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Greek comedy, especially New Comedy, contains many incidental descriptions of domestic interiors. This article argues that such descriptions constitute a valuable and overlooked source of evidence for historians of the classical Greek house; they are also of interest to literary critics in that they contribute to the thematic and conceptual meaning of the plays. The article presents and discusses all the surviving comic evidence for houses, including many previously neglected comic fragments, as well as a key scene from Menander's Samia which is more detailed than any other surviving literary depiction.
Our extant texts never give a fully comprehensive or representative impression of classical literature. Fragments are valuable because they tell—or hint at—a different story. They represent vestigial traces of a counterfactual alternative version of literary history, and they offer tantalizing glimpses of voices or varieties of human experience that were (accidentally or deliberately) excluded from the classical canon. To ‘think fragmentarily’ is to think beyond the canon and to question traditionally dominant modes of thought. This article uses a neglected fragment of Damoxenus (fr. 3 PCG) as a case study for ‘fragmentary thinking’. This extraordinary fragment reveals that Damoxenus’ comedy dramatized a homosexual love story, in sharp contrast to the familiar heteronormative marriage plots of Menander and other Greek and Roman comic playwrights. Careful examination of a single fragment can prompt us to re-examine conventional scholarly narratives of sexuality in New Comedy.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), obesity is associated with poor outcomes. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) from obese patients (obASCs) secrete higher levels of adipokines compared to ASCs from lean individuals. Leptin, one of these adipokines, has been implicated in many cancers. This study seeks to examine the role of leptin signaling in TNBC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Previous work in conjunction with a collaborating lab has shown that leptin signaling promotes metastasis and increased expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in triple negative breast cancer cell lines. This project expands upon this work through using both patient-derived cell lines and and patient-derived xenografts (PDX), and examines the role of leptin signaling both in vitro and in vivo. To determine the effects of obesity upon a PDX model of TNBC, a high fat diet was used to induce obesity in vivo. A pharmacological inhibitor of the leptin receptor was used to test the requirement for leptin signaling both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Exposure to conditioned media harvested from obASCs increased the percentage of TNBC cells that expressed cancer stem cell markers, whereas exposure to an inhibitor of the leptin receptor decreased the percentage of cells with cancer stem cell markers. PDX tumors implanted into mice with diet-induced obesity had an increased volume compared to tumors implanted into lean controls. Further analysis will be conducted on metastasis, circulating tumor cells, and survival in both lean and obese mice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Understanding the complex signaling events in the obese tumor microenvironment is essential, as these molecular differences may contribute to different outcomes for obese and lean individuals with triple negative breast cancer. Therefore, study of the crosstalk between obASCs and TNBC cells is critical.
Greek comedy is full of quotable maxims. According to a literal reading, the comedians might be seen as custodians of traditional gnomic wisdom, along with their tragic counterparts. Nevertheless, it is argued here that maxims in comedy are different from maxims in other contexts. Comic maxims typically appear ‘within inverted commas’, not just in a literal sense (because of their inherent ‘quotationality’) but in a figurative sense (because of their pervasive irony and self-consciousness). Examples from Menander, Antiphanes, Diphilus and others are used to demonstrate that the comedians can be seen as playing around with the content and form of traditional wisdom. Sometimes they seem to be poking fun at the maxim as a medium of expression, or at tragic maxims, or at the habit of quotation itself.
We previously reported a putative detection of a radio galaxy at
, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The redshift of this source, GLEAM J0917–0012, was based on three weakly detected molecular emission lines observed with the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA). In order to confirm this result, we conducted deep spectroscopic follow-up observations with ALMA and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). The ALMA observations targeted the same CO lines previously reported in Band 3 (84–115 GHz) and the VLA targeted the CO(4-3) and [CI(1-0)] lines for an independent confirmation in Q-band (41 and 44 GHz). Neither observation detected any emission lines, removing support for our original interpretation. Adding publicly available optical data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey, Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and Herschel Space Observatory in the infrared, as well as
10 GHz polarisation and 162 MHz inter-planetary scintillation observations, we model the physical and observational characteristics of GLEAM J0917–0012 as a function of redshift. Comparing these predictions and observational relations to the data, we are able to constrain its nature and distance. We argue that if GLEAM J0917–0012 is at
then it has an extremely unusual nature, and that the more likely solution is that the source lies above
Background: Handshake antibiotic stewardship is an effective but resource-intensive strategy for reducing antimicrobial utilization. At larger hospitals, widespread implementation of direct handshake rounds may be constrained by available resources. To optimize resource utilization and mirror handshake antimicrobial stewardship, we designed an indirect feedback model utilizing existing team pharmacy infrastructure. Methods: The antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) utilized the plan-do-study-act (PDSA) improvement methodology to implement an antibiotic stewardship intervention centered on antimicrobial utilization feedback and patient-level recommendations to optimize antimicrobial utilization. The intervention included team-based antimicrobial utilization dashboard development, biweekly antimicrobial utilization data feedback of total antimicrobial utilization and select drug-specific antimicrobial utilization, and twice weekly individualized review by ASP staff of all patients admitted to the 5 hospitalist teams on antimicrobials with recommendations (discontinuation, optimization, etc) relayed electronically to team-based pharmacists. Pharmacists were to communicate recommendations as an indirect surrogate for handshake antibiotic stewardship. As reviewer duties expanded to include a rotation of multiple reviewers, a standard operating procedure was created. A closed-loop communication model was developed to ensure pharmacist feedback receipt and to allow intervention acceptance tracking. During implementation optimization, a team pharmacist-champion was identified and addressed communication lapses. An outcome measure of days of therapy per 1,000 patient days present (DOT/1,000 PD) and balance measure of in-hospital mortality were chosen. Implementation began April 5, 2019, and data were collected through October 31, 2019. Preintervention comparison data spanned December 2017 to April 2019. Results: Overall, 1,119 cases were reviewed by the ASP, of whom 255 (22.8%) received feedback. In total, 236 of 362 recommendations (65.2%) were implemented (Fig. 1). Antimicrobial discontinuation was the most frequent (147 of 362, 40.6%), and most consistently implemented (111 of 147, 75.3%), recommendation. The DOT/1,000 PD before the intervention compared to the same metric after intervention remained unchanged (741.1 vs 725.4; P = .60) as did crude in-hospital mortality (1.8% vs 1.7%; P = .76). Several contributing factors were identified: communication lapses (eg, emails not received by 2 pharmacists), intervention timing (mismatch of recommendation and rounding window), and individual culture (some pharmacists with reduced buy-in selectively relayed recommendations). Conclusion: Although resource efficient, this model of indirect handshake did not significantly impact total antimicrobial utilization. Through serial PDSA cycles, implementation barriers were identified that can be addressed to improve the feedback process. Communication, expectation management, and interpersonal relationship development emerged as critical issues contributing to poor recommendation adherence. Future PDSA cycles will focus on streamlining processes to improve communication among stakeholders.
The influence of the extant plays has been so immense and far-reaching that it is easy to forget that other tragic versions of these characters existed. This is true above all in the case of Euripides’ Medea, whose terrible, tortured act of infanticide is to many modern readers and audiences the single defining aspect of her tragic characterisation. The final chapter destabilises this preconception by drawing together evidence for the full range of tragic Medeas, including a play in which she is not guilty of the act that has come to define her, the killing of her own children. Wright recovers a more accurate picture of Medea on the tragic stage, and suggests that what ‘made Medea Medea’ for the ancient audiences was not her infanticide, but rather the sheer range and malleability of stories in which she featured. This survey offers an important corrective to widespread conceptions of this iconic figure, and powerfully demonstrates how the legacy of a single surviving version has distorted our understanding of the kinds of female characters with which ancient tragic audiences would have been familiar.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We use a tissue engineered, biomimetic, 3D model to study the pathogenesis of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) by comparing the effect of silicone implant shell on proliferation of patient-derived BIA-ALCL to its precursor T cells within the breast microenvironment. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patient-derived breast tissue was processed for component adipocytes, ductal organoids, and stromal vascular fraction. These were suspended within 50 µl of 0.3% type I collagen matrix to which was added 200,000 cells/mL of either patient-derived BIA-ALCL cells or T progenitor cells. These were then plated into 6mm wells. As a control, both BIA-ALCL cells and T progenitor cells were suspended within type I collagen alone at the same seeding density without breast components. Before plating, wells were lined circumferentially with either textured, smooth, or no implant shell. These were 1cm by 2cm pieces dissected from the whole implant. Wells were imaged using confocal microscopy over 8 days. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Unstimulated T progenitor cell count showed no significant increase in any of the conditions tested. The change in cell count over 8 days was 3.85% in each condition (p = 0.3352). A Tukey’s multiple comparison test comparing each condition revealed no significant increase in cell count over 8 days for all six conditions. Notably, our previous studies have shown proliferation of BIA-ALCL cells to be significantly more robust in the biomimetic platform compared to collagen-only groups, regardless of implant shell type (p < 0.01). BIA-ALCL cells grew nearly 30% faster in textured and smooth shell biomimetic groups compared to biomimetic wells lacking implant shell. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Towards elucidating BIA-ALCL’s etiopathology, we show that silicone implant shell has a significant effect on proliferation of BIA-ALCL cells, but not their precursor T cells. If breast implant silicone shell is not a sufficient stimulus for T cell proliferation, co-stimulatory factors are required.
Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time1 begins with a famous anecdote about a “little old lady” who challenges a scientist’s public lecture on astronomy, insisting that in fact the earth is flat and rests on the back of a giant tortoise. When the scientist asks what holds the tortoise in its place, the lady is ready for him: “You’re very clever, young man, very clever … but it’s turtles all the way down!” Too often, it seems to us, both the guiding assumption and core insight of sociopsychological accounts of mass opinion is that “it’s groups all the way down.”
There is little doubt that, in the abstract, Americans are wary about the number of immigrants coming into the United States.1 Gallup began asking in 1965 whether the level of immigration should be increased, decreased, or kept the same. For most of the last half century, support for increasing immigration hovered in the single digits or low teens. As of 2019, it has never exceeded 30%.2 Wariness about rising levels of immigration is evident even when surveys clarify that they are asking about legal rather than illegal immigration, a distinction to which we return at length in Chapter 4. For example, a Fox News3 poll conducted in April 2013 asked a national sample “Do you think the United States should increase or decrease the number of LEGAL immigrants allowed to move to this country?” The majority, 55%, said the number should be decreased, compared to 28% who said it should be increased, with 10% volunteering that the number should not be change and 7% unsure. These numbers were little changed from earlier polls conducted in 2007 and 2010, though other time series do show marked increases in support for preserving and even increasing legal admissions in the last several years.4 Despite recent rises in public support for increasing immigration and drops in support for decreasing it, Peter Schuck’s pithy phrase remains true of a broad cross-section of the public: “Americans do not oppose immigration in principle, in general, or unalterably, but they do want less of it (or at least no higher).”5
In this chapter, we develop a framework for understanding how Americans’ opinions about immigration policy issues emerge from their conceptions of civic fairness. We then review leading theories of immigration attitudes that are premised on group-centrism, with an eye to considering (1) what questions they leave open about the relative influence of considerations rooted in political values and group allegiances and animosities, (2) what challenges they pose to the civic fairness framework, and (3) where they lay claim to empirical phenomena that could also be explained by conceptions of civic fairness. Finally, from this discussion we derive several hypotheses that guide the empirical tests in the chapters that follow. These hypotheses apply to situations where values collide with group loyalties to race and nation, which is to say instances in which the civic fairness and group-centrist perspectives make distinct predictions about what immigration policy alternatives Americans will choose.