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Recent arguments claim that behavioral science has focused – to its detriment – on the individual over the system when construing behavioral interventions. In this commentary, we argue that tackling economic inequality using both framings in tandem is invaluable. By studying individuals who have overcome inequality, “positive deviants,” and the system limitations they navigate, we offer potentially greater policy solutions.
In recent years, parasite conservation has become a globally significant issue. Because of this, there is a need for standardized methods for inferring population status and possible cryptic diversity. However, given the lack of molecular data for some groups, it is challenging to establish procedures for genetic diversity estimation. Therefore, universal tools, such as double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), could be useful when conducting conservation genetic studies on rarely studied parasites. Here, we generated a ddRADseq dataset that includes all 3 described Taiwanese horsehair worms (Phylum: Nematomorpha), possibly one of the most understudied animal groups. Additionally, we produced data for a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) for the said species. We used the COXI dataset in combination with previously published sequences of the same locus for inferring the effective population size (Ne) trends and possible population genetic structure.
We found that a larger and geographically broader sample size combined with more sequenced loci resulted in a better estimation of changes in Ne. We were able to detect demographic changes associated with Pleistocene events in all the species. Furthermore, the ddRADseq dataset for Chordodes formosanus did not reveal a genetic structure based on geography, implying a great dispersal ability, possibly due to its hosts. We showed that different molecular tools can be used to reveal genetic structure and demographic history at different historical times and geographical scales, which can help with conservation genetic studies in rarely studied parasites.
The western Mongolian Lake Zone was a Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic volcanic arc where tuffs, lavas, fossiliferous siliciclastics, and carbonates accumulated during the early Cambrian. An uppermost Cambrian Series 2 (upper Stage 4) trilobite assemblage is described here from the Burgasutay Formation representing a continuous lower Cambrian succession at the Seer Ridge of the Great Lake Depression. The new assemblage is dominated by dorypygids and consists of 13 trilobite genera belonging to nine families including Catinouyia heyunensis new species. These fossils comprise the youngest and richest lower Cambrian trilobite assemblage in Mongolia. The composition of the Lake Zone fauna suggests its biogeographic affinity with the Siberian Platform and Altay-Sayan Foldbelt, but the presence of inouyiids also implies a connection of this region with East Gondwana.
We develop a simple two-sector neoclassical growth model in which the upstream sector produces intermediate goods, and the downstream sector produces final goods with outputs from the upstream. While the downstream sector features perfect competition, firms in the upstream sector engage in Cournot competition and charge a markup. We show that the deregulation and the introduction of competition in the upstream goods sector not only increases the productivity in the sector but also has a substantial spillover effect on the productivity of the downstream sector and factor prices. We calibrate the model to the Chinese economy and use the calibrated model to quantitatively evaluate the extent to which the deregulation in the upstream market in China from 1998 to 2006 can account for the rapid economic growth and the high and rising returns to capital in China over the same period. Our quantitative experiments show that the deregulation in the upstream sector can account for a significant share of economic growth in China during the study period. In addition, our model delivers implications that are consistent with several other relevant observations in China during the same period.
Recent genetic evidence implicates glutamatergic-receptor variations in schizophrenia. Glutamatergic excess during early life in people with schizophrenia may cause excitotoxicity and produce structural deficits in the brain. Cortical thickness and gyrification are reduced in schizophrenia, but only a subgroup of patients exhibits such structural deficits. We delineate the structural variations among unaffected siblings and patients with schizophrenia and study the role of key glutamate-receptor polymorphisms on these variations.
Gaussian Mixture Model clustering was applied to the cortical thickness and gyrification data of 114 patients, 112 healthy controls, and 42 unaffected siblings to identify subgroups. The distribution of glutamate-receptor (GRM3, GRIN2A, and GRIA1) and voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) variations across the MRI-based subgroups was studied. The comparisons in clinical symptoms and cognition between patient subgroups were conducted.
We observed a “hypogyric,” “impoverished-thickness,” and “supra-normal” subgroups of patients, with higher negative symptom burden and poorer verbal fluency in the hypogyric subgroup and notable functional deterioration in the impoverished-thickness subgroup. Compared to healthy subjects, the hypogyric subgroup had significant GRIN2A and GRM3 variations, the impoverished-thickness subgroup had CACNA1C variations while the supra-normal group had no differences.
Disrupted gyrification and thickness can be traced to the glutamatergic receptor and voltage-gated calcium channel dysfunction respectively in schizophrenia. This raises the question of whether MRI-based multimetric subtyping may be relevant for clinical trials of agents affecting the glutamatergic system.
Post-acceleration of protons in helical coil targets driven by intense, ultrashort laser pulses can enhance ion energy by utilizing the transient current from the targets’ self-discharge. The acceleration length of protons can exceed a few millimeters, and the acceleration gradient is of the order of GeV/m. How to ensure the synchronization between the accelerating electric field and the protons is a crucial problem for efficient post-acceleration. In this paper, we study how the electric field mismatch induced by current dispersion affects the synchronous acceleration of protons. We propose a scheme using a two-stage helical coil to control the current dispersion. With optimized parameters, the energy gain of protons is increased by four times. Proton energy is expected to reach 45 MeV using a hundreds-of-terawatts laser, or more than 100 MeV using a petawatt laser, by controlling the current dispersion.
Objectives: Central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) has been the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Previous studies have shown that a care bundle is effective in reducing CLABSI rates; however, the data on long-term sustainability and cost savings of bundled care are limited. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2020, a prospective surveillance was performed to monitor CLABSI at a university hospital in northern Taiwan. To reduce the CLABSI rate, a hospital-wide bundled care program for CLABSI prevention was implemented in 2013. We evaluated the long-term effect of the care bundle on CLABSI incidence and length of stay in the ICU. Results: During the study period, the overall CLABSI incidence decreased from 8.22 per 1,000 catheter days before the care bundle was implemented to 6.33 per 1,000 catheter days in 2020 (P for trend <.01). The most common pathogens causing CLABSI were gut organisms (1,420 of 2,363, 60.1%), followed by environmental organisms (734 of 2,363, 31.1%) and skin organisms (177 of 2,363, 7.5%). The decreasing trend was statistically significant in the incidence of CLABSI caused by skin organisms (P for trend < .01), but not in the incidence of CLABSI caused by environmental organisms (P for trend = .86) or gut organisms (P for trend = .06). In the multivariable analysis, implementation of this care bundle was independently associated with a decrease in the CLABSI rate (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66–0.88). Compared with patients without CLABSI, patients with CLABSI had a longer average ICU length of stay (27 vs 17 days). Conclusions: A sustainable reduction in the incidence of CLABSI caused by common commensals could be achieved through a cost-saving bundled care program.
In this work, a confined-doped fiber with the core/inner-cladding diameter of 40/250 μm and a relative doping ratio of 0.75 is fabricated through a modified chemical vapor deposition method combined with the chelate gas deposition technique, and subsequently applied in a tandem-pumped fiber amplifier for high-power operation and transverse mode instability (TMI) mitigation. Notably, the impacts of the seed laser power and mode purity are preliminarily investigated through comparative experiments. It is found that the TMI threshold could be significantly affected by the seed laser mode purity. The possible mechanism behind this phenomenon is proposed and revealed through comprehensive comparative experiments and theoretical analysis. Finally, a maximum output power of 7.49 kW is obtained with the beam quality factor of approximately 1.83, which is the highest output power ever reported in a forward tandem-pumped confined-doped fiber amplifier. This work could provide a good reference and practical solution to improve the TMI threshold and realize high-power high-brightness fiber lasers.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) asymptomatic cases are hard to identify, impeding transmissibility estimation. The value of COVID-19 transmissibility is worth further elucidation for key assumptions in further modelling studies. Through a population-based surveillance network, we collected data on 1342 confirmed cases with a 90-days follow-up for all asymptomatic cases. An age-stratified compartmental model containing contact information was built to estimate the transmissibility of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. The difference in transmissibility of a symptomatic and asymptomatic case depended on age and was most distinct for the middle-age groups. The asymptomatic cases had a 66.7% lower transmissibility rate than symptomatic cases, and 74.1% (95% CI 65.9–80.7) of all asymptomatic cases were missed in detection. The average proportion of asymptomatic cases was 28.2% (95% CI 23.0–34.6). Simulation demonstrated that the burden of asymptomatic transmission increased as the epidemic continued and could potentially dominate total transmission. The transmissibility of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases is high and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases play a significant role in outbreaks.
Numerous studies of resting-state functional imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) have revealed differences in specific brain regions of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but the results have been inconsistent.
A whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analysis was conducted on resting-state functional imaging and VBM studies that compared differences between patients with BD and healthy controls using Seed-based d Mapping with Permutation of Subject Images software.
A systematic literature search identified 51 functional imaging studies (1842 BD and 2190 controls) and 83 VBM studies (2790 BD and 3690 controls). Overall, patients with BD displayed increased resting-state functional activity in the left middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) extending to the right insula, right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral striatum, as well as decreased resting-state functional activity in the left middle temporal gyrus extending to the left superior temporal gyrus and post-central gyrus, left cerebellum, and bilateral precuneus. The meta-analysis of VBM showed that patients with BD displayed decreased VBM in the right IFG extending to the right insula, temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus extending to the left insula, temporal pole, and IFG, anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex), left thalamus, and right fusiform gyrus.
The multimodal meta-analyses suggested that BD showed similar patterns of aberrant brain activity and structure in the insula extending to the temporal cortex, fronto-striatal-thalamic, and default-mode network regions, which provide useful insights for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of BD.
Cognitive impairments are well-established features of psychotic disorders and are present when individuals are at ultra-high risk for psychosis. However, few interventions target cognitive functioning in this population.
To investigate whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n−3 PUFA) supplementation improves cognitive functioning among individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.
Data (N = 225) from an international, multi-site, randomised controlled trial (NEURAPRO) were analysed. Participants were given omega-3 supplementation (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo over 6 months. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Mixed two-way analyses of variance were computed to compare the change in cognitive performance between omega-3 supplementation and placebo over 6 months. An additional biomarker analysis explored whether change in erythrocyte n−3 PUFA levels predicted change in cognitive performance.
The placebo group showed a modest greater improvement over time than the omega-3 supplementation group for motor speed (ηp2 = 0.09) and BACS composite score (ηp2 = 0.21). After repeating the analyses without individuals who transitioned, motor speed was no longer significant (ηp2 = 0.02), but the composite score remained significant (ηp2 = 0.02). Change in erythrocyte n-3 PUFA levels did not predict change in cognitive performance over 6 months.
We found no evidence to support the use of omega-3 supplementation to improve cognitive functioning in ultra-high risk individuals. The biomarker analysis suggests that this finding is unlikely to be attributed to poor adherence or consumption of non-trial n−3 PUFAs.
As the incidence of gender incongruence (GI)/gender dysphoria (GD) rises yearly, public understanding of transgender is also increasing, whereas this improvement cannot be achieved without extensive transgender-related surveys. However, most of the surveys were only issued to people who identify themselves as transgender with the absence of medical confirmations in most situations. These result in a gap between transgender survey and diagnosed GI/GD.
This study aims to discover the gap between self-reported and diagnostically confirmed transgender and GI/GD individuals among students in China.
We chose two middle schools and one college from Changsha (a city in China) at random with a total of 2047 students. Among them, 1661 students gave us certain gender identify responses in which we categorized them into two types (cisgender and gender minorities). Professional psychiatrists then used ICD-11 and DSM-5 criteria to confirm whether the self-reported gender minorities could be diagnosed with GI/GD via phone or in person.
In total, 7.5% of the college students and 5.8% of the middle school students reported themselves as gender minorities. Although 29% of college students and 43.8% of middle school students did not cooperate with the subsequent psychiatric interviews, none of the self-reported gender minority students meet the GI/GD criteria of ICD-11/DSM-5.
The epidemiological investigation of transgender is heavily affected by the definition and the data sources. There is a huge heterogeneity between self-reported transgender and diagnosed GI/GD. Future transgender studies should strictly control inclusion criteria.
Adolescent suicide is a severe public health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and adolescents who are victims of bullying have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours. However, detailed global data concerning the association between bullying victimisation and suicide are lacking; thus, further multicontinental studies exploring the association of bullying victimisation at different frequencies and types with suicidal behaviours are urgent.
The data were extracted from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) (2010–2017) conducted in 40 LMICs (n = 151 184, mean age: 14.77 years, s.d.: 1.59, 54.2% females). Data concerning past-30-day bullying victimisation, past 12-month suicidal behaviours (suicidal ideation, suicidal plans and suicidal attempts) and other adverse health behaviours or outcomes were collected. Chi-square tests were used to explore the correlations among the main variables. A multivariable logistic regression and stratified logistic regressions were conducted to assess the associations.
The overall prevalence of bullying victimisation, suicidal ideation, suicidal plans and suicidal attempts were 28.72, 12.64, 11.84 and 10.79%, respectively. The results showed a positive association of different frequencies and types of bullying victimisation with suicidal behaviours: suicidal ideation (odds ratio (OR) = 2.43, 2.06–2.87), suicidal plans (OR = 2.69, 2.28–3.17) and suicidal attempts (OR = 3.23, 2.73–3.82). Adolescents also reported the effects of being made fun of because of their religion: suicidal ideation (OR = 1.63, 1.41–1.88), suicidal plans (OR = 1.44, 1.24–1.66) and suicidal attempts (OR = 1.73, 1.50–1.98). Moreover, these associations varied among teenagers of different gender and body mass indexes (BMIs) and were stronger among males and adolescents who were underweight, overweight or obese.
Different types of bullying victimisation were positively related to suicidal behaviours; these associations varied among adolescents by gender and BMI. This study offers a theoretical basis for the identification of adolescents at a high risk of suicide and is beneficial for informing effective psychological interventions for constructing sound school environments, improving adolescents’ mental health and reducing the risk of suicide to promote health in LMICs and globally.
This study investigated an outbreak in a kindergarten in Wuyi County of acute gastroenteritis concerning a large number of students and teachers. We performed a case-control study, and collected information on the layout of the school, symptoms, onset time of all cases and vomiting sites. A total of 62 individuals fit the definition of probable cases; among these, there were 19 cases of laboratory-confirmed norovirus infection. Nausea and vomiting were the most common symptoms in the outbreak. Seven student norovirus patients vomited in the school. The odds ratio (OR) of norovirus illness was 15.75 times higher among teachers who handled or interacted with student vomitus without respiratory protection than compared to those without this type of exposure (OR 15.75, 95% CI 1.75–141.40). Nine samples were successfully genotyped; eight samples were norovirus GII.2[P16], one sample was norovirus GII.4 Sydney[P16]. This study revealed that improper handling of vomitus is a risk factor of norovirus infection. Therefore, more attention should be given to train school staff in knowledge of disinfection.
Energy homeostasis is essential for organisms to maintain fluctuation in energy accumulation, mobilization. Lipids as the main energy reserve in insects, their metabolism is under the control of many physiological program. This study aimed to determine whether the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR) was involved in the lipid mobilization in the Spodoptera litura. A full-length cDNA encoding AKHR was isolated from S. litura. The SlAKHR protein has a conserved seven-transmembrane domain which is the character of a putative G protein receptor. Expression profile investigation revealed that SlAKHR mRNA was highly expressed in immatural stage and abundant in fat body in newly emerged female adults. Knockdown of SlAKHR expression was achieved through RNAi by injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the 6th instar larvae. The content of triacylgycerol (TAG) in the fat body increased significantly after the SlAKHR gene was knockdown. And decrease of TAG releasing to hemolymph with increase of free fatty acid (FFA) in hemolymph were observed when the SlAKHR gene was knowned-down. In addition, lipid droplets increased in fat body was also found. These results suggested that SlAKHR is critical for insects to regulate lipids metabolism.
This study aimed to examine the impact of different dietary patterns on stroke outcomes among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in China.
Participants were enrolled by a stratified random cluster sampling method in the study. After collecting dietary data using a quantified FFQ, latent class analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and propensity score matching was used to reduce confounding effects between different dietary patterns. Binary logistic regression and conditional logistic regression were used to analyse the relationship between dietary patterns and stroke in patients with T2DM.
A cross-sectional survey available from December 2013 to January 2014.
A total of 13 731 Chinese residents aged 18 years or over.
Two dietary patterns were identified: 61·2 % of T2DM patients were categorised in the high-fat dietary pattern while 38·8 % of patients were characterised by the balanced dietary pattern. Compared with the high-fat dietary pattern, the balanced dietary pattern was associated with reduced stroke risk (OR = 0·63, 95 %CI 0·52, 0·76, P < 0·001) after adjusting for confounding factors. The protective effect of the balanced model did not differ significantly (interaction P > 0·05).
This study provides sufficient evidence to support the dietary intervention strategies to prevent stroke effectively. Maintaining a balanced dietary pattern, especially with moderate consumption of foods rich in quality protein and fresh vegetables in T2DM patients, might decrease the risk of stroke in China.
The role of neurological proteins in the development of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) remains elusive now. The current study aims to explore the potential genetic correlations of plasma neurological proteins with BD and SCZ.
By using the latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of BD and SCZ (including 41,917 BD cases, 11,260 SCZ cases, and 396,091 controls) derived from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium website (PGC) and a recently released GWAS of neurological proteins (including 750 individuals), we performed a linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis to detect the potential genetic correlations between the two common psychiatric disorders and each of the 92 neurological proteins. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis was then applied to assess the bidirectional causal relationship between the neurological proteins identified by LDSC, BD and SCZ.
LDSC analysis identified one neurological protein, NEP, which shows suggestive genetic correlation signals for both BD (coefficient = −0.165, p value = 0.035) and SCZ (coefficient = −0.235, p value = 0.020). However, those association did not remain significant after strict Bonferroni correction. Two sample MR analysis found that there was an association between genetically predicted level of NEP protein, BD (odd ratio [OR] = 0.87, p value = 1.61 × 10−6) and SCZ (OR = 0.90, p value = 4.04 × 10−6). However, in the opposite direction, there is no genetically predicted association between BD, SCZ, and NEP protein level.
This study provided novel clues for understanding the genetic effects of neurological proteins on BD and SCZ.
Mounting evidence showed that insula contributed to the neurobiological mechanism of suicidal behaviors in bipolar disorder (BD). However, no studies have analyzed the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of insular Mubregions and its association with personality traits in BD with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, we investigated the alterations of dFC variability in insular subregions and personality characteristics in BD patients with a recent suicide attempt (SA).
Thirty unmedicated BD patients with SA, 38 patients without SA (NSA) and 35 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs) were included. The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate whole-brain dFC for each insular subregion seed. We assessed between-group differences of psychological characteristics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Finally, a multivariate regression model was adopted to predict the severity of suicidality.
Compared to NSA and HCs, the SA group exhibited decreased dFC variability values between the left dorsal anterior insula and the left anterior cerebellum. These dFC variability values could also be utilized to predict the severity of suicidality (r = 0.456, p = 0.031), while static functional connectivity values were not appropriate for this prediction. Besides, the SA group scored significantly higher on the schizophrenia clinical scales (p < 0.001) compared with the NSA group.
Our findings indicated that the dysfunction of insula–cerebellum connectivity may underlie the neural basis of SA in BD patients, and highlighted the dFC variability values could be considered a neuromarker for predictive models of the severity of suicidality. Moreover, the psychiatric features may increase the vulnerability of suicidal behavior.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
This study aimed to research risk factors of hearing loss among neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Hearing screening tests were performed on 572 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit. Those who failed screening tests were referred for diagnostic tests.
The pass rates for automated auditory brainstem response, distortion product otoacoustic emission and acoustic impedance tests at first hearing screening were 69.93 per cent, 70.02 per cent and 92.92 per cent for 1144 ears. Failure in the first screening correlated with preterm birth, very low birth weight, revised advanced maternal age, neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance, Respiration score less than 8. Thirty cases failed in diagnostic hearing tests for brainstem auditory evoked potentials, 28 failed in otoacoustic emissions and 33 failed in acoustic impedance, which correlated with preterm birth, very low birth weight, twins, advanced maternal age and revised advanced maternal age.
Abnormalities in the hearing levels of most neonates who needed hearing retests were completely or partially reversible. Preterm birth, very low birth weight, twins and advanced maternal age are potential risk factors for hearing impairment.