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8 The Dunning-Kruger Effect on a Latinx Population

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2023

Carolina Garza Castaneda
Affiliation:
Tecnolegico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leen, Mexico.
Matthew J. Wright
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA.
Raymundo Cervantes
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California, USA.
Tara L. Victor
Affiliation:
California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California, USA.
Krissy E. Smith
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California, USA.
Chelsea McElwee
Affiliation:
University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, USA.
Adriana Cuello
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Alberto L. Fernandez
Affiliation:
Universidad Catolica de Cordoba, Center, Cordoba, Argentina.
Isabel D. C. Munoz
Affiliation:
California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, USA.
David J. Hardy
Affiliation:
Loyla Marymount University, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Daniel W. Lopez-Hernandez*
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. University of California San Diego Health, San Diego, California, USA
*
Correspondence: Daniel W. Lopez-Hernandez, University of California San Diego Health, wdlopez31@gmail.com
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Abstract

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Objective:

Individuals tend to overestimate their abilities in areas where they are less competent. This cognitive bias is known as the Dunning-Krueger effect. Research shows that Dunning-Krueger effect occurs in persons with traumatic brain injury and healthy comparison participants. It was suggested by Walker and colleagues (2017) that the deficits in cognitive awareness may be due to brain injury. Confrontational naming tasks (e.g., Boston Naming Test) are used to evaluate language abilities. The Cordoba Naming Test (CNT) is a 30-item confrontational naming task developed to be administered in multiple languages. Hardy and Wright (2018) conditionally validated a measure of perceived mental workload called the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). They found that workload ratings on the NASA-TLX increased with increased task demands on a cognitive task. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Dunning-Kruger effect occurs in a Latinx population and possible factors driving individuals to overestimate their abilities on the CNT. We predicted the low-performance group would report better CNT performance, but underperform on the CNT compared to the high-performance group.

Participants and Methods:

The sample consisted of 129 Latinx participants with a mean age of 21.07 (SD = 4.57). Participants were neurologically and psychologically healthy. Our sample was divided into two groups: the low-performance group and the high-performance group. Participants completed the CNT and the NASA-TLX in English. The NASA-TLX examines perceived workload (e.g., performance) and it was used in the present study to evaluate possible factors driving individuals to overestimate their abilities on the CNT. Participants completed the NASA-TLX after completing the CNT. Moreover, the CNT raw scores were averaged to create the following two groups: low-performance (CNT raw score <17) and high-performance (CNT raw score 18+). A series of ANCOVA's, controlling for gender and years of education completed were used to evaluate CNT performance and CNT perceived workloads.

Results:

We found the low-performance group reported better performance on the CNT compared to the high-performance, p = .021, np2 = .04. However, the high-performance group outperformed the low-performance group on the CNT, p = .000, np2 = .53. Additionally, results revealed the low-performance group reported higher temporal demand and effort levels on the CNT compared to the high-performance group, p's < .05, nps2 = .05.

Conclusions:

As we predicted, the low-performance group overestimated their CNT performance compared to the high-performance group. The current data suggest that the Dunning-Kruger effect occurs in healthy Latinx participants. We also found that temporal demand and effort may be influencing awareness in the low-performance group CNT performance compared to the high-performance group. The present study suggests subjective features on what may be influencing confrontational naming task performance in low-performance individuals more than highperformance individuals on the CNT. Current literature shows that bilingual speakers underperformed on confrontational naming tasks compared to monolingual speakers. Future studies should investigate if the Dunning-Kruger effects Latinx English monolingual speakers compared to Spanish-English bilingual speakers on the CNT.

Type
Poster Session 05: Neuroimaging | Neurophysiology | Neurostimulation | Technology | Cross Cultural | Multiculturalism | Career Development
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2023