate the association of the Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and its 6-year change with hypertension risk and compare the ability of CVAI and other obesity indices to predict hypertension based on the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Study participants were randomly recruited by a cluster sampling procedure, and 10 304 participants ≥18 years were included. Modified Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. We identified 2072 hypertension cases during a median of 6·03 years of follow-up. The RR for the highest v. lowest CVAI quartile were 1·29 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·59) for men and 1·53 (95 % CI 1·22, 1·91) for women. Per-sd increase in CVAI was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·09, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·16) and women (RR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·22). Also, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value for hypertension was higher for CVAI than the four other obesity indices for both sexes (all P < 0·05). Finally, per-sd increase in CVAI change was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·26, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·36) and women (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·30). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses. CVAI and its 6-year change are positively associated with hypertension risk. CVAI has better performance in predicting hypertension than other visceral obesity indices for both sexes. The current findings suggest CVAI as a reliable and applicable predictor of hypertension in rural Chinese adults.
Rāgī faqīrs are devotees who perform Shah Jo Rāg, a musical tradition for singing Sufi poetry at the shrine of poet-mystic Shāh ‘Abdul Latīf Bhiṭṭāī (1689–1752) in Sindh, Pakistan. Focusing on the life experiences of my teacher Manthār Faqīr, I historicise various subject positions that contemporary rāgī faqīrs refer to as faqīr (devotee), fankār (performing artist), kārīgar (skilled artisan), and artist. Through Manthār Faqīr’s performances, I analyse sonic manifestations of his complex subjectivities that at times shift, at times coexist, to demonstrate how he deploys sounded strategies emerging from different subject positions to balance devotion, artistry, legitimacy, and livelihood.
To investigate whether an after-school nutrition education (ASNE) programme can improve the nutrition knowledge and healthy eating behaviour of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families.
One-group pretest and posttest design. Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake were collected using a questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were measured before and after the intervention. Nine components of healthy eating behaviour were assessed with reference to the Dietary Guideline of Taiwan. Pretest and posttest differences were analysed using generalised estimating equations.
Three after-school programmes in central and southern Taiwan. The ASNE programme comprised three monthly 1-h sessions (20–30-min lecture and 30–40-min interaction).
A total of 153 adolescents aged 10–15 years from economically disadvantaged families (seventy-eight elementary students and seventy-five junior high school students).
Elementary and junior high school students’ nutrition knowledge scores (range 0–6) increased by 0·28 (+ 5·7 %, P = 0·02) and 0·30 points (+ 6·18 %, P = 0·02), respectively, but their fruit intake decreased by 0·36 serving/d (–22·9 %, P = 0·02) and 0·29 serving/d (–18·9 %, P = 0·03), respectively. Junior high school students’ mean snacking frequency and fried food intake dropped to 0·75 d/week (–21·3 %, P = 0·008) and 0·10 serving/d (–28·8 %, P = 0·01), respectively.
Short-term ASNE programmes can increase nutrition knowledge and reduce snacking frequency and fried food intake despite a decrease in fruit intake among adolescents from economically disadvantaged families.
Identifying effective treatments is a critical issue for Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). The pathological amyloid deposits of AD result in disruption of the balance between long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of neuronal cells and synaptic plasticity. Brain stimulation in dementia research, especially with relatively safe tDCS, has been taken seriously recently. In theory, tDCS affects long-term synaptic plasticity through LTP and LTD, thereby improving cognitive ability. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of tDCS in AD and concluded a positive therapeutic effect. Currently, there are no studies of tDCS for AD in Taiwan. In this study, we investigate the effects of tDCS in AD.
Using a double-blind, randomized and sham- controlled trial design, Sixteen AD aged 55-90 years (8 active, mean age 73.88 and 8 sham, mean age 74.75) were included in the study. AD diagnostics is according to DSM-5 criteria. The CDR ratings of AD participants ranged from 0.5 to 2. All subjects completed ten consecutive daily sessions in which they received either an active or a sham tDCS over the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (anodal) and a cathodal electrode on the right supraorbital area. In each session, we applied a current intensity of 2 mA and an electrode size of 35 cm2 for 30 min in the active group. All subjects received a series of neuropsychological tests, which included CDR, MMSE, CASI and WCST, before and after these treatment sessions on the first day and 4 weeks later. Chi- square test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to assess the differences in participant demographic characteristics and to compare the differences among groups.
The active group showed significant improvement in total correct item, Conceptual level Responses (reflecting insight into the correct sorting principles), Categories Completed (reflecting overall success), and Trials to complete first categories (reflecting initial conceptual ability) of WCST 4 weeks later after the final stimulation. There were no statistically significant differences between before and after the 10-session course for the sham group.
tDCS stimulation improves cognitive operation and Conceptual Ability of AD.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the primary staple crop in Taiwan, and it can be grown twice a year. The prevalent subspecies grown in Taiwan is Japonica, and a transplanting system is used for rice production. Although the transplanting system is known for efficient weed control at the seedling stage, weedy red rice (WRR, O. sativa f. spontanea) infestation is progressively being reported. Fieldwork and previous studies have suggested that WRR infestation in Taiwan is probably related to growers’ operating practices and their perception of WRR. However, no data are available for a detailed investigation. The present study aimed to collect data on rice growers’ backgrounds, farming practices, and perceptions of WRR to quantify and characterize the patterns of farming operations for rice growers in Taiwan and to investigate factors contributing to WRR infestation. We collected 408 questionnaires completed by rice growers from 17 counties covering all rice production regions in Taiwan. The growers’ median age was 51 to 60 yr, and 75% of respondents had paddies from 0.25 to 2.75 ha in size, which corresponded with nationwide data for farmers’ backgrounds. In general, growers applied similar farming practices for both cropping seasons. Most respondents did not notice WRR infestation or consider it to be a problem: only 9.8% noticed a moderate to severe infestation of WRR in their fields. The major perceived causes of WRR infestation was seed impurity (55.1%) or cultivar degeneration (18.6%). Correlation analysis and farming patterns estimated with a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm showed that WRR contamination rate was due to the use of dry or wet tillage. The present study provides the first quantitative and qualitative evidence of rice production practices and growers’ perceptions of WRR infestation in Taiwan.
Studies have suggested the detrimental effects of obesity and systemic inflammation on the cognitive function of patients with bipolar or major depressive disorder. However, the complex associations between affective disorder, obesity, systemic inflammation, and cognitive dysfunction remain unclear.
Overall, 110 patients with affective disorder (59 with bipolar I disorder and 51 with major depressive disorder) who scored ≥61 on the Global Assessment of Functioning and 51 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 was defined as obesity or overweight. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines—including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP)—were measured, and cognitive function was assessed using various methods, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and go/no-go task.
Patients with bipolar I disorder or major depressive disorder were more likely to be obese or overweight, had higher CRP and TNF-α levels, and had greater executive dysfunction in the WCST than the controls. TNF-α level (P < .05) but not affective disorder diagnosis or obesity/overweight was significantly associated with cognitive function deficits, although obesity/overweight and diagnosis were significantly associated with increased TNF-α level.
Our findings may indicate that proinflammatory cytokines, but not obesity or overweight, have crucial effects on cognitive function in patients with bipolar I disorder or major depressive disorder, although proinflammatory cytokines and obesity or overweight were found to be strongly associated. The complex relationships between affective disorder diagnosis, proinflammatory cytokine levels, obesity or overweight, and cognitive function require further investigation.
We report on mode-locked thulium-doped fiber lasers with high-energy nanosecond pulses, relying on the transmission in a semiconductor saturable absorber (SESA) and a carbon nanotube (CNTs-PVA) film separately. A section of an SMF–MMF–SMF structure multimode interferometer with a transmission peak wavelength of ∼2003 nm was used as a wavelength selector to fix the laser wavelength. When the SESA acted as a saturable absorber (SA), the mode-locked fiber laser had a maximum output power of ∼461 mW with a pulse energy of ∼0.14 μJ and a pulse duration of ∼9.14 ns. In a CNT-film-based mode-locked fiber laser, stable mode-locked pulses with the maximum output power of ∼46 mW, pulse energy of ∼26.8 nJ and pulse duration of ∼9.3 ns were obtained. To the best of our knowledge, our experiments demonstrated the first 2 μm region ‘real’ SA-based dissipative soliton resonance with the highest mode-locked pulse energy from a ‘real’ SA-based all-fiberized resonator.
The polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) onto nanosilica (SiO2) was synthesized in this study by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). With the addition of dopants of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA) or decylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA), the PEDOT/SiO2 composite became conductive. The product was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and the core-shell structure was confirmed through the TEM images. The electrical properties were analyzed by UV-vis absorbance and four-point probe measurement. DBSA is shown as the better dopants with the molar ratio (DBSA/EDOT) of 0.2 at the reaction time of 48 hours. The maximum coating percentage is 63 wt% under the optimal operation conditions at 40oC and 280 bar. The conductivity is tuned up to 6.6×10-2 S/cm after the coating process.
Although the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) system has been widely adopted in shock temperature measurements, its reliability has always been of concern. Here, two calibrated Planckian radiators with different color temperatures were used to calibrate and verify the SOP system by comparing the two calibration standards using both multi-channel and single-channel methods. A high-color-temperature standard lamp and a multi-channel filter were specifically designed for the measurement system. To verify the reliability of the SOP system, the relative deviation between the measured data and the standard value of less than 5% was calibrated out, which demonstrates the reliability of the SOP system. Furthermore, a method to analyze the uncertainty and sensitivity of the SOP system is proposed. A series of laser-induced shock experiments were conducted at the ‘Shenguang-II’ laser facility to verify the reliability of the SOP system for temperature measurements at tens of thousands of kelvin. The measured temperature of the quartz in our experiments agreed fairly well with previous works, which serves as evidence for the reliability of the SOP system.
Biomedical moral enhancement, or BME for short, aims to improve people's moral behaviour through augmenting, via biomedical means, their virtuous dispositions such as sympathy, honesty, courage, or generosity. Recently, however, it has been challenged, on particularist grounds, that the manifestations of virtuous dispositions can be morally wrong. For instance, being generous in terrorist financing is one such case. If so, biomedical moral enhancement, by enhancing people's virtues, might turn out to be counterproductive in terms of people's moral behaviour. In this chapter, we argue, via a comparison with moral education, that the case for the practice of biomedical moral enhancement is not weakened by the particularists’ stress on the variable moral statuses of the manifestations of our virtues. The real challenge from the particularists, we argue, lies elsewhere. It is that practical wisdom, being essentially context-sensitive, cannot be enhanced via biomedical means. On the basis of this, we further argue that BME ought to be used with great caution, for it may wrongly enhance, for instance, a terrorist financier's generosity, a robber's courage, or an undercover detective's honesty. Finally, we sketch how boundaries can be set on the use of BME, and address some potential objections to our position.
An optically addressed liquid crystal modulator for wavefront control of 1053 nm laser beam is reported in this paper. Its working principle, control method and spatial phase modulation capability are mainly introduced. A new method of measuring the relationship between gray level and phase retardation is proposed. The rationality of the curve is further confirmed by designing special experiments. According to the curve, several spatial phase distributions have been realized by this home-made device. The results show that, not only the maximum phase retardation is larger than
for 1053 nm wavelength, but also the control accuracy is high. Compared with the liquid crystal on silicon type spatial light modulator, this kind of modulator has the advantages of generating smooth phase distribution and avoiding the black-matrix effect.
X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data for Palbociclib, C24H29N7O2, are reported [a = 18.182(2) Å, b = 11.508(1) Å, c = 5.041(1) Å, α = 81.282(7)°, β = 97.423(7)°, γ = 102.415(2)°, unit-cell volume V = 1013.1(4) Å3, Z = 2, and space group P-1. All XRPD measured lines were indexed and no detectable impurities were observed.
2-[((3R)-5-oxo-4-phenyltetrahydrofuran-3-yl)methyl]isoindoline-1,3-dione, C19H15NO4, was synthesized for the first time. Its structure was characterized by element analysis, ultraviolet spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and single X-ray diffraction (SXRD). X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data of title compound were collected and calculated. The result of SXRD shows that its crystal system is orthorhombic, space group is Pbca, and unit-cell parameters are a = 8.861 57(7), b = 14.6666(10), c = 24.4247(19) Å, α =β =γ =90°, unit-cell volume V = 3174.4 Å3, and Z = 8. All XRPD measured lines were indexed and consistent with the Pbca space group [a = 14.639(7), b = 24.378(3), c = 8.918(1) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 3182.7(9) Å3, Z = 8]. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for letrozole, C17H11N5, are reported [a = 7.034(0) Å, b = 16.177(5) Å, c = 13.411(3) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 105.71(9)°, unit-cell volume V = 1469.0(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family, has been involved in maternal tolerance to the foetus and successful pregnancy. Growing evidences indicate that IL-27 plays a crucial role in pregnancy.
We carried out the present study in order to investigate whether polymorphisms in the IL27 are associated with the risk for CHDs, including atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect.
Patients and methods
We conducted this case–control study among 247 atrial septal defect patients, 150 ventricular septal defect patients, and 368 healthy controls in a Chinese population using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.
Significantly increased risk for atrial septal defect (p=0.001, OR=1.490, 95% CI=1.178–1.887) and ventricular septal defect (p=0.004, OR=1.502, 95% CI=1.139–1.976) was observed to be associated with the allele G of rs153109. In a dominant model, we have also observed that increased susceptibilities for atrial septal defect (p<0.01, OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.35–2.63) and ventricular septal defect (p<0.01, OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.67–3.85) were statistically associated with rs153109; however, no association was found between CHD risk and rs17855750 in the IL27 gene.
The 153109 of the IL27 gene may be associated with the susceptibility to CHD, including atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect.
The aim of this study was to examine and test the sensitivity, specificity, and threshold scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and determine those that best correspond to a clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Sixty-seven Alzheimer's disease (AD), 36 DLB, and 62 healthy participants without dementia (NC), aged 60 to 90, were enrolled. All three groups took the MoCA and MMSE tests at the same time. The Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel tests and receiver operating characteristics curve analysis were used to compare the different neuropsychological test results among the groups.
The cut-off point of the MoCA for AD was 21/22 with a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 82.3% (area under the curve (AUC): 0.945), and the cut-off point for DLB was 22/23 with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 80.6% (AUC: 0.932). For the MMSE, the cut-off points for AD and for DLB from NC were all 24/25, with a sensitivity of 88.1% and a specificity of 85.5% for AD (AUC: 0.92), and a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 85.5% for DLB (AUC: 0.895). After controlling sex, age, and education, AD and DLB had lower scores in all MoCA subscales than the NC group (p < 0.05), except for the orientation and naming in DLB. In addition, AD had a lower score in the MoCA orientation (p = 0.03) and short-term memory (p = 0.02) than did DLB.
The MoCA is a more sensitive instrument than the MMSE to screen AD or DLB patients from non-dementia cases.